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electoral ticket. The following resolutions were face of the depressed condition of American indusadopted:

try, to inflict upon the nation a free-trade tariff, is Resolved, That we hereby reaffirm the platform evidence of the inability of the Democratic party to

an insult to the intelligence of the people, and an adopted by the Republican State Convention at Lan- meet the present wants of the country. The remedy caster

in 1875, and, in view of recent events at Wash- for our suffering is in a higher, not a lower tariff. ington, we emphatically indorse that part of it which demands honest men in office-men with brains of the State by the present majority of the lower

Resolved, that the neglect of the public business enough to know dishonesty when they see it, and branch of a Legislature, and the plainly apparent courage enough to fight it whenever they find it. purpose of the majority to prolong the session, with The Republican party is committed by its origin, its the sole object of thereby increasing their pay, is traditions, its history, and its duties, to an intrepid worthy of the strongest censure, and must, it perand honest administration of public affairs, and sisted in, awaken the just indignation of the outwherever in national, State, or municipal life mal- raged people. administration has existed, or does exist, we demand that it be exposed, corrected, and the guilty lican party of Pennsylvania in keeping down the

Resolved, That the uniform policy of the Repubpunished, and to this end we pledge the full measure taxation burdens while steadily reducing the public of our support as citizens and as voters. Resolved. That we look to the Cincinnati Conven- debt is wiped out,

the public experditures should be

debt should be persistently maintained. When the tion to give us candidates for President and Vice-confined to the civil expenses of the State governPresident who are above suspicion, and in whose per ment, the support of her public institutions, and the sonal integrity the nation can most surely trust,

and soldiers' orphan-schools, and efficiency of her rethat we also look to our friends throughout the State formatory and penal institutions. to make sure that in presenting the candidates for Congress and the Legislature they secure those only Hartranft of a uniform system of municipal govern

Resolved, That the recommendation by Governor who are known to be honest, capable, and faithful ment throughout the State, and of the adoption of to the Constitution. Resolved, that the Republicans of Pennsylvania, municipal indebtedness, is worthy of all con mends

effective measures to prevent a further increase of having nothing in their past history which they wish tion, and should be carried into practical operation to blot out, or to apologize for, or would have the at as early a day as possible. nation forget, arraign the Democratic leaders in Con

Resolved, That in recognition of the eminent sergress, and their abettors, for the preference shown vices, both in the field and cabinet, the rare executo deadly principles and for the subserviency shown tive ability and unswerving rectitude of Governor to the defiant leaders of the

late Confederacy, now John F. Hårtranft, the Republicans of Pennsylvania, dominating for the removal from office of Union with great pride, present' bis neme to the considersoldiers, and the appointment of Confederate sol- ation of the Republicans of the United States for diers; for the repeated indications of their purpose, nomination to the presidency of the United States, only controlled by fear, to open the Treasury of the in the full confidence that the great qualities which nation to alarming and unjust pecuniary demands have rendered his administration of State affairs a from the insurrectionary States, for the persistent model, even by the confersion of political foes, will effort to force amnesty upon men too proud or unre- insure as wise, as capable, as unflinching, as honest, pentant to ask it, or too guilty to deserve it, and for and as successful a conduct of the vast and varied the combined recklessness and cowardice of their interests of the nation; that the delegates from course on the final question, and the recklessness Pennsylvania in the National Convention are hereby which mischievously holds out a threat to overthrow instructed to present Governor Hartranft's name to existing laws and a cowardice or incapacity to origi- the convention as the choice of Pennsylvania, and nate a substitute for them, all of which exposes the to give him an earnest, constant, and united support. Democratic party as without national instinct or an and upon all questions to be brought before or aris unsectional impulse, or an affirmative policy, and as ing in the convention to cast the vote of Pennsylunfit to be trusted by the country, as, when last under yania as a unit, as the majority of the delegation their control, they madly hurried it into the vortex shall direct. of civil war.

Resolved, That recent events in the late slave States At the election, on the 7th of November, the clearly expose a purpose on the part of the Demo- whole number of votes cast for presidential cratio party to seize them all and wield them as a electors was 758,869, of which the Republican brutal and bloody conspiracies have been made to candidates received 384,122, the Democratie coeroe voters, and base legislative conspiracies are at candidates 366,158, the “Greenback” ticket this moment in operation in order that an unprin- 7,187, the Prohibitory ticket 1,319, and the cipled and fraudulent majority, may deprive the Anti-Secret Society ticket 83. The Republican properly-chosen officers of their rights; and as against these outrages we take an appeal to the peo- majority over all

, 9,375. Of the 27 members

plurality over the Democratic vote was 17,964: ple of the nation.

Resolved, That the common safety demands that of Congress chosen, 17 were Republicans and our public schools shall not only be free to all, but 10 Democrats. The State Legislature chosen shall be preserved from all special or partial control. at the same time consists of 31 Republicars All attempts to divide the school-fund

for any pur- and 19 Democrats in the Senate, and 120 Re channel not under popular control, is to be frowned publicans and 81 Democrats in the House of upon and resisted with unyielding firmness. The re- Representatives. The Republican majority is cent defeat in the Democratic Legislature of Mary- therefore 12 in the Senate and 39 in the House, land of the constitutional amendment to secure the or 51 on joint ballot. common-school fund of that State against division reveals at once a great danger, and its source, and,

The total vote of the city of Philadelphia with other like facts, makes plain the duty of Con- for presidential electors was 139,218, of which gress to submit such an amendment to the Constitu- 77,075 were for the Hayes and Wheeler ticket, tion of the United States as, when adopted, will 62,110 for Tilden and Hendricks, 23 for Smith effectually defend the common-school system from and Stewart, and 10 for Cooper

and Cary. The all enemies, open or covert.

Resolved, that the attempt of the Democratic Republican plurality over the Democratic vote House of 'Representatives at Washington, in the was 14,965; majority over all, 14,932.

PERIER, AUGUSTE CASIMIR VICTOR LAU- try and Surveying ” (1851); and “Plane and RENT, a French statesman, born at Paris, Au- Solid Geometry" (1854). gust 20, 1811; died July 6, 1876. He was the PERRONE, GIOVANNI, an Italian priest, oldest son of the celebrated minister of state, born in 1794; died August 28, 1876. He who died in 1832. At twenty years of age he studied theology in Turin, then went to Rome, entered the diplomatic career, and was suc- and there entered the Society of Jesus in his cessively secretary of legation at London, twenty-first year. After his ordination he Brussels, and at the Hague, was chargé d'af taught for some time in the Collegium Rofaires at Naples and St. Petersburg, and min- manum, became rector of the College of Ferister plenipotentiary in Hanover. In 1846 he rara in 1839, returned after some time to the was elected to the Second Chamber, and at Collegium Romanum, went to England at the the Revolution of 1848 he retired to his private time of the Revolution of 1848, and in 1850 estates. In 1849 he was returned from the was appointed rector of the entire Collegium department of Aube to the Legislative As- Romanum. He was the author of "Prelecsembly, where he voted with the party in tiones Theologicæ" (9 vols., 1835), which has power, and was made a member of the perma- gone through more than thirty editions; “Prenent commission which was intrusted with lectiones Theologicæ," abridged from the above the revision of the Constitution, and sustained (4 vols., 1845; thirty-first edition, 1864); "Sythe policy of the Elysée up to the

formation of nopsis Historiæ Theologiæ cum Philosophia comthe ministry which preceded the coup-d'état, paratæ " (1845); “De Immaculato B. V. Mariæ against which he protested. Brought on De- Concepta, an Dogmatico Decreto definiri poscember 2d to Mont Valérien, he was detained sit" (1847; reēdited several times, and translated but a few days, and then returned to private into French, Dutch, and German); “Il Herlife. From 1845 to 1851 he was a member of mesianismo” (1838); “De Divinate D. N. Jesu the Council-General of Aube, and was re- Christi" (1869), etc. He was considered one elected in 1861. In 1869 he was a candidate of the most learned Italian theologians of the for the Corps Législatif, but was defeated. In nineteenth century. 1846 he was created grand officer of the Legion PERSIA,* a country of Asia. Reigning of Honor, and in 1867 was elected a member sovereign, Nasr-ed-Din, Shah of Persia, burn of the Academy of Moral and Political Sci- 1830, succeeded his father, Shah Mohammed, ences. When Thiers became President of the September 10, 1848. Heir-apparent, MuzafferRepublic in 1871, he appointed Périer Minister ed-Din, born in 1850. The area of Persia is of the Interior on October 12. His brief stay estimated at 636,000 square miles. The popuin the Home-Office was marked by a mixture lation, which for some time had been on the of rigor and conciliation. He was popular decline, is now reliably reported as again inwith his prefects, and retired from his position creasing, and amounting to from 6,000,000 to because of lack of harmony between him and 7,000,000. M. Thiers on financial questions. He resigned The ministry formerly consisted of only two on February 5, 1872, was again appointed on functionaries, the Vizier-i-Azem, or grand-vizMay 17, 1873, but went out with the entire ier, and the Ameen-ed-Doulah, or lord-treasThiers government a week afterward. He was urer; but in more recent times it has been the author of "Le Traité avec Angleterre” divided into a larger number of departments, (1860), "Les Finances de l'Empire » (1861), after the European fashion. In 1876 it conLe Budget de 1863 " (1862), "La Reforme sisted of the following members: HasseinFinancière" (1862), "Les Finances et la Poli- Khan, formerly grand-vizier, Minister of Fortique" (1863), "Les Sociétés de Coopération ” eign Affairs and War and Commander-in-chief (1864), and "L'Article 75 de la Constitution of the Army; Mirza Yussuf Khan, Minister of de l'An VIII sous le Régime de la Constitu- the Interior and of Finances; General Ali Kuli tion de 1852" (1867).

Khan, Minister of Telegraphs; Mirza Ali Khan, PERKINS, GEORGE ROBERTS, died at New Minister of Posts; Mohammed Rahim Khan, Hartford, Conn., August 22, 1876. He was Minister of the Royal House; Ali Riza Khan, born in Otsego County, N. Y., in 1812. He was Minister of Justice; Hassan Ali Khan, Minister self-educated, and at the age of eighteen was of Public Works; Mirza Abdul Wahab Wahab*mployed in the Slackwater Survey of the Sas- Khan, Minister of Commerce. quehanna River. He was a teacher of mathe The Persian army, according to official renatics in the Liberal Institute at Clinton, N. turns of the Minister of War, numbers about 1., from 1831 to 1838, when he became Prin- 105,000, of whom one-third,' or 30,000 men, ipal of the Utica Academy. In 1844, at the constitute the standing army. According to a pening of the State Normal School, he was new law issued in 1875, the soldiers will no hosen Professor of Mathematics, and four years longer serve, as heretofore, for lifetime, but ater was elected principal. In 1852 he resigned only for twelve years, and the right of providInd superintended the erection of the Dudley ing substitutes is granted. )bservatory. He published a series of arith The aggregate length of the electric telegraph netics (1840-'51); “ Treatise on Algebra” 1841); “Elements of Algebra" (1844); "El

* For an account of the religious statistics, the political

divisions, and the imports and exports, see ANNUAL CYCLOments of Geometry" (1847); “ Trigonome- PÆDIA for 1874.

lines in 1876 was 3,966 kilometres; that of the governor, Bekil-el-Mulik, was allowed to pay wires, 7,646 kilometres. The number of offices from his own private funds. As he is the was 46.

richest landowner in the province, it is supReports from Persia agree in representing posed that he will, in the end, find measures to that the Shah was strongly impressed by the recover at least double this amount from his views of Western civilization which he gained tenants. A petition was sent to the Shah from during his travels in Europe, and has been Bushire, asking relief from the excessive tax actuated, since his return home, by a desire to on grain. The Shah replied by telegraph; but secure the enjoyment of some of its benefits the director of the telegraph, who was in the for his country. For this purpose, he has at- interest of the collector of taxes, refused to tempted to introduce several measures of re- deliver the dispatch, except for a granting of form; but, partly because of his own want of 200 tomans; and the people were not permitted experience, as well as of his lack of compre- to forward any new complaint by telegraph. hension of the true nature of the measures of In February the Shah appointed a State reform that are needed-partly on account of Council of 25 members, to consult concerning the unsettled and impoverished condition of reforms and adopt measures for introducing the country and the deficiency of means of them. The subjects of coining money and the communication—in greater part on account of establishment of a postal system were espéthe impossibility of enforcing any considerable cially confided to them. The new council

seems to have performed its functions in a satisfactory manner, till the news reached Persia of the deposition of the Sultan Abdul - Aziz of Turkey by a council of ministers, and his subsequent suicide.

The fact that the downfall of the Sultan had been brought about by : council such as he had only recently established gave the Shah muel anxiety, and induced him to adopt precartions lest a similar fate should befall himself from his council. He ordered that the couneil should do its business by committees of four

members each, of which degree of accountability upon the local officers, only one committee should sit at a time, his efforts have so far met with but little suc- and that these should go out by rotation, cess. The "justice-boxes” which were ordered monthly. Afterward he adjourned the meetto be placed in all the towns for the reception ings of the councils for six months, or, as anof complaints, and which were to be sent with other account has it, ordered that a full meettheir contents monthly to the capital (see An- ing of the council should be held only twice NUAL CYOLOPEDIA for 1875), were at first reg- a year, and that the body should sit only in ularly well filled; but the local officers, for the presence of the Shah. Provision has been whose interest it was that complaints should made for the coinage of Persian money with not reach the court, stationed spies near the an apparatus which has been bought in Paris boxes, who drove away all who would deposit A beginning has been made of the establishcomplaints in them, and thus defeated the object ment

of a postal system. The department has of this effort. The full amounts of the taxes been organized under the superintendence of are rigorously collected, whatever may be the an Austrian postal officer, Herr Niederer. The circumstances of the people. In the province first route was opened on the 12th of Februars, of Ghilan, where the silk crop had partially from Teheran to Tauris, in the north western failed for two years in succession, the same part of the kingdom, and thence to the Ros amount of impost was demanded as in more sian boundaries at Djoulfa and Resht Enzeli. prosperous years, and the petitions of the in- The service is performed by six couriers, who habitants for relief received no answer. In make the journey of 94 farsachs, or 80 Austrian the province of Kerman a deficiency of 20,000 miles, and back, in eighty hours. Provisions tomans was shown in the revenues, resulting have been made in connection with the postal from the shortness of the crops, which the route for the negotiation of bills of exchange




between Teheran and Tauris, and similar facil PERU (REPÚBLICA DEL Perú), an indepenities will be afforded, as soon as safe arrange- dent state of South America. ments can be made with the local Persian

Details relative to boundaries, territorial dimerchants, for the intermediate towns on the vision, population, etc., will be found in the route. The rate of postage is 25 centimes for ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1873 and 1875. a single letter within Persia, and 55 centimes

The President of the Republic is General to any part of Europe, an arrangement having Mariano Ignacio Prado, installed in office on been made with the Russian postal authorities August 2, 1876. by which letters bearing the Russian as well as the_Persian stamp will be forwarded to their European destination. Herr Niederer reports that postal enterprise is popular, and its use is increasing. He contemplates, as soon as practicable, establishing other routes to the south and to Bagdad.

The country on the Russian border at Merv was disturbed at the beginning of the year by the irruptions of the Tekke, the most predatory tribe of the Turkomans. These people were in straitened circumstances for food, and made frequent raids into the Persian territories for cattle and sheep, and occasionally carried off some prisoners. A force was sent from Meshed to pursue one of these bands, and overtook them at Kelati Nadiri, where it totally defeated them with the loss of 500 dead and wounded and 500 horses.

A force of Turkish Kurds having entered Persian territory near the city of Ushua and committed heinous outrages on property and person, the Governor of Urina crossed the boundaries into Turkey, August 13th, with The cabinet is composed of the following five regiments of infantry and eight guns, to ministers: Interior, Señor Manuel F. Benavigive them wholesome chastisement.

des; Foreign Affairs, Señor José Antonio GarOn the birthday of the Shah, March 6th, cía y García; Justice, Dr. Antonio Arenas, his Majesty gave a reception to the diplomatic who is also President of the Council; Finance, corps. The Austro-Hungarian minister pre- Señor José Aranibar; and War and the Navy, sented an address of congratulation on behalf General Pedro Bustamente. This cabinet was of the foreign representatives, to which the Shah made an appropriate reply. He afterward spoke especially to each of his guests. The Shah entered upon the thirtieth lunar year of his reign in December. As thirty years in the Persian reckoning mark a cycle, or karn, considerable importance was attached to this event, and it was decided to celebrate it with extraordinary festivities. The celebration was, however, postponed till January, 1877, in order to hold it in connection with the great religious festivals of Korban and Kaddir.

The Presbyterian Church in the United States of America has a mission in Persia, with its headquarters at Urumiah, the labors of which have been directed chiefly to the Nestorian Christians. At the annual meeting of the mission held at Urumiah, October 18, 1876, action was taken in favor of beginning work among Mussulmans for their conversion

VOLCANO OF MISTÍ OR AREQUIPA. to Christianity. The missionaries expressed themselves aware of the hostility that this considered particularly strong, being formed step would excite from the Government, but of men representing all the different shades of decided that while they would, as far as possible, political opinion; but, according to the declaavoid a direct issue with the authorities upon ration of the new President, they will not be the matter, they could not avoid what they biased by any party spirit.' Dr. Arenas was considered to be a duty.

the Opposition candidate for the presidency at


the time of the election of General Prado's and Navy, General P. Silva; Commandant-Gen. predecessor, Señor Manuel Pardo; Sr. Arani- eral of the Navy, Post-Captain D. de la Haza. bar was a member of Balta's cabinet; and The army, in 1875, was composed of three Señores García y García and Benavides were regiments of horse, 1,200 men; eight battalions always among Pardo's chief supporters. of foot, 5,600; two brigades of artillery, 1,000;

The Archbishop of Lima is P. Orueta y and 5,400 gendarmes: total, 13,200 men. Castrillon; President of the Supreme Court, In the summer of 1876 the navy comprised M. Vidaurre; Postmaster-General, Z. Dávila six iron-clads, with an aggregate armament of Condemarin; Inspector-General of the Army 38 guns; and six other steainers, mounting an

[graphic][merged small]


Aggregate armament of 56 guns: total arma A revolutionary movement, under the leaderment, 94 guns.

ship of Don Nicolás de Pierola, in October, In the budget for the fiscal year 1875–76 was put down within the month. At the end the revenue was estimated at 65,566,140 soles,* of the year the republic was in a state of and the expenditures for the same year at 77,- perfect peace; an improvement was apparent 200,000 soles, constituting a deficit of 11,633,- in financial matters; exchange ruled at easier 860 soles.

rates; money was obtainable on better terms; The following table exhibits the state of the and a healthier tone prevailed, both in financial national debt in January, 1876:

and commercial circles.

PEUCKER, EDUARD von, a German generHome debt.

24,952,158 al, born January 19, 1791; died February 10, Foreign debt..

165,930,580 Floating debt.


1876. In his eighteenth year he entered the

artillery; took part in the Russian campaign Total....


of 1812, in the army corps furnished by PrusIn the absence of official returns concerning sia, and returned from this campaign as adjuthe foreign trade of Peru, we can merely say tant in the artillery of this corps. In the that the exports, consisting mainly of guano campaigns against Napoleon that followed he and cubic nitre, are of a mean annual value of held a similar position in the corps of General 38,000,000 soles; the value of the imports be- von York. After the conclusion of peace he ing somewhat over that figure. The guano received an appointment in the Ministry of shipped to Great Britain in 1875 was of the War, where he soon gained a prominent posivalue of $5,342,850 (86,042 tons), and the cu- tion by his extensive knowledge, and made bic nitre of the value of $8,965,550 (2,979,876 himself specially known by his plans for the tons). Both these commodities are Govern- improvement of guns. In 1822 he was apment monopolies. General Prado, then Presi- pointed major; in 1834, lieutenant-colonel; in dent-elect of the Republic, proceeded to Eng. 1842, major-general; and in 1848, military comland in March, 1876, for the purpose of con- missioner for Prussia in the Federal Military tracting for the shipment of guano on an Commission in Frankfort. In the same year extensive scale; and on June 13th the follow- he was appointed Minister of War for the ening telegram was received at Lima:

pire by the Reichsverweser (regent of the eruOn 8th instant, signed contract with Raphael & pire), and in 1849 had command of the troops Sons, Candamo & Heeren, for consignment of 1,900,- operating against Baden. Having advanced to 000 tons of guano; fixed expenses at £4 158., if freight lieutenant-general in 1849, he was appointed does not exceed 70s.; if over, Government

pays ex: in the following year a member of the Central 000, beginning with January last. The debt'to An- Federal Commission, and remained in that glo-Peruvian Bank to be deducted from first install- body up to its dissolution. In 1854 he was apment; excess for bondholders; interest both ways, pointed inspector-general of the military edufive per cent. ; Dreyfus guaranteed; other clauses cation of Prussia, and in 1858 became general Am discussing the manner of arranging debt service of the infantry. His most important act as The Government may draw for £100,000 on Raphael inspector-general of military education, which & Sons.

PRADO. position he retained up to his death, was the * The sol is equivalent to about 96 cents, gold, of United reorganization of the military schools of the States money.

kingdom. He was the author of "Das deutsche

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