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gust 17th he attacked the royal forces at a place is supposed to have held some post in the Abysof some importance, called Zakzaga, in Hama- sinian army, together with some half-dozen sen. The battle lasted six hours, and ended in Greek traders, shared the same fate. Besides the complete defeat of the king's troops, who this town, fifteen villages are said to have been

burnt, and the number of the victims is estimated at 1,500. Mrs. Lager was taken prisoner, but was released after being detained for four days. It was stated that Walda Michael's soldiers were all armed with Remington rifles, which were supposed to have been furnished by the Egyptians. Immense quantities of these weapons had been purchased by Egypt during the past years. It is possible, of course, that the many reverses which were sustained by the Egyptian troops when in Abyssinia, and which resulted in their leaving the country without their arms and superfluous baggage, may account in some measure for the fine equipment of some portions of the native Abyssinian regiments; but it was evidently in the interest of the khedive, in his struggle with King John, to incite rebellion among the powerful native chiefs, and furnish them with the means of successfully seconding him.

The King soon succeeded in reducing the rebels, and then marched on Massowah, which he was reported to have captured during August. It was also reported that Ratib Pasha, one of the ablest Egyptian generals, had been killed in the defense of that city.

ADVENTISTS. SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISTS. A special session of the Seventh-day Adventist General Conference was held at Battle Creek,

Mich., beginning March 31st. Fifteen deleHILL FORT BETWEEN XAI AND ABACA.

gates were present, representing the State Conferences

of California, Ohio, New York, Minwere put to flight. Zakzaga was given up to nesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, pillage, followed by an indiscriminate slaughter Maine, and Iowa, or ten out of the fourteen of old men, women, and children. Mr. Lager, State Conferences. Letters were also received a well-known Swedish missionary, who, to- and read in behalf of the Kansas, Vermont,

and Ohio Conferences, in behalf of the cause among the Norwegians in the United States and Europe, in behalf of the cause in Sweden and in Virginia. The meeting, it was stated by the president, was held to consider what means could be furnished to meet the demand for a more extensive and active prosecution of the work of the denomination among the people of the United States, and the scenes of its operations in Europe. Highly-favorable reports of the work were made from the several State Conferences, Canada, and Colorado. The publication was recommended of a small bymnbook for use among the Swedes. A resolution was passed recommending the devotion by members of the church of one-tenth of their income to the cause of God. The ministers were advised to set this duty before the brethren, and a committee was appointed to prepare a tract upon the subject of systematic benevolence. Efforts were ordered to raise $10,000 to establish a press in Europe. The

management of the Hygienic Agency was apgether with his three servants, had taken ref. proved, and increased activity in the prosecuuge in a native temple, was dragged out and tion of the health reform and the publication murdered in cold blood. An Englishman, who of books on that subject was recommended.

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A debt was reported of $10,000 on the college, given as for 1875, with modifications for a few against which were unpaid pledges sufficient, known changes which had taken place, the reif paid in, to meet it.

ports from those States for 1876 not having The fifteenth annual session of the Seventh- been received. The report showed a gain day Adventist General Conference was held from 1875 of 27 ministers, 59 churches, 2,012 at Lansing, Mich., beginning September 19th. members, and $11,279.85 in contributions for A conference recently organized in Kentucky systematic benevolence. Companies of Sevand Tennessee was recognized and adınitted enth-day Adventists were noticed as having to the General Conference. Elder James White been organized in Texas, Virginia, and Marywas chosen president. Resolutions were adopt- land. The treasurer of the Seventh-day Aded regretting the neglect of the health reforın ventist Educational Society reported that his and the return to old, unhealthful habits of receipts and expenditures for the year beginning living as likely to work only evil to the peo- August 12, 1875, had been each $12,354.73. ple, and to displease God, and advising minis. The society had property, consisting of the colters “to practise the reform themselves and lege grounds and buildings, detached lots of teach it to the people on all suitable occa- real estate, detached buildings, etc., valued at sions," urging young men and middle-aged $51,651.37, and was indebted $13,360.89, leavmen to engage in the work of the ministry; no- ing $38,290.48 as the amounts of its assets ticing an increased interest in camp-meetings after all debts were paid. The treasurer of and pledging greater efforts to improve them; the Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Assoexpressing interest in the spread of the doc- ciation reports that his receipts and expenditrines of the church in the Southern States, tures for the thirteen months ending Septemand pledging aid to the work was fast and as ber 15, 1876, had been each $161,423.56. The far as our means and men will allow ;"rec- association had property valued at $142,656.82, ommending special efforts to secure the inter- and was indebted $45,937.23, leaving as its est of persons and companies in different parts net assets $96,719.59. The treasurer of the of the world holding the Sabbath doctrines of Health Reform Institute reported that his rethis church, in its tract and missionary work; ceipts for the thirteen months ending Septemcommending the school of the General Confer- ber 14, 1876, had been $18,188.15, and his exence to the people of the church, and urging penditures $14,584.78. The institute had propcontributions to it “to place it upon a good erty valued at $39,490.18, and was indebted financial basis ; ” noticing with joy" the ap- $1,800, leaving $37,690.18 as the amount of pearance of a French paper issued in Europe its clear assets. The treasurer of the General under the direction of the General Confer- Conference reported that his receipts and exence Committee; reiterating the precept that penditures for

thirteen months, ending Sepone-tenth of the income of members of the tember 15, 1876, bad been each $6,194.09. church should be given to God; and recogniz- The meetings of the General Conference and ing with gratitude the continued and growing the several societies were held in connection feeling of fraternity between their own de- with a camp-meeting, at Lansing, Mich., which nomination and the Seventh-day Baptists. was estimated to be the largest ever held

The following is a summary of the statistics by one denomination. Sixteen hundred and of this denomination as they were present- twenty-two persons were permanently ened to the General Conference, September 19, camped on the ground, and the regular daily 1876:

attendance at the meetings numbered between two and three thousand.

AFGHANISTAN,* a country in Central CONFERENCES.

Asia, bounded north by east by Turkistan, east by British India, south by Beloochistan,

and west by Persia; area 278,000 square miles, Maine...

$794 50 Vermont.

Present ruler, population about 4,000,000.

1,275 00 New England.

2,300 00 Amir Shere Ali. The army of the Emir, acNew York and Pennsylvania

2,799 22 cording to late accounts, is said to consist of Ohio Michigan..

80 3,150 10,000 00 100,000 men, divided into fifty-seven regiments Indiana

90000 of infantry, thirty batteries of artillery, and Wisconsin..

43 1,048 8,863 00 Illinois.

1,800 00

twenty regiments of cavalry. The pay of the Minnesota..

2,500 00 soldiers was, in 1876, raised by the Amir to Iowa and Nebraska.


6,450 00 seven rupees a month. Missouri... Kansas.

The Governments of both Russia and British California.

5,925 43 India sent, in 1876, special embassies to AfghanKentucky. Swiss Mission.

591 00

istan, an indication of the growing desire of

each of these powers to obtain a controlling Total..... 96 70 398 10,044 ($43,998 47 influence upon this battle-field of their Central

Asian policy. The transactions of both em, Explanation was made that the report from Michigan was incomplete, and the reports from tier, and of the population of the several provinces, &€

* For an account of the regulation of the northern fronNew England, New York, and Illinois, were ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1874.





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bassies are kept a profound secret, and the to Herat, but was refused permission to enter reports of the Indian and Russian newspapers the country, M. Schlagintweit continues as are too contradictory to be of any value. The follows: "The report that Russia had sent & Indian Government selected as its envoy a na- diplomatic agent to Cabool is not confirmed in tive Mohammedan of India. Special embassies the Indian papers. The cause for the report were also received by the Amir from the rulers seems to have been the defeat which Persia of Bokhara and Kelat, and all the reports some time ago suffered at the hands of the from Afghanistan concurrently point to the Turkomans in its recent expedition against growing excitement concerning the approach- Merv, and which may be made the basis of ing crisis in the complications of Central Asia. Perso-Russian demands upon Afghanistan. The Amir devoted special attention to his army. This will be looked upon very unfavorably in The number of troops and the pay of the India, but cannot be prevented. Merv, the oldsoldiers were increased; dependent chieftains est city of Central Asia, which was once celewere ordered to send their contingency of brated for the fertility of the country surtroops to Cabool; and even a gun-manufactory rounding it, gradually decayed after fanatical was established in the same city.

conquerors destroyed the dam which collected One of the mountain-tribes living along the the waters of the Murghal River to irrigate frontier between Afghanistan and British In- the fields. As the country became less cultidia, the Afridis, made repeated inroads into vated, the manners of the Turkomans living Indian territory. They were reported to num- there decidedly deteriorated, and they became ber about 10,000 soldiers, and to have received the most daring robbers, carrying off slaves promises of aid from other tribes. The Indian and booty from the north of Persia. Persia, Government at first endeavored to pacify them as well as Russia, repeatedly sent out troops to by negotiations and promises of subsidy, but, punish the Turkomans, but the former power when this proved unavailing, determined to was always defeated. Thus in 1860, 22,000 pat an end to their inroads by force of arms. Persians were repulsed by 5,000 Turkomans,

while, only a few months ago, five Persian BOKA RA

battalions and ten cavalry regiments with one battery were so completely defeated by an equally strong force of Turkomans, that the Shah of Persia was forced to discontinue the campaign. The Turkomans, emboldened by this success, now threaten Russian settlers on the Atrek line, and even now Russian journals

discuss the necessity of a regulation of the Die KÉOBAS

border, by which the left shore of the Atrek Ghyuzni

would come to Russia. At present Russia employs skirmishing-parties to punish the robbers, thus smoothing the way for a revival of old treaties between Persia and Cabool, which are so distasteful to England. On January 23, 1853, the Shah and the ruler of Herat agreed

that, if it should ever become necessary for the Sarayan

subjects of Herat to furnish anxiliaries to Persia for the purpose of punishing the Turko

mans, they may send as many troops to Persia BELOOCHISTAN

as they desire, but only for a temporary stay or to pass through that country. On the other

hand, the Shah considers himself bound to aid As the absence of trustworthy information Herat if it is threatened by a foreign power, makes it impossible to give a connected account whether it be Afghanistan or some other. In of the progress of Afghan affairs, we give the the Treaty of Paris, of 1857, Persia bound berviews of men well known as authorities on all self to England never to interfere in the inquestions of the state of Central Asia on the ternal affairs of Afghanistan; but this treaty situation in Afghanistan,

leaves Persia free with regard to all its other Emil Schlagintweit, the well-known explorer neighbors. At present Afghanistan is as much of Central Asia, gives the following account interested in the punishment of the Turkomans of the relations of Russia and Persia to Af- as Russia and Persia. The occupation of Myghanistan (see Augsburg Gazette, No. 235, mana, the newest province of Afghanistan, 1876): “In Afghanistan, the state of affairs is effected only in March of the present year, by no means satisfactory, although Shere Ali would be seriously endangered, if the large seems to be slowly getting the upper hand of number of those dissatisfied with the change his rivals. Europeans are carefully excluded." would effect a union with the Turkomans. After citing several cases in support of this The dethroned Amir was brought to Cabool, statement, among others the case of Colonel and is there held in close confinement, that he McGregor, who wished to make a scientific trip may not become the head of a conspiracy. A

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decisive blow can only be dealt the Turkomans, of the republic was completely routed. In if they are attacked at the same time from thé consequence, a general desire for annexation direction of the Caspian Sea as well as from to Great Britain became manifest among the Mery. The cause for a joint step of the three population. The Transvaal Republic has been interested states exists. A joint action on an independent state since 1848. (See TRANStheir part, however, does not appear probable, VAAL REPUBLIC.) even to an Asiatic; to him it seems rather The difficulties of the British Government that Russia will enter the campaign alone. and the Orange River Free State with regard Russia, however, fears to disturb its amicable to the South African diamond-fields were setrelations to Persia, as it would be impossible tled satisfactorily for both parties during the to prevent a violation of Persian territory in year. pursuing defeated bodies of Turkomans, and The project of a South African Confederation of Afghan territory in case of an attack on under the protectorate of Great Britain reMerv. The idea of an agreement with Persia, ceived a powerful impulse by the disastrous therefore, becomes plausible, while at the same war of the Transvaal Republic against the time the interests of Afghanistan would be Kaffres. It gained in popularity both among taken into consideration. Such agreements the inhabitants of the British colonies and the must arouse anew the suspicions of England, two republics of Orange River and the Transwho found it such a difficult matter to secure vaal, being opposed only by the extreme rein the Afghan frontier a line inaccessible to publicans of the latter. In the early part of Russian intluence."

the year, President Brand, of the Orange River Captain Burton, another high authority on Free State, went to England to settle the disthe questions relating to Central Asia, speaks puted boundary question, and was received in the following manner of the relations of with great distinction, both in the Cape ColoIndia to the Amir of Oabool: “Afghanistan, ny and in England. President Burgers, of the this restless state of robber chieftains, has, Transvaal Republic, who visited the Cape thanks to our intervention, considerably in- Colony in March, was also received with great creased in area and population. But, never- honors, and everything was done to impress theless, Shere Ali complains because Lord the two Presidents with the desirability of the Lawrence recognized his elder brother, Afzul proposed confederation. In March, Mr. Froude, Khan, who was friendly to us, because Lord the historian, sent a report to Lord Carnarvon, Mayo did not fulfill all of his wishes, and be- the Colonial Secretary, on the advantages to cause Lord Northbrook did not pay his subsi- be derived from the confederation scheme. The dies (I should rather say his tribute) as regularly report was very favorably received throughout as he desired. For that reason he refused to the South African colonies. On August 3d receive the English mission to Kashgaria in Lord Carnarvon opened a conference on South Cabool, under the pretext that he was not African affairs. The members attending the able to protect its members in his country, conference were, Sir

Garnet Wolseley, as vicesaying, 'Their blood be on their own heads if president, President Brand of the Orange River they come to Cabool!' For that reason, also, Free State, Sir Theophilus Shenstone, Secrehe will not permit an English resident at his tary of the Interior, of Natal, Messrs. Akercourt, and the native representative of the In- man and Robinson, members of the Legislature dian Government, Wakil-i-Sarkar-i, is barely of Natal, and Mr. J. A. Froude, who reprepermitted to address the Amir in the durbar. sented West Griqua-Land. Lord Carnarvon, It is a fact that this miserable chief believes, in his opening address, stated that the conbecause we have taught him to believe it, that ference was to be of a deliberative character he holds the road to British India in bis only, that the communications of the different hands. He is convinced that he need only members were to be of a confidential character, offer his assistance to Russia, to drive us from and the object was to deliberate on the interIndia. That he hates us, we know; during ests of South Africa, which was constantly the mutiny of the Sepoys, he urged his wise growing in importance, and possibly on the father, Dost_Mohammed, although in vain, to constitution of a South-African Confederation. invade the Punjaub; that he despises us, we President Brand stated that in accordance with must see, and we must feel that our policy has a resolution of the national Legislature he was given him a right to do so."

not empowered to take part in the deliberAFRICA. The area of Africa, according ations on the confederation scheme, but that to the latest calculations, amounted to 10,901,- he would take part in the discussion of other 100 square miles, with a population of about questions. The following sessions of the con206,000,000.*

ference were held with closed doors, and its The further existence of the Transvaal Re- results are as yet (November, 1876) unknown. public, an independent state of Southeastern

The war of the British on the West Coast Africa, was seriously endangered by a disas- with the Ashantees was succeeded during the trous war with the Kaffres, in which the army past year by one with Dahomey. An outrage

on a British merchant at Whydah, the princiand political divisions of Africa, see ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for an investigation to impose a fine of palm-oil,

For the area and population of each of the geographical pal port of Dahomey, led a British officer after 1875.

amounting to about £6,000, upon the King, to provide for Tunis a system of railroads to to be paid by June 1st. The King refused connect with the railroads of Algeria. (See to pay the fine, inviting the British to visit Tunis.) Abomey, his capital, where he promised to The war in Liberia between the Government pay the demand in powder and bullets. The and the native tribes was brought to a successBritish in consequence blockaded the portsful close in April by the intervention of the of Dahomey, thus preventing any supplies United States. The war was followed by from reaching the natives. The King in re-' financial difficulties, which embarrassed the taliation blockaded the paths into the interior, Government considerably. and imprisoned a number of whites residing The British dominion in Africa was again at Whydah.

enlarged during the year, by the purchase of In May, the Sultan of Zanzibar entered into the island of Socotra, in the Indian Ocean, a treaty with Great Britain to suppress the from its native prince, adding 1,382 square slave-trade in his dominions. He rigidly en- miles, with 3,100 inhabitants, to the British forced this treaty, and in consequence was territory in Africa. (See Socotra). troubled with a rebellion among the tribes in During the months of July and August, the interior, which he, however, succeeded in Commodore Hewett undertook an expedition quelling with the aid of the British.

against the negroes living on the shores of the The difficulty between Zanzibar and Egypt, Niger. These negroes, who had formerly done on account of the occupation by the latter a profitable business in bringing the native power of five ports on the Indian Ocean be- products down to the coast in their canoes, longing to Zanzibar, was settled by the with- and who had lost this carrying-trade entirely drawal of the Egyptian troops in February. through steamers which were sent up_the This act of McKillop Pasha, the Egyptian gen- river, made several attempts to stop the Engeral, was disavowed by the Khedive.

lish trade. A large number of vessels were The advances of Egypt into the interior of attacked by them, among them the King of Africa received a decided check. Fighting con- Masafa, which was almost completely detinued during the year, and the Abyssinians stroyed. In order to put a stop to these depreappeared to be successful. King John of Abys- dations, Commodore Hewett, on July 29th, set sinia was also troubled during the year by re- out on an expedition against the negroes, havvolts of native chiefs, incited by the Egyptians, ing with him about one hundred sailors and which greatly impeded his operations against marines. He met with the first resistance on the latter. (See ABYSSINIA.)

July 31st. Effecting a landing under the cover The attempts to restore the disordered of his gunboats, he succeeded in completely finances of Egypt to a sound basis did not defeating the negroes, losing, one dead and meet with the expected result. The relations fourteen wounded in the affair. On August of the Egyptian Government to its subjects in 2d he again defeated the negroes, and pressing the Soudan continued to be of the most friend- on reached Omitoha, 170 miles from the mouth ly character. The native tribes, not subject of the river, on August 5th. Here the comto the jurisdiction of Egypt, also sought the modore had a long interview with the chief, friendship of the latter power. M'tesa, the and as no further disturbances were to be exchief ruling on the north shore of the Victoria pected the expedition returned, destroying on N'yanza, and the ruler of the Somauli country, its way a village, the inhabitants of which had sent embassadors to Cairo. (See EGYPT.) blocked up the river.

An insurrection broke out, in the early part During the month of August disturbances of the year, among the native tribes of Al- arose among the native tribes on the Gaboon. geria

, which, however, was suppressed in a The French authorities immediately blockaded very short time. (See ALGERIA.)

the mouth of the river, and dispatched troops The Empire of Morocco was disturbed dur- to restore quiet. ing July by an insurrection among the Ghitan AGOULT, MARIE CATHERINE SOPHIE DE tribe, who refused to furnish their usual mili- FLAVIGNY, Countess d', a French authoress, tary contingent._ An extraordinary mission better known under the nom de plume of Daniel was sent by the Emperor to France and Italy Stern, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in 1805; during the year, in order to negotiate commer- died March 5, 1876. She was the daughter of cial treaties. (See Morocco.)

the Vicomte de Flavigny, a French nobleman, Quite a tumult was caused among the Jews who, during the emigration of the French of Tunis by the murder of one of their number princes, married Marie Bethmann, the daughter by a Mohammedan. Order was restored by of one of the richest bankers in Frankfort. the immediate execution of the offender, and She received her first education in the conthrough the personal efforts of the consuls, to vent of the Sacred Heart, married the Count whom the Bey had given satisfactory guaran- d'Agoult in 1827, and after that passed several tees. During the month of March an attack years in traveling through Switzerland, Italy, was also made upon the consular judge of and Germany. Her first literary productions Italy, which for a time caused considerable were a series of pleasing novels, "Hervé," excitement. During the year the Government “Julien,” “Valentia," and "Nélida,” which commissioned M. Krantz, a French engineer, appeared from 1841' to 1845 in the Presse.

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