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art. In the scenery, which surpassed every- and final bearing of some of the events, while thing ever before witnessed, and formed a at the same time preserving all the main epipotent adjunct to the drama, about the only sodes—in one instance even when the story is exception taken was at the clumsiness of the hideous to the modern sense. In the introdragon-scene. The friends of Wagner, who ductory part, “Rheingold," are presented suhad heard parts of the work before, were sur- pernatural beings only, the three warring races prised at the new power which those parts of Northern mythology, the gods, giants, and gained in being presented in their right con- dwarfs. Their jealous struggles, plots, and nection; the wonderful unity and organic counterplots for power form the motive of the development both of the drama and the music drama. "The Rhine-gold, the emblem of earthly were admitted and admired by all. Many who power, rests in the depths of the tranquil came to cavil and condemn went away en- Rhine, faithfully guarded by the Rhine-Daughthusiastic converts. The “Ring des Nibelun- ters, a beautiful race of mermaids. The dwarf gen," in its true dramatic character, is a tril- Alberich, a Nibelung, from the region of subogy, to which the first part, “Rheingold,” terranean gloom, robs them of the treasure forms the prelude. Founded on several of the out of which he forges the ring of magic virancient Germanic sagas, Wagner has devel- tue, the symbol of earthly power. The god oped the powerful dramatic character of his Wotan, or Odin, by crafty arts, masters the work only by freely altering the connection dwarf in Nibelheim, and extorts from him the

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wonder-working ring. This ring he must de- forms the dramatic climax of the tetralogy. liver to the giants Fasolt and Fafner, as a ran- The well-known legend is faithfully recounted: som for Freia, the goddess of love and beauty. the human interest is here stronger, the music Fasolt is slain by Fafner, who, in the form of sweeter and richer. In the fourth drama, the a dragon, guards the talisman, whose curse “Götterdämmerung,” the legend of the “Nithreatens destruction to the god unless it be belungenlied ” is concluded: Hagen's treachrescued by a spotless mortal hero. In the sec- erous plots, Siegfried's love for Gutrun, and ond part of the tetralogy, “Die Walküre,” the victory over Brünnhilde, under the disguise of scene of action is transferred to the heroic Gunther, her suitor and Gutrun's brother, world of the old Teutons. The dark legend and the final fall of Walhalla, afford material of Siegmund and Sieglinde, and the protection of deep tragical moment, which fitly closes the of the erring hero against the wrath of Wotan great work. In the “Ring des Nibelungen" by the Walküre, Brünnhilde, afford poetical Wagner has completed the story which is only and musical motives of the highest grandeur. partly told in the “ Nibelungenlied,” connectThe fruit of the guilty union of the above- ing it with the sagas of the two Eddas, and named pair was Siegfried, the destined deliv- supplying the logically consequent and neceserer of the ring. The third part, “Siegfried,” sary dramatic linka


and bureaus..


On Roll June 30,


Annual Amount

of Roll.

Amount paid for
Pensions during
Flacal Year ended
June 30, 1876.

NAVY OF THE UNITED STATES. The Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac, etc.... $54,20 00 Navy now comprises 146 vessels of 150,157 Steam-machinery, tools, etc...

Repairs and preservation of vessels, etc... 8,800,0000

2,000,000 00 tons' measurement, carrying 1,142 guns, exclu- Provisions and clothing

1,408,721 83 sive of howitzers and Gatlings. Of these 23 were Repairs of hospitals and laboratories.

40,000 06

40,000 00 sailing-vessels, carrying 229 guns; and 123, Contingent expenses of various departments of 120,894 tons, and carrying 913 guns, were

851,000 00 steam-vessels, including 24 iron-clads of 72 support of Marine Corps.

Naval Acaderny..

199,262 40

905, 769 60 guns, 27 tugs, and two torpedo-boats. Of the Naval Asylum, Philadelphia..

63,697 00 whole number of vessels 75 were in actual use Maintenance of yards and docks.

862,029 00 at the close of the year, of which 37, including Total.......

$18,646,012 6 11 iron-clads on the North-Atlantic Station, were in commission attached to fleets. In his and the repairs and improvements necessary at

The amount estimated for new buildings last annual report Secretary Robeson says:

the various navy-yards, stations, and hospitals, The reduction of the force of our fleet by act of is $2,908,596. There is also submitted by the Congress, from 8,500 to 7,500 men, has placed our Bureau of Ordnance an estimate for $775,500 that of nearly every navy of Europe. The effect of to provide the proper armament for large ironthis reduction has been to lose to the service many clads and other ships being fitted out for sea. valuable seamen, who, for want of continuous employment in the Navy, and in the absence of any and yearly amount of pensions of the Navy on

The following is a statement of the number commerce of our own, have been forced to go abroad the rolls June 30, 1876, and the amount which country, and the time and care given to their educa- was paid during that fiscal year: tion as men-of-war's-men has been to some extent in vain. As a remedy for this misfortune, and for the purpose of maintaining a trained class of men in the Navy, skilled in their duties and devoted to their flag, I have the honor to repeat my recommendations of last year, that Congress give the necessary authority to enlist annually 750 boys for the Navy, under existing laws, but in addition to the number Navy invalids...... 1,643 $188,716 $187,189 72 of men now allowed. The cost of these boys, so far Navy widows and others. 1,744 267,726 809,888 89 as the pay of the Navy is concerned, would not


8,887 amount to more than the cost of 250 men; and it is

$471,442 ' $496,471 11 expected that this number enlisted annually will, in

NEAL, John, an American aathor; died at the course of a few years, not only fill the vacancies made by discharge, death, and desertion, but finally Portland, Me., June 20, 1876. He was born man our fleet with educated American seamen. in Falmouth (now Portland), Me., August 25,

The system of training boys has been in success- 1793. His parents were members of the Soful operation for little more than one

year, and there ciety of Friends, with which he also was conare at present 479 in the service, one-half of them nected until the age of twenty-five, when, nesota and Monongahela, and the others already principally for his inability to "live peaceably afloat in various sea-going vessels. The Department with all men," he received his formal dismissal. has stationed the Minnesota at New

York, the Con- About the age of twelve he was employed in stitution at Philadelphia, and the Monongahela at Portland as a sbop-boy; a few years later he and the experience of the past year fully demon- taught drawing and penmanship in the prinstrates the success of this effort to improve our sea- cipal towns of Maine; in 1814-'15 he was a men. I feel myself, therefore, most fully justified dry-goods retailer and jobber in Boston and in earnestly

renewing my recommendation of this New York, and afterward established himself addition to the personnel of the Navy.

in Baltimore as a wholesale dealer in partnerOn July 1, 1875, the amount of the appro- ship with John Pierpont. In 1816 they failed, priations applicable to the year ending June and Neal began the study of the law. He 30, 1876, was $18,301,731. The actual expen: brace a period of several years in a twelve

read through a legal course intended to emditures during the year amounted to $17,937,355, or about $364,376 less than the ap- month, besides attending lectures and studypropriations. The appropriations available for ing several languages. In 1816 he produced a the year beginning July 1, 1876, aggregate review of the works of Byron, written, it is $12,961,790. The estimates for the general said, in four days, which appeared from month maintenance of the Navy for the next year are to month until completed in the Portico, a as follows:

Baltimore magazine. In 1817 he published his

first novel, "Keep Cool” (2 vols., Baltimore), Pay of officers and seamen of the Navy...... $7,300,000 00 Pay of civil establishment in navy-yards....

205,922 00 originally called "Judge Not,” followed the Ordnance and Torpedo Corps..

445,575 00 next year by “The Battle of Niagara, Goldan, Coal, hemp, and equipments.!.

1,250,000 90 and other Poems." In 1819 appeared "Otho, Navigation and navigation supplies.... Hydrographic work..

89,800 00 or the Bastard,” a five-act tragedy; and about












194 250

127 261

the same time he assisted Dr. Watkins in writ- thereafter, and it is probable that the law will ing the “History of the American Revolution, be speedily changed to conform thereto, disby Paul Allen." Admitted to the Maryland pensing with the annual enumeration. The bar in 1819, he entered upon practice, but following table furnishes a comparison of the continued his literary labors. Besides pre- last two censuses: paring an index for “Niles's Register," then amounting to upward of fifty volumes, he published in 1823 the novels "Seventy-six, a Romance of the Revolution,” “Logan," “Randolph,” and “Errata.” They were severally Adams...



1,308 written, according to his own account, in pe- Boone


1,099 riods of from twenty-seven to thirty-nine days. Buffalo

4,896 2,861 He went to England in January, 1824, and Burt.


4,041 Butler..

4,730 4,440 wrote articles for various periodicals, including Cass

10,787 10,452 “Sketches of the Five American Presidents and Cedar.

2,521 1,997 the Five Candidates for the Presideney" for

Cheyenne (estimated).

4,787 4,183 Blackwood's Magazine. His literary efforts Colfax..

4,187 3,651

6,402 6,152 attracted the notice of Jeremy Bentham, who Caming (estimated).

2,759 invited him to take up his residence in his Dawson.

2,188 1,407 house, of which he remained an inmate during

3,268 2,886 a considerable portion of his stay in England. Douglas (estimated).


8,465 7,584

25,722 24,698 In 1827 he returned to America, and settled Fillmore

5,373 4,781 in Portland, where he employed himself in


1,953 1,807

Frontier (estimated). practising law, writing, and lecturing; "and, Furnas

1,550 1,482 that no superfluous energy might run to waste, Gagear;

6,021 5,714 established gymnasiums and gave lessons to Gosper (returns not complete)

Greeley (estimated). large classes in sparring and fencing." This Hall..


4,414 life he continued till 1850, when he gave up Harlan..


2,140 2,027 his profession. He also published "Brother Hitchcock Jonathan " (3 vols., London and Edinburgh,


1,708 1825); "Rachel Dyer" (Portland, 1828); Johnson..

4,075 8,814 4,908

4,862 “Bentham's Morals and Legislation” (Boston, Kearney.

803 1830); “Authorship, a Tale” (1833);



1,248 1,524 Down-Easters" (2 vols., New York, 1833); Lancaster

15,407 15,224 "One Word More" (1854), essays of a reli- Lincoln

1,827 2,855 Madison.

8,245 gious character; “ True Womanhood, a Tale"


3,101 (Boston, 1859); “Wandering Recollections of Nemaha

9,181 1,381

1,101 a Somewhat Busy Life" (1869); and “Port

11,766 18,270 land Illustrated " (1874).


4,821 NEBRASKA. The existing law in the State Phelps (estimat

110 Pierce (estimated).

606 of Nebraska requires an enumeration of the Platte...


4,378 inhabitants to be made every year by the pre- Polk...

8,856 8,061 cinct assessors, and returned to the county Richardson (estimated).

11,327 15,000 Saline...

9,227 Sarpy,

8,785 3,385 Saunders.

10,463 10,882 Seward (estimated)

6,875 6,601 SEFORE

1,223 1,157 Thayer..

2,410 2,189 Valley Washington.

6,286 6,114 Webster..

2,962 2,500 York.


5,266 Unorganized territory.

4,000 3,000






560 124

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The valuation of property in the State in 1875 for purposes of taxation was $75,467,398.81, and for 1876 $74,178,645.48, a decrease of $1,288,753.33. The tax-levy for each year was four mills on the dollar for the gen

eral fund, one mill for the sinking-fund, one STATE SEAL OF NEBRASKA,

mill for the common-school fund, one mill for

the penitentiary fund, one-quarter mill for the clerks, by whom they are forwarded to the university fund, and one-tenth mill for the State Secretary of State. The new constitution pro- bond fund, or 7 mills in all. The aggregate vides for a census in 1885, and every ten years revenue to be obtained by this levy is $540,



305.11 for 1876, but there were taxes due on A new wing has been added to the Hospital the 30th of November, delinquent for different for the Insane, at a cost of $35,000. "The years, amounting to $765,815.25. The re- maintenance of the hospital for two years ceipts of the Treasury for two years ending cost $60,746.69. Of this amount $26,962.99 November 30th were $1,693,849.59, including was charged to the counties having patients in a balance of $234,543.41 on hand at the begin- the institution. The number of inmates on the ning of that period. The disbursements for 30th of November was 93, an increase of 47 in two years amounted to $1,369,795.91, leaving two years. The whole number admitted dura balance at the end of the last fiscal year of ing those years was 118; number discharged $324,053.68. This balance, together with de- as recovered, 50; improved, 9; unimproved, linquent taxes, made the resources of the State 6; escaped, 1; died, 5. The daily average in (exclusive of unsold lands) $1,089,863.95. The 1876 was 81 patients; the weekly cost per patotal liabilities were $528,524.36, classified as tient was $7.554. follows:

The State penitentiary has been completed Certificates of indebtedness issued to the per

in a substantial manner. The daily average of manent school-fund for general-fund warrants

convicts for two years ending November 30th paid by said fund.....

$842,957 34 Outstanding general-fund warrants...

was 63. The cost of maintenance for that pe

2,480 74 Interest on outstanding general-fund warrants.. 652 23 riod was $57,658, of which $50,000 was approOutstanding penitentiary-fund warrants... 74,756 08 priated by the Legislature, and the balance Interest on outstanding penitentiary-fund war

5,865 88 earned by the convicts. The average daily cost Outstanding State building-fund warrants. 31,059 32 of each prisoner was $1.20. The contract for Interest on outstanding State building-fund war

20,463 41

the labor of the prisoners has expired, and it is Outstanding temporary school-fund warrants.. *889 41 proposed to establish some branch of industry State bonds..

50,000 00 in the prison itself for the employment of the Total.......

$628,524 36 inmates. The younger class of criminals are

kept separate from the rest, and night-schools The new constitution provides for the fund- have been established for their benefit. ing of the certificates of indebtedness issued to The State has twenty-two organized and the school-fund.

well-armed companies of militia, favorably The sixty organized counties of the State are situated for the protection of the frontier divided into 2,510 school districts. The num- against incursions of the Indians. After the ber of children of school age is 86,191, of whom outbreak of hostilities with the Sioux, arms 59,966 attended the public schools during the were obtained from the Federal Government, year. There were 1,984 school-houses, valued the Governor executing a bond for their safe at $1,585,736.60, and 3,361 teachers, receiving return, and the companies were fully equipped. an average salary of $34.24 per month. The They have served a useful purpose in protecttotal receipts of the year from all sources, for ing the frontier and giving the people a sense school purposes, were $1,093,275.39, and the of security. expenditures $1,098,974.75. The bonded and The title of the State to the salt-springs floating school-debt was $1,063,058.60. The near the city of Lincoln has been confirmed State University, at Lincoln, is in a flourishing by the United States Supreme Court, against condition. The attendance increased from 132 the claim of a private party. in 1874 to 282 in 1876. The Normal School, The Democrats of the State held a conat Peru, is also on a satisfactory basis. The vention at Lincoln, on the 19th of April, for average attendance for the year was 142, while the purpose of choosing delegates to the Nathe whole number of different students was tional Convention of the party. They adopted 268

resolutions favoring reform in administration, The Legislature of 1875 made an appropria- and a return to specie payments “as soon as tion of $10,000 for the erection of an Institute it can be done without detriment to the comfor the Blind at Nebraska City, on condition mercial and industrial interests of the counthat the citizens of that place should raise try.” A State Central Committee was also $3,000 for the same purpose. The condition chosen. No instructions were given to the was complied with, and the necessary build- delegates, but a large majority of the conven ing constructed in 1875. The institution was tion was understood to be in favor of the opened on the 13th of January, and has accom- nomination of Mr. Tilden. modations for fifty pupils. The number in at The Republicans held a convention at Fretendance on the 30th of November was seven- mont on the 23d and 24th of May, organizateen. Prof. Samuel Bacon is the principal. tion not having been effected until the second

The Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, at day, owing to a number of contesting deleOmaha, has been in successful operation since gations. The local divisions were between 1869, and during the past two years there have those known as Hitchcock and anti-Hitchcock been fifty-three pupils connected with the men, or the supporters and opponents of Senschool. Appropriation was made in 1875 for ator Hitchcock as a party leader. Six delegates the construction of a new building for this in- to the Cincinnati Convention were chosen, stitution, which was nearly completed at the and instructed to vote_for James G. Blaine end of the year.

as the candidate for President. The new

Central Committee was strongly “anti-Hitch-resolutions was adopted. The preamble recock."

affirmed the faith of the party in the perpeThe Democratic Convention for the nomi- tuity of the Union and the sanctity of the Connation of candidates was held at Omaha, on stitution, and steadfast loyalty to its principles the 6th of September. The State ticket adopted under all circumstances. The platform and was as follows: For Governor, Paren England; nominations of the Cincinnati Convention were Lieutenant-Governor, Miles Zentmeyer; Sec- approved in the first two resolutions. Then retary of State, Joseph E. Ritcbie; Treasurer, followed these declarations : Samuel Waugh; Anditor, G. P. Thomas; At

3. We affirm that the Republican party stands torney-General, D. L. Ashby ; Superintendent pledged to the

principle of the equality of all citizens of Public Instruction, I. N. Jones; Commis- before the law, without regard to color, creed, or nasioner of Public Lands and Buildings, Henry ționality. The fact of citizenship clothes all' alike; Grebe. The candidate for Congress was Gen- its panoply is over all, and each and every one is en

titled to the fullest protection in accordance with eral Joseph Holman, of Dakota County. The the Constitution in every State of the Union. following was the platform adopted :

4. We commend the legislation of Congress, the

orders of President Grant, and the action of the AtResoloed, by the Democracy of the State of Ne- torney-General in his letter of instructions to the braska, in convention assembled :

United States marshals to enforce the laws, and pro1. That we heartily indorse the statement of prin- tect the citizens in the performance of their political ciples of the Democratic party as enunciated by the rights, and sacredly shield the elective franchise in St. Louis Convention ; and that we look upon the States' where obstructed. election of Tilden and 'Hendricks as the only means

5. We unhesitatingly indorse the financial policy of saving to this country the government our fathers of the Government in its successful efforts to regave us. 2. That, in view of the history of the Republican honor," and the late fiscal arrangements, by means

store the public credit and maintain the national party, we have no faith in their pledges of reform; of which $300,000,000 of bonds have been placed at that they have so often deceived the people and ob- four and a half per cent. interest, and an equivalent tained their support on the strength of such pledges, amount of six per cent. bonds retired, thus effecting that it is the height of folly to trust them longer; a saving of $4,500,000 interest money annually, meets and that the people place no confidence in a party the unqualified approbation of the Republican party. whose entire history is replete with broken pledges, violated personal rights, criminal extravagance, and standing currency in coin or its equivalent, so as to

6. We approve the policy of redeeming the outunpunished corruption. 3. That we arraign the Republican party, and par- holder, either into gold, silver, or government bonds,

make it convertible at any time at the option of the ticularly a Republican Senate, as being false to the

at an equal interchangeable value, and we look with interests of the people, and to their repeated pledges confidence to a returned prosperity and to such a reof economy in refusing to consent to a reduction of vival of commerce, trade, and manufactures, as will the expenditures of the Government, made by a make such redemption speedily practicable. Democratic House of Representatives. 4. That we denounce the policy of the Republican revenues must be provided in addition to the ordi

7. Owing to the requirements of the public debt, party in furnishing the Indians with arms and am- nary expenditures of the Government, sufficient to munition with which to take the lives of tax-pay- discharge the aceruing interest; which revenues ing white men, and in protecting the Indians while must in the nature of things be derived principally they leave our frontier unprotected. 5. That we denounce interference on the part of the tariff lawe, equitable protection should be given

from duties on importe ; and, in the adjustment of the General Government with a free exercise of the to domestic manufactures, and thus foster labor, elective franchise by keeping a standing army over promote enterprise, and advance the public welthe ballot-box in several States of the Union as an fare. unwarranted exercise of the Executive power, in a time of profound peace, for the sole object of sub- beneficent policy of the Government in granting

8. We approve and commend the generous and serving party purposes. 6. That the pretended claim of the Republican the nation might live, and to their widows and or

pensions to loyal men who periled their lives that party that they are the friends of the soldier is a phans. A grateful people will cheerfully pay taxes gross and deceptive fraud in that after a Democratic for this holy purpose. House had passed a bill for the purpose of equaliz

9. We desire to express our abhorrence of and ing the bounties of the soldiers, a Republican Sen- place our seal of condemnation on that element in ate defeated the same.

the Democratic party which justified the slaughter at 7. That we demand the utmost economy in the Hamburg, S. c. ; which looks with complacency expenditures of our State government, and that the on the butcheries at Coushatta, La.; which approves public money shall not be used by its custodians in of the shot-gun policy in Mississippi ; which indorses speculation, or to advance party ends, and that such the displacement of Union soldiers, and establishes use be punished with severe penalties.

the Confederate guerrillas in their vacant positions ; The Republican nominating convention was and navy, while a savage warfare is in progress on held at Lincoln, on the 28th and 29th of Sep- our borders; which has sent to the congressional tember. The ticket was made up as follows: halls the most violent and bitter foes of the restored For Governor, Silas Garber; Lieutenant-Gov- republic; which has in solemn convention declared ernor, N. 0. Abbott; Secretary of State, Brnno the amendments to the Constitution null and

void, Tzschuck; Treasurer, J.C. McBride; Auditor, defiance and hostility to the peace, integrity, and J. B. Weston; Attorney-General, George H. autonomy of the nation. Roberts; Superintendent of Public Instruc We, the Republican party of Nebraska, charge tion, S. R. Thompson; Commissioner of Pub- the above on a portion of the adherents of the lic Lands and Buildings, F. M. Davis; member Democratic party, and we reject with disdain the of Congress, Frank Welch. Presidential elec- that party at St. Louis. To the maintenance of all tors were also nominated. A long series of herein set forth, we pledge ourselves as becomes all

VOL. XVI.-37 A

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