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* The Law of Carriers and Bailments" (1869); "Leading American Railway Cases" (2 vols.,

Japan. 1870); and, with W. A. Herrick, “A Treatise Stations.. on Civil Pleading and Practice" (1868). From Qat-stations. 1862 till his death he was one of the editors of Assistant missionaries. the American Lau Register, published in Phil- Native ministers... adelphia. He edited Story "On Equity Plead- Catechists, or preachers ings” and “Conflict of Laws," and Greenleaf Bible-readers “Ön Evidence," and was a frequent contribu


Schoolmistresses... tor to periodicals.

Colporteurs.. REFORMED CHURCHES. I. REFORMED Churches,

Communicants. CHURCH IN AMERICA.—The following is a sum- Academies.

1,442 mary of the statistics of the Reformed Oburch in America, as they were reported to the Gen- Day-schools...


1,859 eral Synod in 1876:

Theological students...
Dispensaries with beds.

of patients
treated-no report..

The General Synod of the Reformed Church Albany.



in America met in Kingston, N. Y., June 7th. Bergen.


The Rev. John McClellan Holmes, D. D., was Bergen (South).

1,681 elected president. The committee who had Cayuga.

1,233 Grand River.


been appointed to confer with a committee of 2,043

the Northern General Assembly of the Pres. 1,441

byterian Church reported that they had held a 2,400

1,921 joint meeting with the committee of the GenIllinois.

2,066 eral Assembly, April 13, 1876. The committee Kingston..

2,147 Long Island (North).


of the Assembly presented a paper embodying Long Island (South).

8,600 the following points: The committees were Michigan.. Monmouth.

originally appointed to confer regarding the Montgomery

2,328 desirableness and practicability of the union Newark.

2,490 of the two Churches. The General Synod

2,887 New York,


of the Reformed Church had in 1874 disOrange..

8,995 continued the Committee on Union, and

2,719 Passaic.


substituted for it one to confer with the Philadelphia..

2,632 General Assembly's committee in regard to coPoughkeepsie.


operation-a matter which had not been com

8,659 Rensselaer.


mitted to it by the General Assembly. The Saratoga.

1,609 terms of correspondence already existing beSchenectady

2,846 Schoharie.

tween the two bodies provided for the most

2,553 friendly relations, which the Assembly's comWestchester.


mittee trusted would always be continued; Wisconsin.


and the main objects proposed to be accomTotal...

506 546 74,600 plished by this scheme of coöperation could

easily be attained without it. The Assembly's Total number of families in the Church, 42,- committee had, therefore, resolved to inform 338; number of baptisms of infants during the the committee of the Reformed Church that, in year, 4,230; number of baptisms of adults, their judgment, the plan proposed by them is 1,954; number of catechumens, 23,027; num- inexpedient, and to ask of their Assembly to be - ber of Sunday-schools, 574; number of schol- discharged from the further consideration of ars in the same, 73,247; amount of contribu- the subject. The synod's committee further tions for religious and benevolent purposes, reported that they also deemed it inexpedient $210,035.88; of contributions for congrega- to pursue the snbject of cooperation; and, with tional purposes, $872,804.28.

the earnest hope that the fraternal relations of The following are the statistics of the do- the two Churches would ever be most pleasant, mestic missions, as given in the report of the and fruitful of good results, asked to be disboard having that interest in charge: Number charged. They were discharged.-It was reof churches and missions aided, 95; of mis- solved to raise, during the year, $2,500 in aid sionaries employed, 83; of families, 4,873; of of the Assembly's school at Tuscaloosa, Ala., church-members, 6,673; amount of contribu- and of the work of evangelization undertaken tions by the missions to the Board of Domes- by the Rev. H. B. Blake in North Carolina. tic Missions, $983; amount of contributions Delegates were appointed to attend the meeting by the missions to other benevolent objects, of the Council of the Presbyterian Alliance, $3,788. The following is a general summary of the

Four or five places have been supplied with native

preachers. missions :

+ Almost the entire body of native helpers.


8 17 14 8 8 17

9 15 18 23 18 23 26 19 14 19 19 18 81 22


New Brunswick.




18 16 15 21 13 15 15 12 16 17 18


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Congrega Member


Classes.' Ministers.


8 12


179 151 124

55 106 82





to be held in Edinburgh, July 4, 1877. A com- property of that corporation, to be held by it mittee was appointed to prepare a critical "in trust for such members of the congregaedition of the "Heidelberg Catechism" in its tion as shall adhere to and maintain the mode English version, to be reported to the next of faith and discipline of the Reformed Church synod. It was resolved to make, during the in North America.” This decision was based year, special efforts for the Board of Domestic on the following rule of equity: Missions and the Church-Building Fund, and Whenever a church or religious society has been to raise the sum of $50,000 as an offering of duly constituted as in connection with, or in suborthanksgiving. The Synod resolved that the dination to some ecclesiastical organization or form of experience of the Board of Foreign Missions church government, and, as a church so connected or in the conduct of the Indian agency placed tions, donations, or otherwise, it cannot break off under its control had proved the wisdom of this connection and unite with some other religious the present civil management, and earnestly organization, or become independent, save at the erdeprecated any change in it. The library com- pense of impairing its title to the property so atmittee of the Gardner A. Sage Library called

quired. attention to a manuscript copy of the corre

II. REFORMED CHURCH IN THE UNITED spondence with the Classis of Amsterdam, ex- STATES.— The following is a summary of the tending from 1639 to 1771, and several printed statistics of the Reformed Church in the United pamphlets respecting the so-called Coetus con- States, as they are given in the Almanac for troversy, and were authorized to have them the Reformed Church in the United States for translated into English.

1877, published by the Reformed Church PubA case involving important questions re- lication Board, Philadelphia: garding the title to church property was decided in the Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia, October 28th, in the suit of Jones, et al., representing the interests of the Reformed United States..

64,873 Church in America, against Wadsworth, et al., representing the Immanuel Presbyterian Pittsburg.

14,685 Church in Philadelphia. A majority of the Potomac congregation of the Third Reformed Church Eastern German in Philadelphia had withdrawn from connec Total

| 1,852 144,458 tion with the Classis of the Reformed Church to which they belonged, and with their pastor, Total number of members unconfirmed, 88,the Rev. Charles Wadsworth, D.D., had united 980; of baptisms, 13,258; of confirmations, with the Presbyterian Church, as the Imman- 9,136; of individuals taking the communion uel Presbyterian Church, and bad attempted during the year, 116,599; of Sunday-schools, to take their church property with them. 1,178, of scholars in the same, 76,010; of stuSuit was brought by a minority of the church dents for the ministry, 144; amount of benevoto recover the property for the Reformed lent contributions, $77,094. Church. The case was referred to Mr. Victor The Almanac published at Cincinnati gives Guillon as referee, who in April gave a decis- totals which differ but little from the above, as ion to the effect that the plaintiffs, and such of follows: Number of ministers, 650 ; of congrethe congregation as were associated with them, gations, 1,347; of members, 143,609; of memwere members of the Reformed Church in bers unconfirmed, 88,256; of baptisms, 13,492; America, and were entitled, as such, to hold the of confirmations, 8,845; of individuals receive property; that the property was to be held in ing the communion during the year, 116,488; trust by the corporation, and for members of of Sunday-schools, 1,206, of scholars in the that Church who shall adhere to and maintain same, 76,570; of students for the ministry, the mode of faith and Church discipline of the 153 ; amount of contributions for benevolent Reformed Church in America; and that the Rev. purposes, $65,335; of contributions for conDr. Wadsworth, on joining the Presbyterian gregational purposes, $364,544. Church, ceased to be pastor of the Reformed The theological institutions of this Church Church, and was enjoined from exercising his are: Theological Seminary at Tiffin, Ohio, charpastoral office in that Church; that the connec- tered in 1831, J. H. Good, D.D., president; tion subsisting between the Third Reformed Mission House, Howard's Grove, Wis., J. BusChurch and the Reformed Church in America sard, D.D.; Theological Department of C'rsinus had never been lawfully dissolved, and that the College, Freeland, Montgomery County, Pax alleged union of said church with the Presby- J. H. A. Bomberger, D. D., Collegeville, Pa.: terian Church was null and void. This decision Eastern Theological Seminary, Lancaster, Pa., was confirmed in its terms by Judge Allison, E. V. Gerhart, D. D.; Theological Department of the Common Pleas Court, in October; the of Mercersburg College, E. Ē. Higbee, D.D., defendants were declared to bave ceased to be Mercersburg, Pa. The colleges are: Heidelmembers and officers of the Third Reformed berg College, Tiffin, Ohio, George W. Willard, Church, and were required to surrender and D.D., president; Ursinus College, Freeland, deliver to Daniel S. Jones, the only remaining Montgomery County, Pa., J. H. A. Bomberger

. trustee of the Third Reformed Church, the D.D., Collegeville, Pa.; Franklin and Marshall

College, Lancaster, Pa., Prof. W. M. Nevin, give adhesion before they could vote. The A. M., acting president; Mercersburg College, Liberal or Unitarian party of the Church opMercersburg, Pa., E. E. Higbee, D. D., presi- posed this action, and refused to submit to the dent; Catawba College, Newtown, N. C., Rev. rules made by the synod. In the consistories J. C. Clapp, A. M.; Palatinate College, Myers- and synods where they had majorities, the town, Pa., G. W. Auginbaugh, D. D. ; Calvin elections were held without regarding the conInstitute, Cleveland, Ohio, H. J. Rütenick, D. ditions which had been imposed. These conD. The following seminaries are connected ditions having been recognized by the state with this Church : Clarion Collegiate Institute, as legal and valid, the elections so held were Rimersburg, Clarion County, Pa. ; Juniata declared void and annulled by the Minister of Collegiate Institute, Martinsburg, Blair County, Worship, and new elections were ordered. The Pa., Rev. S. R. Breidenbach, A. M.; Greens- Liberal party, in 1875, appealed to the Council burg Female Collegiate Institute, Greensburg, of State against this order of the minister. Pa., Rev. Lucien Cort, A. M.; Blairstown Pending the appeal, the minister directed the Academy, Blairstown, Iowa, Rev. David P. new elections which he had ordered to be Le Ferne, A. B. ; Allentown Female College, postponed till the case should be decided. A Allentown, Pa., Rev. W. R. Hofford, A. N.; division of the Church was threatened in case St. John's Select School, Knoxville, Md., G. L. the action of the synod was sustained by the Staley, D.D.; Female Seminary, Mercersburg, Council of State. "The Orthodox party proPa., Rev. J. Hassler, A. M.

fessed a willingness to submit to a division, to The following are the missionary (home allow the Liberals to be recognized by the missions), educational, and benevolent societies state, and to yield to them a proportion of of this Church: Ohio Board of Missions, Tiffin, ecclesiastical property and support, if no other Ohio; Board of Missions of the Northwest solution of the difficulty could be reached; but Galion, Ohio; Board of Missions of Ursinus the Minister of Worship suggested that, if the Union, Lebanon, Pa.; Eastern Board of Mis- Liberals withdrew, he would be unable to subsions, Harrisburg, Pa.; Board of Education of sidize a new church, and wonld be obliged to the Ohio Synod, Tiffin, Ohio, Board of Edu- recognize the Orthodox branch only as the cation of Ursinus Union, Lebanon, Pa.; Board legitimate Reformed Church. In April

, 1876, of Education of the Eastern Synods, Philadel- the permanent commission of the

synod waited phia, Pa.; Bethany Orphan's Home, Womels- upon M. Dufaure, Minister of Worship, with dorf, Berks County, Pa.; St. Paul's Orphan's reference to the convocation of a new meeting Home, Butler, Pa.; Society for the Relief of of the synod, to consider the difficulties of the Ministers and their Widows, Lancaster, Pa.; situation, and find a way out of them, if possiBoard of Church Erection of the Synod of ble. On the 18th of April

, a delegated body Ohio, Xenia, Ohio; Board of Church Èrection of the Liberal party, styled the Commission of of the Synod of the Northwest, Indianapolis, Pacification of the Liberal Party, met at Paris, Ind. The treasurer's office of the Board of and invited the Liberals to negotiations with a Foreign Missions is at Pittsburg, Pa. The list view to secure a compromise of the qnestions of periodicals comprises eleven English and in dispute. A conference was held and an three German publications, of which three are agreement was reached, by which the Commisweekly, three semi-inonthly, six monthly, and sion of Pacification engaged for the Liberal two quarterly.

party that it would accept the Presbyterian It is only within a few years that steps have synodal organization; that it would recognize been taken looking to the organization of the Declaration of Faith voted June 20, 1872, congregations of this Church in the Southern as the true expression of the general faith of States. A congregation has been formed un- the Church; that this declaration should not der the direction of the Indiana Classis at Win- be the object of attacks by pastors in the exerchester, Franklin County, Tenn., and a second cise of their functions; and that the different in the Cumberland Mountains, about forty ecclesiastical bodies should have the right to miles from the former. Mr. J. P. Roth, M. D, repress attacks upon it by all the disciplinary of Tennessee, has been studying for the minis- penalties within their power. The members try in Cincinnati, Ohio, with a view of engag- of the permanent commission of the synod ing in the Southern work. Organizations of agreed that, in case the declarations made by churches are contemplated at Knoxville, Chat- the Liberal commission were accepted by that tanooga, and Nashville, Tenn., and Atlanta, Ga. party, they would propose to the next synod

III. REFORMED CHURCH IN FRANCE.—The that it withdraw from the demand that had synod of 1872 and 1873 of the Reformed Church been made upon the Council of State, to apof France, as has already been recorded in the prove of the synodal rule requiring that" every ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, adopted a confession of candidate for the holy ministry must, before faith affirming the doctrines which are ordi- receiving consecration, declare that he adheres narily described as Orthodox, with the requisi- to the faith of the Church as declared by the tion that all new ministers should subscribe to General Synod," and would recommend to the it as a condition to their being recognized by synod to substitute for this rule the condition the Church. It also prescribed a declaration that “the act of consecration shall declare to which members of the congregations should that the Declaration of Faith was read to the

candidate for the holy ministry before his con- presbyterial councils during the second half of secration." The obligation of this agreement February, 1877, and directed that the parish was held subject to the ratification of the registers be closed previous to the elections on bodies which the two commissions represented. the 31st of January. These elections, it was Pending the convocation of electors to choose further ordered, should be held in accordance a new synod, it was agreed that the appeal of with the religious conditions of the electorate the Liberals to the Council of State should be as the General Synod had determined them, held in abeyance; that the matter of the ap- while the responsibility for regulating the peal, as well as the agreement of accord, should mode of applying the conditions was left to be held subject to the ratification of a new the several bodies. This decree was confirmed assembly of Liberals to be called at Nîmes; December 18th, by M. Martel, successor to M. and that all concessions so far made on both Dufaure in the office of Minister of Justice sides should be considered as made solely and Worship. with a view to pacification. This agreement IV. REFORMED CHURCH OF HOLLAND.—The met with no favor from the Orthodox party. synod of this Church in 1875, at the request of One of the members of the permanent com- about four hundred pastors, who deemed the mission refused to sign it, and published a letter form of the Declaration of Faith required of against it. Several consistories, presbyterial candidates for confirmation to be too dogcouncils, and pastoral conferences, adopted res- matic, changed it so as to give it a more libolutions protesting against it, as in effect sur- eral sense. The synod of 1876 revoked this rendering all that was essential in the Confes- action, and again made the old form obligatory. sion of Faith, and in the safeguards which the A meeting of the Liberal party was held at synod had erected to secure its integrity. A Amsterdam in October, at which it was determeeting of delegates of the Liberal party, to mined to petition the synod to reconsider its consider the agreement, was held at Nîmes, later action, and restore the form of confession July 12th and 13th. It adopted an elaboraté adopted in 1876. The Orthodox party in the and skillfully-drawn paper, defining the con- synod is represented to be seeking a separation struction which would be put upon the terms from the Liberal party. of the agreement of accord by the Liberal V. CHRISTIAN REFORMED CHURCH OF THE party. The members of the permanent com- NETHERLANDS. — The Christian Reformed mission replied to this paper, July 25th, that Church of the Netherlands was separated from they did not interpret the agreement in the the Reformed Church in 1834, partly for docsense put upon it by the Liberal conference, trinal reasons and partly with the object of but repelled it, and charged that the construc- giving expression to their desire that the Church tion given the agreement by the conference should be free from state control. It consists essentially changed its nature.

of about 350 congregations, and has upward of Another conference was held at Rouen, 300 ordained ministers, about 40,000 commuNovember 8th, to attempt to adjust the dif- nicants, and about 120,000 adhérents. The ferences of opinion within the Church and pre- members of the Church are stated to be, as a vent schism. It was attended by persons of rule, of the middle and humbler classes. In both parties, but the Orthodox members con- May, 1875, 70 students were being educated ducted the proceedings. It adopted a paper for the ministry, under the care of fire proprotesting against schism, and calling upon the fessors. A sixth professor was appointed by friends of peace to work for the union of the the synod which met that year at Bois-le-Duc, Church on the common ground of attachment and an effort was projected to raise the sum of to its faith and its historical institutions and £7,000, to render the theological school at traditions; expressing the belief that the synod Kampen more efficient. alone can prevent disintegration, and asking RÉFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH. At its immediate convocation ; calling upon the the meeting of the General Council of the Reconsistories and presbyterial councils to accept formed Episcopal Church, held at Ottawa, Ont., the religious conditions of the electorate; in July, reports were presented from thirty-four declaring attachment to the synodal organiza- congregations, giving their statisties as follows. tion and the self-government of the Church; Number of families, 2,311; of communicants, calling upon the synod to authorize the for- 3,549; of children in the Sunday-schools, 4,905; mula of consecration already in use, or one simi- of teachers in the same, 400; amount of conlar to it; agreeing to ask the withdrawal of tributions by the congregations, $151,181.41. the demand for confirmation by the state of The General Council of the Reformed Episthe rule requiring candidates for consecration copal Church met at Ottawa, Ont., July 12th. to the ministry to declare their adherence to Bishop Charles Edward Cheney was chosen the Declaration of Faith ; and affirming that presiding bishop, in place of Bishop Cummins, the ecclesiastical judicatories already possessed deceased. The committee appointed at a prethe power to restrain all attacks against the vious meeting of the General Council to report general faith of the Church.

on the points of difference between the ReOn the 9th of December, M. Dufaure, Min- formed Episcopal Church and the Protestant ister of Justice and Worship, ordered the elec- Episcopal Church in the United States made tions to be held in all the consistories and the following report:

1. These Churches differ essentially as to what con- introduction into public worship of anything caleustitutes the Church of Christ. The Protestant Epis- lated to teach sacerdotalism. copal Church of the United States, as represented by 5. The Protestant Episcopal Church “deposes” a large majority of its ministers and members, holds all clergy men leaving its communion, following them that in the Church of Christ exists only one form with an attempted badge of disgrace.' The Reformed or order of church government, a threefold minis- Episcopal Church commends any bishop or presbytry of bishops, priests, and deacons, based on the ter, who desires to leave it, to another evangelical divine right of the bishops, who are the successors Church, with its prayers and love. of the apostles in their apostolic office, and derive 6. The Protestant Episcopal Church, in receiving their authority from them by succession in an un- communicants from Protestant Churches, generally broken chain. On this theory, only such bodies of enforces a rubric which requires them to be conChristians as possess this order and succession-cor- firmed. The Reformed Episcopal Church invariably rupt though they may be in doctrine and in living- receives to its membership, by letter or other satisare parts of Christ's Church. The Reformed Epis- factory evidence, communicants of other Churches, copal Church protests against this theory as unchris- dispensing with confirmation, unless desired. tian, in that it denies the claims of the Protestant 7. The Protestant Episcopal Church discourages evangelical Churches around us. It holds that the the use of extemporaneous prayer in the stated sertrue Church consists of all who are joined to Christ vices of the Church, prohibiting it by canon. The by a living faith, and which, under varying forms Reformed Episcopal Church allows and encourages of organization, is yet one in Christ Jesus. The the use of extenspore prayer with its liturgy, and claims of the apostolical succession, as above cited, values meetings for social worship, in which the this Church repudiates-holding to episcopacy, not luity, participate, as promoting the spiritual growth as of divine right, but simply as a very ancient and of churches. desirable form of church polity. Hence, while the Protestant Episcopal Church, in its corporate ca

This report was returned to the committee, pacity, turns away from the Protestant Churches with power to carry out the suggestions and around us, to seek fellowship with the older, corrupt recommendations contained in it. A series of Churches--as, for example, the Russo-Greek Church resolutions was adopted_expressing gratifica-the Reforined Episcopal Church, with an equally tion that the Reformed Episcopal Church was historic episcopate, and bishops who are only pre- not divided by territorial divisions of nationfellowship of all 'Protestant evangelical Churches, ality, province, or State, but that its council exchanges pulpits with their ministers, and sits sat and its bishops were chosen irrespective down with thein at the Lord's table.

of such divisions. The Committee on Doctrine 2. They differ concerning the nature of the Chris- and Worship made a report suggesting some the presbyter is called a priest, and the Ordinal changes in the service and some additions to contains this formula: "Receive the Holy Ghost for it. The report was recommended to the next the office and work of a priest in the Church of God, Council. Finally, all propositions offered to now committed unto thee by the imposition of our the Council for changes in the Prayer-Book hands.” The Reformed Episcopal Church abjures were referred to the Committee on Doctrine to many superstitions ; strikes the word "priest," and Worship, to be reported by that committee as applied to the minister, from its Ordinal and to the Council of 1879, to be acted upon, and Prayer-Book, and knows but one priest, Christ finally adopted or rejected by the Council of Jesus.

1880. The following resolution was intro3. They differ as to the nature and office of the sac duced, and was referred to the Committee on standards, by a large majority of the Protestant Epis- Canons and Constitution, to be considered by copal Church, that the sacraments convey special them, and reported upon at the next meeting grace, to be derived through no other channels: (a.) of the Council: Baptism. The Protestant Episcopal Church, as thus represented, holds that the grace of regeneration (a

Resolved, That the Council hereby affirms the regeneration of some sort) is inseparably connected principle that none but communicants, duly enrolled with baptism. (6.) The Lord's Supper. In the same

as such, shall be permitted to vote for delegates to way, the Protestant Episcopal Church holds that; ciated with the pastor in the admission, dismission,

synod or council, or for the lay officers to be assoafter the priestly consecration of the elements, Christ is present as he was not before, and that the recip- tee

on Constitution and Canons be hereby directed

or discipline of church-members. That the Commitient feeds upon him by virtue of the presence thus to report, at the next ensuing annual meeting of the induced or communicated. The Reformed Episcopal Church regards the sac- Council

, such amendment as may be necessary in raments as institutions divinely appointed, and as

order to embody these principles in the canons. means of grace, because they represent truth; but The sum of $7,687 was offered on a call of repudiates the theory that they convey a grace pecul- the parishes on the account of their assessments iar to themselves, and which is not common to other for the general enterprises of the Church. The divinely-appointed means: (a.) Baptism. The Re- Sustentation Committee reported that they had eration-that by the Holy Ghost through the Word received $3,000 from a friend, to be used in -of which baptism is to be regarded as the outward mission-work in the States of South Carolina and visible sign. (6.) The Lord's Supper. The and Georgia. The late George Curtis, of BosReformed Episcopal Church holds that the Supper ton, had bequeathed $25,000 by will

. of the Lord is a memorial of redemption by Christ's death, and through faith we derive grace from him

A resolution declaring it desirable that the in this Supper, as we do in all other divinely-ap- members of the Reformed Episcopal Church pointed means.

partake of the Holy Communion in a sitting 4. The Protestant Episcopal Church suffers altars posture was introduced and

referred to the to be erected in its churches, and tolerates auricular Committee on Doctrine and Worship. confession and prayers for the dead, with other imitations of Rome. The Reformed Episcopal Church

The Council decided to elect one missionary prohibits the erection of altars in its churches, or bishop. The Rev. Samuel Fallows, D. D., of

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