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4. National domain..

Kriegswesen der Urzeit in seinen Verbindungen guese possessions in Asia and Africa (see Behm
und Wechselwirkungen mit dem gleichzeitigen and Wagner, Bevölkerung der Erde, iv., 1876):
Staats- und Volksleben" (3 parts, 1860-'64).

Area in Square

Population. French author, born March 25, 1816; died in March, 1876. He took the degree of Bachelor of Arts in Paris in 1837, studied medicine, Cape Verd Islands (nine inand afterward went through a special course



90,704 (1875) In Senegambia (Bissao, etc.). 25

9,282 (1878) of mental discipline. He made his first ap- Islands of São Thomé and pearance in literature in 1841, through some


81,692 (1875)

Ajuda.... sketches in prose and verse, which, however, Angola, Benguela, Mossa

700 (1565) met with but little favor. A tragedy called “Le medes..

812,532 2,000,000 Vieux Consul” was his next effort, but was

Mozambique, Sofala, etc...... 882,692 300,000 not successful. He published many pamphlets and feuilletons, and contributed to several re

In India :

Goa, Salsette, Bardez, etc.. 1,895 474,284 (1864) actionary journals at Paris and at Château Damaun and Territory.

40,980 (1866) roux. In 1854 he presented at the Théâtre

Diu and Gogola..

12,803 (1864)

Indian Archipelago : Français, in Paris, "Mirabeau” and “Miner

Timor and Amboina... 5,528 250,000 vine, " prose dramas, each in five acts; but the China:

Macao.. representation of the former was forbidden by

1.49 71,834 (1971) the Government, and the death of an actress Total.........

704,182 8,281,729 prevented the representation of the other. In 1861 he reopened the Salle des Bouffes, and

The following were the gross sums of the attempted to produce his plays by a company budget estimates for the financial year 1876 formed by himself , and presented his play, (value

expressed in contos and milreis : 1 conto “ The Wedding-Gift," taken from one of his

: 1,000 milreis; 1 milreis = $1.08; 5,747:290 povels, but the attempt was a failure. Among means 5,747 contos and 290 milreis) : his other works are: “ Forms and Colors," " Oriental Legends," "The Roman World,” h. Direct taxes......

5,747 : 290

2,564 : 480 "A Daughter of Monck,” and “The Gallo- 3. Indirect taxes..

12,615 : 779 Roman World."

2,689 : 716

5. Interest on bonds in Public Exchequer.. 442 : 716 PORTUGAL, a kingdom in Southwestern Europe. King, Luiz I., born October 31,

24,059 : 981 1838; succeeded his brother, King Pedro V.,

EXPENDITURE, November 11, 1861; married, October 6, 1862, 2. Ministry of Finance...

1. Interest on home and foreign debt..

10,570 : 782

8,826 : 671 to Pia, youngest daughter of King Victor 3

of Foreign Affairs..

253: 629 Emanuel of Italy. Issue of the union are two

of the Interior..

2,018 : 434

of Worship and Justice. sons: Carlos, born September 28, 1863, and 6. of War..

8,548 : 144 Alfonso, born July 31, 1865.

of the Navy and Colonies.

1,295 : 839 The area and population of Portugal were,

of Public Works..

1,423 : 468 according to Pery ("Geographia e Estadistica Total, ordinary..

23,464 : 827 geral de Portugal," Lisbon, 1875), as follows:

Total, extraordinary (chiefly construction of

1,598 : 400 Population

25,062 : 727

The public debt of Portugal dates from the Minho..

2.821 1,018,690 year 1796, when the first loan of 4,000,000 Tras os Montes..

4,292 416,761

milreis was raised. In 1835 it amounted to

4,707 418,615 55,000,000 milreis; in 1875, to 348,601 : 250. Estremadura,

6,984 908,465

The movement of shipping in 1873 was as Alemtejo..


875,996 Algarve..

*1,876 193,877

follows: Total continental

84,606 4,298,881 Azores...

260,072 Madeira..

118,609 Total kingdom

85,843 4,677,562 The area of the Portuguese possessions, as given below, differs over 35,000 square miles Portuguese :

Sea-going vessels..

972 from the statements of previous years. This is

89 5,298

5,011 due to the fact that in Senegambia the area of Foreign....

8,041 1,900 8,106 1,867 the Portuguese colonies had been stated to be

Total......... 9,016 2,102 9,079 3,000 square leguas (35,867 square miles). It

2,067 has been recently found, however, that the Por The commercial navy of Portugal consisted tuguese possessions in Senegambia include but in 1876 of 575 vessels, of which 39 were very little territory, its area not exceeding steamers. The total length of railways in twenty-five square miles. The following table operation, in October, 1876, was 966 kilomeshows the area and population of the Portu- tres, exclusive of 85 miles of railroads in mines.


528 : 010

7. 8.


Area in Square


in 1874.

Beira Alta..
Beira Baixa.






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The aggregate length of telegraph lines was Schools of Lisbon, Oporto, and Funchal there 3,533; and of telegraph wires, 7,656 kilometres. were in all 277 students. The principal spe

The military system is based on the law of cial schools are the Academies of Fine Arts at June 23, 1864, which has been modified by Lisbon and Oporto, with 277 students; the several decrees of the year 1868, as well as by Conservatory of Music at Lisbon, with 95 studecrees of October 4, 1869, and December 15, dents; and the Industrial and Commercial In1875. The strength of the army in 1876, on stitution, with 388 students. The total annual the peace-footing, was 1,615 officers, and 32,- expenditure for education was $1,200,000. 356 men; on the war-footing, 2,566 officers The Portuguese Cortes was formally opened and 71,378 men.

by the King January 2d. In his speech bis The trade of Portugal in 1872 was as fol- Majesty said that the most friendly relations lows (value expressed in contos; 1 conto = were maintained with foreign powers. Re1,000 milreis) :

ferring to the happy termination of the arbi

tration of the question respecting the title to COUNTRIES.

Imports. Exporta Delagoa Bay, the King said that he had manGreat Britain....

ifested his gratitude to President MacMahon,

18,857 13,671 France....


of France (by whom the question had been deSpain..

2,493 1,822 cided), for the impartiality and justice with Germany

1,046 Russia.

which he had considered so delicate an affair. Sweden and Norway

He spoke of the visits of the Seyid of ZanziBrazil..

8,199 3,556 bar and the President of the Transvaal RepubUnited States.. Portuguese colonies..

lic, who had signed a treaty giving advantages Other countries

1,007 1,970 to the colony of Mozambique. Among the Total, 1873.

84,046 28,615

subjects commended to the deliberation of the 29,125 23,241 Cortes were the adoption of measures for im

proving the condition of the colonies, and for The following are the chief articles of im- further strengthening the possession of the port and export:

Portuguese territories ; also moral and material MISCELLANEOUS

reforms, including an improvement of the sysImports Exports.

tem of public instruction on the basis of comCereals...


pulsory education, and measures for the conSeeds, fruits..

507 8,458

struction of railways in Beira. With regard Colonial produce

8,794 Beverages

8.904 to the budget, it was announced that the prosAnimals and animal provisions..


2,176 perity of the country enabled the Government a. Provisions and articles of indul

to dispense with any new taxes. In view of 8,9 15,725

the prosperous condition of the Treasury, SenMinerals.

hor Ardrade Corvo, Minister for the Colonies,

2,095 2,744 Metals...


intended to ask the Cortes to authorize the Wood.

1,202 negotiation of a loan for colonial improveHides, skins

1,011 1,489 Materials for spinning textures..

ments, such as the construction of railways, Other manufactured articles..

10,444 1,052 bridges, landing-stages, roads, telegraphs, and 2,438


Mr. Watson, British secretary of legation at d. Raw materials and manufactured}|25,096 7,890

Lisbon, has published some facts showing that

a rapid and great improvement has taken place Total....

34,045 28,615 in the condition of the finances of Portugal

within the last ten years, as exbibited by the According to a report on education in Por- budgets for 1866–67, 1871-72, and 1876–77, tugal, transmitted to the Washington Bureau respectively. In 1866 the total revenue of of Education by Hon. B. Moran, United States the kingdom was estimated at not more than minister at Lisbon (dated December, 1875), £3,529,000, while the expenditure amounted the number of elementary schools was 2,244, to £4,694, 900, thus showing an estimated deof which 1,910 were for boys and 334 for ficit of £1,165,900. In the budget of 1871-72 girls; the number of pupils was 113,097 (92,- the revenue had risen to £4,915,069, while 834 boys, 20,263 girls); of teachers, 2,609 (2,- the amount of expenditure had increased only 114 males, 495 females). Secondary instruction £220,000, and the two items balanced each was imparted in 18 lyceums, with 2,385 pupils, other. In the budget for 1876–77 the revente and in 123 other secondary schools. The Uni- was estimated at £5,346,661, showing an inversity of Coimbra had 52 professors, 15 as- crease in five years of £430,000, or of £86,000 sistants, and 913 students, of whom 39 studied per annum; while the expenditures were estitheology, 343 law, 6 political economy, 56 mated at £163,539 more than that amount. medicine, 104 mathematics, 262 philosophy, The increase of revenue is caused not by the 103 drawing. The Polytechnic School at Lis. application of new principles of finance, but by bon had 174, the Military Academy of the the greater productiveness of the taxes, and same city 272, and the Polytechnic School at especially of the customs duties. The chief Oporto 109 students. In the Medico-Surgical item of increase in the expenditures is in the





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interest on the public debt, which has grown ing several foreigners. Oliveira Marreca prefrom £1,362,137 in 1866 to £2,450,758 in sided. The meeting had for a second object 1876.

the promotion of a union between the two The Cortes was closed by a royal decree at democratic parties of the country, the "Old”. the beginning of April, after having had a quiet and the “New” Democracy. session. The House of Peers, just before the Several provinces were suffering at the beclosing, gave an expression of confidence in ginning of the year from a scarcity of prothe Government, the vote upon the same being visions. The crops of the last year had failed 45 to 24 votes.

in consequence of the drought, and the present The

Opposition, or Liberal party of the coun- season threatened to be still more unfavorable. try, have exhibited a moderate degree of ac- The Government was obliged to take measures tivity. On the 19th of March, the Opposition to furnish the poorer part of the population members of the two Chambers, excluding the with corn, and to see to the transportation of Republican group, held a consultation upon the the same. propositions for constitutional reform, and other A financial crisis took place in May among measures which they intended to advocate. the weaker banks. It was relieved by the imOn the 25th of March a demonstration of the portation of gold by the Government, and by Democratic party was made in celebration of the discounting of the bills of the suffering the electoral victories which had been gained banks by the stronger concerns. The crisis by their sympathizers in France. About two was renewed with greater intensity in the hundred persons took part in the affair, includ- middle of August, when the bills which had

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been discounted for the weaker banks had run lic Works. The Duke of Saldanha, embassatheir course. As the condition of these banks dor to the court of St. James, or Great Britain, was not improved, the stronger banks refused died in London in November. Senhor d'Anto renew their bills. The gold which had been tas, embassador to the Spanish court, was apimported from England had been sent away pointed to succeed him, and Count Balboni again by the operation of the high rate of ex- was appointed embassador to the court of change, and all the banks issuing notes in the Spain. country were compelled to close. To relieve PRESBYTERIANS. I. PRESBYTERIAN the crisis, the Government issued a decree CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.authorizing the suspension of all engagements The Presbyterian Church in the United States for two months.

had, in 1874, thirty-six synods, mostly in the In November, Senhor Bargona, Minister of North, 172 presbyteries, 4,744 ministers, 5,077 Justice, was succeeded in that office by Senhor churches, and 535,210 communicants. The folAvelino, Minister of Public Works. Senhor lowing is a summary of the statistics of this Laurenço Carvalho, former Director of the Church, as they were reported to the General Douro Railway, was appointed Minister of Pub- Assembiy in May, 1876 :


e Presbyteries.



51 128 184

49 159 189

89 121 175 120 150 154 165 109

5 6 5


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86 120

88 110 127



88 168 236

99 177 182 149 152

18 146 159 126 185 194 82 67 104 114 207

79 260 166 123 292 195

58 100 146 119

8 3 6 4 6 3 9



89 800 819 180 871 159 89 62 172 97


6 8 5

Toledo ...


and 29,176 communicants; and a decrease of 1 presbytery, 8 licensures, 20 ordinations, 81 installations, and 25 dissolutions. The contri

butions have also increased $183,629, although Albany..

17,871 most of the specified items have decreased. Atlantic

8,987 The Committee of Ministerial Relief reBaltimore

14,704 Central New York,


ported that the amount of funds for current China.

1,297 use, received from 2,100 churches and from all Cincinnati.

19,860 Cleveland.

other sources, had been $78,055.20, the whole

19,932 Colorado..

1,486 of which had been expended. The receipts Columbus


were $734.23 in advance of those of the preErie....

29,622 Geneva..


vious year, and were $1,145.60 more than those Harrisburg

22,957 of the most prosperous year preceding it.Illinois, Central

16,199 Minois, North

The Board of Education reported to the Gen

15,257 Mlinois, South..

9,877 eral Assembly that their receipts for the year India...

584 Indiana, North..

had been $72,040.97, a gain of $3,861.83 over

11,043 Indiana, South.

16,085 the receipts of the year before. The pay. Iowa, North.


ments in behalf of current work had been Iowa, South

10,857 Kansas..


$56,989.58. The balance of the debt standing Kentucky

6,929 over, amounting to $15,000, and $15,000 of Long Island

14,917 Michigan..

loans made during the present year, had also

14,885 Minnesota.

5,942 been paid.—The Board of Publication reMissouri..

9,711 ported to the General Assembly that their Nebraska,

2,098 New Jersey


total receipts for 1875–76 had been $293,New York.

86,178 717.94, and their expenditures $267,946.63. Pacific. Philadelphia.

The contributions to the missionary fund of

48 460 Pittsburg..

25,382 the board for carrying on its benevolent work Tennessee.

3,480 had amounted to $52,176.06. For the same

9,433 Western New York.


work there had been directly expended $49,Wisconsin.......

7,479 712.59. The board had issued during the year Thirty-six synods ........ 172 4,744 5,077 585,210

89,500 copies of new publications, 835,800

copies of reprints, and 5,746,673 copies of periThe following table, showing the totals of odicals.—The Board of Church Erection rethe several statistical items of the Church, is ported to the General Assembly that their reappended to the official report of the proceed- ceipts since their last report had been $125,016. ings of the General Assembly:

Appropriations had been made to 136 churches, Synods....

amounting in all to $70,500.—The Committee Presbyteries..

172 on Freedmen reported to the General Assembly Candidates

705 that their total receipts for the year had been Licentiates

824 Ministers...


$54,958.84; their expenditures bad been $53,Licensures.


137. One hundred and thirteen missionaries had Ordinations,

137 Installations


been employed during the year, eight churches Pastoral dissolutions.

had been organized, and 855 persons bad been Ministers received.

added to the Church.-The Board of Home dismissed deceased.

Missions reported to the General Assembly Churches..


that their receipts for the year ending April 1, organized.

113 dissolved

1876, had been, from churches, $234,677.83;

59 received.

3 from legacies, $33, 103.59; from miscellaneous dismissed

6 Added: examination.

sources, $19,936.99; total, $287,717.01. Their

48,240 certificate


expenditures had been $284,226.21, in which Communicants.

035,210 sum was included the amount of the debt Baptisms: adults.

15,753 infants


($24,372.78) reported by the board to the preSunday-school membership.

555,847 vious General Assembly. The receipts were CONTRIBUTIONS.

$25,907.36 less than those of the previous year. Home missions.

$814,693 During the year 1,035 missionaries had been Foreign missions..

899,767 Education...

engaged in work under the direction of the

81,182 Publication ..

board; 3,500 churches and stations had been Church erection..

76,835 supplied, and the largest number of additions Relief-fund.

60,845 Freedmen..

to the churches on profession for several years Sustentation..

had been made.—The Board of Foreign Mix. General Assembly.

83,499 sions reported that their receipts for the year Congregational

6,633,557 Miscellaneous...

2,100,150 ending April 30th had been $517,688.69, and

their expenditures $515,593.62. Their debt on Total.....


the 30th of April, 1876, amounted to $36,This shows an increase over 1875 of 29 can- 187.93, having been reduced $2,095.07.--The didates, 20 licentiates, 38 ministers, 76 churches, following are the statistics of the missions :






American and Native.

Lay Teachers



Pupils in the





Mission to the Jews..
South America.

40 402 281

Esco2: and others.


771 453 769 62

29 29 24 208 19 86 6 8 85 112

20 12 48 11 60 2 6 64 26

Chinese in California,

104 781 121 195

64 118 760 498



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Conferenco, and cordially enters into the Presbyterian Alliance on this basis: That the Moderator and the stated

and permanent Clerks of the Assembly, and the Rev. Howard Crosby, D.D., the Rev.

James McCosh, D.D., and the Rev. s. 1. Prime, D. Indian tribes...


D., be a special committee to appoint delegates from

this Church to the first meeting of the Presbyteriau 2,800

Alliance at Edinburgh, July, 1877.

The committee who had been appointed by

7,910 Siam (LAOS)

a previous Assembly to correspond with the 1,157

Reformed Church in America on the subject

of union, reported concerning the result of Japan..

1,102 their negotiations, which they embodied in Syria.


the following minute: 8,577 13,501 Whereas, These committees were originally ap

pointed to confer in regard to the desirableness and The General Assembly of the Presbyterian which they represent; and whereas, the General

practicability of union between the two bodies Church in the United States of America met in Synod of the Reformed Church in the year 1874 deBrooklyn, N. Y., May 18th. The Rev. Henry C. clined to continue their committee (as had been Van Dyke, D. D., was chosen moderator. The recommended) for further conference concerning Assembly adopted a report which called the to confér with us in regard to “ cooperation,” a attention of the presbyteries to the importance matter which had not been committed to us by the of the relation of the Church to the German General Assembly; and whereas, a document has population, urged them to seek all proper op- been presented to us by said committee containing portunities for labor among this people, and certain proposals and measures relating to coopto devise means whereby they may be more Publication, etc.; and whereas, the “terms of corextensively and more deeply impressed with respondence" already existing between the two the Presbyterian faith and order. It advised bodies provide for the most friendly relations, which the presbyteries to seek out proper German we trust will always be continued ; and whereas, candidates for the ministry, and to communi- the main object proposed to be accomplished by this cate, in respect to them, with the Presbyterian without it: Therefore, be it

scheme of coöperation" can hardly be attained German theological schools. It made pro Resolved, That we inform the committee of the vision for the collection of information con- Reformed Church that, in our judgment, the plan cerning the German work, by means of a cir- proposed by them is inexpedient; and that, in recular addressed to the presbyteries containing Porting our action to the next General Assembly, inquiries respecting the distinctive features ation of the subject.

we request to be discharged from further considerwhich belong to the transition from the Ger

This report was adopted. man to the American condition. A committee was appointed to communicate with the pres- Rev. Dr. Talmage sent a dispatch by telegraph

During the meetings of the Assembly, the byteries, receive and arrange the desired in- to a prominent member of the Southern Genformation, and report to the next General As- eral Assembly, in session

at the same time at sembly. This committee was also directed to Savannah, Ga., asking if anything could be give attention to the whole subject of a do- done by the Northern Assembly that would nominational literature in German; to confer, forward the establishment of fraternal relations if they thought best, with the Board of Publi- between the two bodies. He received an ancation in respect to the publication of books in German; and to consider what shall be done by swer that any, spontaneous resolution of the the Church, if anything, in respect to Presby- tion. The subject was referred to the Com

Assembly would receive respectful consideraterian newspapers, and other means of instruc- mittee on Correspondence. This committee tion through the press.-The delegation who had been appointed to attend the Conference reported the following as a suitable form in of Presbyterians which was held in London which to embody the expression of the Asin July, 1875, relative to the formation of a

sembly: general alliance of Presbyterian churches, re- lution on fraternal correspondence with the General

The conimittee to whom was referred the resoported concerning the proceedings of the Con. Assembly now in session ut Savannah, report that ference and the organization of the Alliance. they are unanimously and heartily in sympathy with The meeting of the Alliance was to have been the objects contemplated in the resolutions ; and held on the first Tuesday in July, 1876; but in recognizing the fact that the two Assemblies accept deference to the wishes of American Presby- and directory of worship, and are closely bound to

the same Confession of Faith, form of government, terians, who would be engaged in services ap- gether by historical as well as doctrinal and ecclepropriate to the Centennial celebration, it had siastical ties; and been postponed to July, 1877. The Assembly Whereas, These Churches, one in faith, order, and adopted the following resolation on the sub- labor, are called by the Great Head of the Church ject:

to united efforts for the extension of his kingdom

throughout the country and the world, and as no Resolvei, That our branch of the Presbyterian adjustment of differences is accomplished by reChurch, as represented in this General Assembly, bearsal of the past : Therefore, with a view to the approves the constitution proposed by the London expression of the united and hearty wishes of this

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