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Home or Highland Mission of Scotland were Denmark, and one from Russia. Seven new held at Edinburgh, beginning October 25th. churches were received into the Union-five Three new churches, at Berwick, Dumbarton, from Germany and two from Russia. and St. Fergus, Aberdeenshire, were received BARILI, ANTONIO, an Italian composer and into the Union. The statistics for the year Professor of Music, born in Rome in 1824; showed that there were connected with the died in Naples, July 12, 1876. From six years Union 73 churches, 64 ministers (an increase of age till thirteen, when he received the in the year of fourteen ministers), 34 Bible- diploma of professor at the Congregation of classes with 1,470 students, 62 Sunday-schools St. Cecilia, being then the youngest member with 5,390 scholars and 690 teachers, 210 of that body, he was a pupil of his father. preaching-stations, and 7,361 members. Eight About this period his father died, when he hundred and thirty-seven persons had been entered upon the study of composition with added to the communion during the year. Giuseppe Baini. At eighteen he left Italy for

The Baptist Home Missionary Society for a short time, and, joining his mother in Spain, Scotland, chiefly for the Highlands and Islands, continued his studies under Carniser. Returnaccording to its report for 1875, employed ing to Milan, he studied for a time under Mannearly thirty agents, who occupied about danici, and afterward graduated as Maestro 150 stations in the Shetland and Orkney Isl. Composer in the Philharmonic Academy of ands, the islands of the west coast, the north- that city at the age of twenty-one. The year ern and western Highlands, and one or two following he was leader and director of the Lowland counties.

Italian Opera in Algiers, and the same year The annual meeting of the Nero Connection was serving in the same capacity in New York of General Baptists was held in Derby, be- City. In 1850 he held a like position in the ginning June 19th. The Rev. Dr. Buckley, of city of Mexico; and in 1854, returning to New Orissa, India, was chosen president. The re. York, organized the Sontag opera-troupe, with port of the secretary showed the following facts which he returned to Mexico. He remained respecting the condition of the connection: in that city until 1861, and during that time Number of members in the home churches, composed his Spanish opera, “ Un Pasio á 23,408; total number of members at home and Santa Anita." In 1856, under the patronage in Orissa, 24, 262; number of baptisms during of President Comonfort of Mexico, he organthe year by the home churches, 1,535; num- ized and established a conservatory, which is ber of baptisms by the mission churches, 63. now a flourishing national institution. After Six new churches were applying for admission, this he returned to New York and lived there and when these were received, there would be eleven years, devoting himself to the duties of 170 independent churches in the association. his art, and giving to the stage a number of The condition of the denomination was repre- artists. From the end of that time until 1874 sented as sound in doctrine and practice. A he resided and labored in Baltimore and Washresolution was adopted against Lord Sanders's ington. In August, 1874, he went to Naples, educational bill, which gave as reasons for op- where he opened an Academy of pure Italian posing that measure, that it gives undue advan- singing," especially for foreign ladies finishing tage to national schools (so called); that it tends their studies in Italy. Thirty years of unreto perpetuate denominational education; and mitting toil had much impaired his health, that any measure which fails to provide for which he hoped to recover in the salubrious the universal establishment of board schools, climate of that city. But in this he was diswhile enforcing compulsory attendance either appointed. Barili came from an eminent direct or indirect, inflicts an injustice upon all musical family. His father was a composer of nonconformists.

distinction; his mother, Madame Barili Patti, VI. BAPTISTS IN GERMANY AND ADJACENT a famous prima-donna, who once gained reCOUNTRIES.—The Triennial Conference of the nown in the United States. His sister, CloGerman Baptist Union was held at Hamburg, tilda, was equally successful on the operatic beginning July 13th. The statistical reports boards; his brother, Nicolai, achieved popushowed that the Union numbered 110 churches, larity as a basso; his second brother, Ettore, with 22,504 members, and 1,296 preaching- was an excellent barytone; his half-sisters, stations. The churches had raised during 1875, Adelina, Carlotta, and Amelia Patti, have for religious purposes, the sum of 188,891 made a world-wide reputation; and his halfmarks. During the three years since the last brother, Carlo Patti, gained many laurels as a meeting of the Union, 4,874 believers had been violinist and orchestral director, baptized. It was decided to give increased at BAUER, Clara, a German authoress, well tention to home missions, particularly in the known under the nom de plume of Karl Detlef, Russian department. The Russian (Slavonic) born June 23, 1836; died June 29, 1876. At Baptists employed seven of their number as an early age she lost her father, and being thus missionaries among the people, and the Gov- forced to provide for herself, she devoted her ernment no longer persecuted them. The meet- whole energy to develop her musical talents. ing was attended by 151 deputies, of whom 57 She went to St. Petersburg, where she was a were from the northwest, 53 from Prussia, one frequent visitor at the house of the Prussian from Poland, 34 from the south, five from embassador, Herr von Bismarck, who ever

after took a great interest in her success. The The movement of population was as follows impressions received on a journey through the in 1874: Russian steppe caused her to devote herself to a literary career. Upon her return to Ger

BIRTHS. DEATHS. many she settled in Dresden, and here, in 1869,

riages. published her first novel. Her last novel, “Ein

9,710 9,347 6,189 6,678 4,802 Document,” was not finished, one volume only Antwerp..

16,306 15,586 10,514 9,781 7,693 having appeared at the time of her death. Her Flanders, East. 11,771 11,008 7,866 7,896 4,571 novels are chiefly descriptions of Russian life.

14,401 13,695 9,892 8,981 5,549 Hainault.

15,221 14,575 9,188 8,107) 7,782 BAYER, HIERONYMUS JOHANN Paul von, Liége.

10,869 10,281 7,086 6,862 5,149 a German jurist and scholar, born September Limburg.

8,250 8,044 2,214 1,972 1,447

Luxemburg 21, 1792; died June 13, 1876. After studying

2,976 2,914 1,884 1,831 1,456 Namur.

4,721 4,803 2,706 2,598 2,849 law at the Universities of Salzburg, Landshut,

Total.. and Göttingen, he became in 1816 Privatdocent

89,225 84,758 56,989) 52,656 40,828 in the law faculty of the University of Lands

From these tables we derive the following hat; in 1819 he was appointed extraordinary facts: The number of boys born for 100 girls and in 1820 ordinary professor. After the re- was 105.3, the number of inhabitants for one moval of the University of Landshut to Munich, birth 30.2, the number of births per 100 deaths he five times occupied the position of rector. 158.7, and the number of inhabitants for one In 1853 he was appointed a life-member of death 47.9. In the same year the number of the Upper Chamber of the Bavarian Diet. He still-born amounted to 7,760, 4,451 males and is the author of a number of highly valuable 3,299 females, and

the number of divorces to works on law, among which are: “Vorträge

120. Of the births, 161,882 were legitimate über den deutschen gemeinen ordentlichen and 12,096 illegitimate, and of the still-born Civilprocess.” (tenth edition, 1869); “Theorie

6,974 were legitimate and 776 illegitimate, der summarischen Processe” (seventh edition, making in all 168,856 legitimate and 12,872 1859); “Theorie des Concursprocesses nach illegitimate births. gemeinem Rechte" (fourth edition, 1868).

In 1874 there were four communes with over BELGIUM, a kingdom of Europe. Leopold 100,000 inhabitants, twelve communes with II., King of the Belgians, was born April 9, from 25,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, thirty-eight 1835, son of King Leopold I., former Duke of communes with from 10,000 to 25,000, ninetySaxe-Coburg;

ascended the throne at the death eight communes with from 5,000 to 10,000, of his father, December 10, 1865; was married 1,207 with from 1,000 to 5,000, and 1,213 with August 22, 1853, to Marie Henriette, daughter less than 1,000 inhabitants. of the late Archduke Joseph of Austria, born

Instruction is well cared for in all grades. August 23, 1836. Offspring of this union are In 1872 there were 5,678 primary schools with three daughters. Heir-apparent to the throne is 618,937 pupils. Schools for adults have been the brother of the King, Philip, Count of Flan- established in most communes. Their number ders, born March 24. 1827, lieutenant-general in 1872 was 2,851, with 199,957 pupils. The in the service of Belgium, married April 26, number of normal schools for primary teachers 1867, to Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, born November 17, 1845 ; offspring of was, in 1874, 37, with 2,836 students, of which

22 schools, with 1,132 students, were for fethe union is a son, Baldwin, born July 3, 1869. males. The number of secondary schools in

The area of the kingdom is 11,373 square 1874-75 was 168, with 17,763 pupils. Superior miles; population, according to the last cen- instruction is imparted in the two state Unisus, taken in 1866. 4,737,833; according to an versities of Ghent and Liége, and the two free official calculation of December, 1874, 5,336,- Universities of Brussels and Louvain. The 634. Of this population, 54 per cent. belong number of students in each of these in 1874 to the Flemish and 44 to the Walloon-French

was as follows: nationality. The following table exhibits the population of each province of the kingdom on December 31, 1874, as well as the number


Brussels. of arrondissements and communes into which Louvain... each province is divided :

Total .....

2,272 Namber of Population on PROVINCES

The Royal Academy of Fine Arts in AntCommunes. Dec. 81, 1874. werp bad, in 1874, 1,601 students. There

were, besides the Antwerp Academy, 80 other Antwerp

522,735 Brabant

academies of design and drawing-schools, with Flanders, East.

10,191 pupils; a Conservatory of Music at 868,696

Brussels with 594, another at Liége with 609 Hainault Liége

685,076 pupils, and 46 other conservatories of music, Limburg

204,619 with 8,932 pupils. The expenses for primary Luxemburg Namur.


instruction in 1873 amounted to 18,076,635

francs, and the expenses of the two governTotal..

2,567 5,886,634

ment universities in 1874 were 949,990 francs.




221 541 555 955

Number of



691, 190


150 840 250 295 485 835

206 205 851



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Nearly the entire population of Belgium is pleted his nineteenth year is liable. Substinominally connected with the Roman Catholic tution is allowed. The legal term of service Church, at the head of which are the Archbish- is eight years, but two-thirds of this time are op of Malines, and five bishops. The other ec- generally spent on furlough. The strength of clesiastical benefices consisted, December 31, the army is to be 100,000 men on the war foot1874, of 184 deaneries, 230 cures (parishes of ing, and 40,000 in times of peace. In 1874 the the first class), 2,779 succursales (parishes of army was composed as follows: the second class), 180 chapels, 1,839 vicariates, 114 coadjutors, 26 annexes, 695 oratories and

En Solde. Sans Solde. Total. chapels of hospitals, colleges, etc. The num


21,954 44,881 66,835 ber of religious communities of men, in 1866, Cavalry

4,807 4,867 9,174 was 178, with 2,991 inmates; that of religious Artillery.


7,886 18,908

1,281 2,164 communities of women, 1,144, with 15,205 in- Engineers . mates. The number of mutual-aid societies rec Total.....

84,216 57,865 91,681 ognized by the state was, in 1873, 117; their aggregate revenue, 207,918 francs ; expendi The civic militia or National Guard numbers tures, 194,923 francs; capital, December 31, 125,000 men without and 400,000 with the re1873, 612,882 francs; number of mutual-aid so- serve. Its duty is to preserve liberty and order cieties not recognized by the state, 89; receipts, in times of peace, and the independence of the 447,309 francs; expenses, 403,785 francs; capi- country in times of war. A royal decree, dated tal on December 31, 1873, 480,110 francs. The October 20, 1874, divided the kingdom into number of saving-societies for buying winter two military circumscriptions, one embracing provisions recognized by the state was four; the provinces of Antwerp and West and East expenditures, 28,806 francs; capital on De- Flanders, and the second the others. cember 31, 1873, 13,879 francs. The number The imports in 1873 amounted to 1,422,of saving-societies not recognized by the state 700,000 and the exports to 1,158,600,000 francs. was eight; expenditures, 86,019 francs ; capital (For a detailed statement of the commerce on December 31, 1873, 3,340 francs.

with each country, see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA The receipts and expenditures for 1873 were for 1875.) The commercial navy in 1873 was as follows:

composed of 69 sailing-vessels with 46,439 RECEIPTS.

tons, and 28 steamers with 30,005 tons. I. Ordinary Receipts :

The aggregate length of the railroads in op1. Taxes

142,788,895 2. Tolls


eration on December 31, 1874, was 3,370 kilo8. Stocks and Rentes..

74,718,153 metres (1 kilometre = 0.62 mile), of which 4. Reimbursements.,


664 were state railroads, and 2,706 belonged 5. Extraordinary resources applied to the general needs of the state.

973,203 to private companies. The aggregate length II. Special Receipts....

118,084,446 of the lines of electric telegraph was, in 1872, Total receipts......


4,430 miles; that of wires, 15,802; the number of telegraph-offices was, in 1871, 478; the

number of telegrams sent in 1874 was 2,750,I. Ordinary Expenditures: 1. Public debt..


223, of which 1,849,973 were inland, 693,506 2. Dotations....

4,455,257 foreign, and 206,744 transit telegrams. 8. Justice.

15,360,895 4. Foreign Affairs


On March 22d the House passed the bill of 5, Interior...

16,369,412 the Minister of Finance, by which the 12,000,6. Public Works,

75,175,858 000 francs which the state owed the Railroad 7. War.

89,866,076 8. Finances.


Building Association were to be paid immedi9. Outstanding debts and reimburse

ately instead of the time agreed upon. The

1,286,622 II. Extraordinary Erpenditures... 189,141,616

purpose of the bill was to assist the Bank of

Belgium, which had lost heavily by the defalTotal expenditures.......... 850,898,878

cation of its cashier, the bank being a creditor Deficit....


of the association. The public debt at the close of 1874 was as On April 8th the new law respecting acafollows:

demic degrees was passed by a vote of 78 to 26, Francs.

all the Catholics and 19 Liberals voting for it, Two and one-half per cents....

219,959,632 while 26 Liberals voted against it, and two did Four and one-half per cents : 1st series, conversion of 1844.


not vote. This law provides that in future 2d series, emission of 1844..

67,488,000 the universities shall confer the degrees upon 8d series (1853)...

141,284,900 their own judgment, while the state will only 4th series (1957 and 1860).

65,846,400 5th series (1865)


guarantee their legality after an examination 6th series (1867, 1869, 1870, 1871). 77,578,200 by a special commission. The state, however, Four per cents (1871).

50,608,800 Three per cents (1878)


reserves the right to subject to a special exFloating debt.....

814,585,000 amination all persons who desire to obtain a Total.....


government office. The winter session of the

Chambers began on November 14th. In the The standing army is formed by conscription, Chamber of Deputies M. Bara brought up the to which every able-bodied man who has com- election riots, which had occurred in several




places in June, but at the same time proposed maintained their positions at Bruges—where, the postponement of the debate.

however, they had only a majority of eightThe elections for provincial councils, held at Furnes, Namur, Marchin, Neufchâteau, Viron May 22d, resulted in favor of the Liberal ton, and Antwerp. The Catholic party gained party in Antwerp, Liége, Tournay, and Ghent, a seat at Ypres by the defeat of M. Alphonse while the Catholic party was successful in Vandenpeereboom, a Liberal, and formerly Namur, Bruges, and Louvain. The elections Minister of the Interior. On the other hand, for the House of Representatives took place it lost two seats at Nivelles, where its candion June 13th. The Liberals had hoped to obtain dates were replaced by Liberals who were re. a majority in the new House, but were disap- turned by a large majority. The Oatholic pointed in this, the political situation remain- ministry had a majority of fourteen in the preing virtually unchanged. At Brussels and Liége vious Chamber. The Liberals having gained the Liberals carried the day without a contest. two seats at Nivelles and lost one at Ypres, At Ostend, Philippeville, and Arlon, they de- the Catholic loss was reduced to one seat, or á feated their opponents; and at Malines, Turn- displacement of two votes, still leaving the hout, Louvain, Courtrai, Dixmude, Roulers, Catholics a majority of twelve. Great exciteThielt, Dinant, and Bastogne, they were beat- ment prevailed in many of the larger towns on en. The Catholics, in spite of opposition, election-day. In Antwerp the people thronged

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the streets singing and hooting; blows with taining a change in the existing electoral law, Walking-sticks were exchanged, and some win- The vote is now given by arrondissement, and dows broken. The same scenes took place at the consequence is, that in four large townsBrussels, but on a smaller scale. Later in the Ghent, Antwerp, Bruges, and Namur-where evening the disturbances became more serious. the great majority of the electors are Liberals, A house was demolished, and more than fifty they are swamped by the rural electors, who shots were fired by the troops of the line. At are completely under the sway of the Catholic Ghent a monster demonstration was made in clergy. The reform proposed by the Liberals front of the Catholic Club, and the windows would completely do away with this state of were broken by the mob.' The disturbances affairs, and would secure to the large cities a continued for several days. Crowds con- Liberal representation. tinued to boot and hiss in front of Catho On February 13th the Catholic party arranged lic institutes, so that the authorities were a large demonstration in Malines for the purforced to protect them by the civic guards. pose of celebrating the election of a city counIn Brussels the rioters, to the

number of many cil, and to offset similar demonstrations arthousands, marched through the streets shout- ranged by the Liberals in Antwerp and Ghent, ing, “ Down with the ministry!” and attacked The Catholic associations in the kingdom had and wrecked a Catholic institution. The police generally been invited, and numerous delegatharged upon the mob, wounding several and tions, with many of the prominent leaders of arresting a large number. One result of the the party, took part in the festivities. The electoral defeat of the Liberals is, that Ant- meeting was followed by a banquet, at which werp has taken the initiative of an agitation the first toast was the Pope, and the second which is to be extended to all the large towns. the King. Upon the departure

of the guests

, This agitation is to be for the purpose of ob- disturbances occurred at the depot, which

formed the subject of an interpellation in the briefly, merely expressing his gratification at House. The Minister of the Interior promised the excellent prospects of the exhibition, and a thorough investigation and the punishment the pleasure he felt in opening it. The memof the guilty. In the animated debate which bers of the different committees were then ensued in the House, the Catholics held the presented to him in a reception-room which entire Liberal party responsible for the dis- had been prepared for the purpose, and afterturbances.

ward proceeded to their different galleries, where they attended the King in his inspection of each in turn. The exhibition building, which was in the park, was of rather a singular character. In order to interfere as little as possible with the ordinary condition of the park, it was made to follow the lines of the walks, and therefore consisted of a number of long buildings of different widths, meeting at the points of junction of the paths, but otherwise separate. Each country had a whole building or part of one, and was thus compelled to make the best appearance it could, without much reference to the general effect. Of the countries exhibiting, Belgium had the most space, with England following closely, these two being the largest exhibitors. France, Germany, and Russia, were well represented, while Austria, Hungary, Italy, Norway and Sweden, Holland, Denmark, and Switzerland, the other contributing countries, were not so largely, and the United States was not at all, represented.

The Health Congress, which was held as an appendix to the exhibition, was in session from September 27th to October 4th, and was attended by delegates from all European countries. The Congress divided itself into five sections, which held their sessions in the mornings, while in the afternoons all the sections united to a common session. Of the common sessions, six were held. In the first the important question of laborers' dwellings was discussed. The debate limited itself to the question

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Brussels was the seat of several important international conferences during the year. The Health Congress, held in September, was preceded by an international exhibition of objects relating to public health and safety. The exhibition was opened by the King on June 26th. Upon arriving at the entrance the King was received by the Count of Flanders and the chief members of the executive and the various committees, including M. Warocque, the President of the Chamber of Representatives, General Renard, Lord Alfred S. Churchill, and Major Burgess, chairman and secretary of the British Committee. The opening ceremony was of a very simple character. An address to the King and Queen was read by M. Warocque, who dwelt on the difference be

INTERIOR OF TOWN-HALL, BRUGES. tween this and other exhibitions, explaining its objects and intentions, and expressing the whether it was preferable for the laborer to gratification of the executive at the aid they possess his own cottage, or to be a tenant. had received from other countries. The ad- Most of the speakers advocated the former dress concluded with a few words especially proposition, while among the few who advoaddressed to the Queen, and referring to the cated the opposite side M. Rolin-Jacquemyns, interest she is known to take in the Belgian of Ghent, made some telling arguments. The Red-Cross Society. The King responded very two following sessions of September 29th and

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