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Gold-mining continued to be carried on successfully in the various colonies. New mines were discovered early in the year at the head of the Palmer River, in the colony of Queensland, and large numbers flocked thither. The crops were generally poor. In New South Wales a heavy drought was reported, while in Victoria the crops were seriously damaged by successive heavy rainfalls. The plan to unite all the Australian colonies into one confederacy continued to be strongly urged during the year. A considerable inpulse was given to it by the Intercolonial Exhibition held at Melbourne in the early part of the year. The laying of the submarine cable between Sydney and New Zealand was successfully completed in the beginning of the year, and it was opened in February. The exploration of the interior of the Australian Continent continued to be carried on with unabated energy. News was received in August from Mr. Wilshire, in the Northern Territory, announcing the discovery of good land on the Victoria and Daly Rivers, with grassy plains and soil fit for all tropical productions. The last surviving native of Tasmania died during the year. It was the Queen, Lidgiwidgi Tancaninni, called Lalla Rookh by the white population. Tasmania, or the island of Van Diemen, which became in 1803 an English colony, had in 1815 a native population of 5,000; in 1847 there were only 45 left, and now the last of the race is dead. Lalla Rookh had been married five times, and each time to a king. She lived at Hobart Town, in the house of the Government inspector, and received a small pension from the British Government. She was seventy-three years old, and died of paralysis. A sanguinary affair took place among the natives of Feejee in the early part of the year. A number of tribes not yet converted to Christianity made an attack upon the colony. They were aided by a number of natives who, once converted, had reverted to their heathen state in consequence of the measles, which had raged so terribly in the colony in 1875. They destroyed entire villages, and celebrated their victory by eating eighteen women and children. In consequence of these atrocities the Governor, Sir Arthur Gordon, marched against them, and succeeded in completely defeating them. Thirty-five of the leaders were tried and sentenced to death, but only fourteen were executed. During the middle of the year the vessel Dancing Wave was captured by the natives of the Solomon Islands, who devoured the entire crew. Only one escaped and reported the affair. The man-of-war Sanafly was sent out to punish the murderers. Mr. R. Abbay, in an article on the periodicity of fresh-water lakes of Australia, in No. 342 of Nature, makes the following interesting statements: Lake George, in New South Wales,
date of the present inundation. The chief reason for the present growth of the lake, Abbay thinks, may be found in the destruction of the forests in the cavity, the southern end of which is at present occupied by the lake. The consequence of the disappearance of the forests was a more rapid drainage of the entire basin, the water could flow off quickly and accumulate in the deepest part of the basin, while the loss by evaporizing was greatly diminished, as the water now reaches the lake in a few hours, even from the most distant part of the basin. Lake Bathurst, a few miles distant, also shows a considerable increase in its volume of water. During the month of March meetings were held in Sydney to discuss a new journey of exploration of D'Albertis in New Guinea. D'Albertis proposed to travel up the Fly River to the centre of the island, where he expected to find its source, and then to return overland to Yule Island or Port Morley. He expected to perform the journey in from six to eight months. This plan was very favorably received by the colonial authorities. The Government placed the steamer Neva at the disposition of D'Albertis, and a subscription was opened to secure the necessary expenses. The annual report of the sub-Protector of Aborigines in South Australia for 1875 contains some interesting statements showing how rapidly the native Australians are disappearing even in that colony, where more is done for their protection than in any other. As an example may be cited the Narringerie tribe, which in 1842 numbered 3,200 persons, against 511 in 1875. This diminution cannot be ac
- BANDED BANDICOOT.
counted for by wars with other tribes, or with the whites, for the Narringerie have been affected more by civilization than any other tribe, and live at peace with the whites. It seems that the natives die out all the quicker the more they assume the mode of living of the European settlers. It has been determined that the largest ratio of deaths and the smallest of births are to be found among those blacks who have definitely settled. In the entire native population of South Australia, as far as .." be determined, 140 deaths and 52 births were counted in 1875, making an excess of deaths of 88. The measles and the small-pox, which they have received from the whites, constitute a great danger to them. But their greatest scourge is consumption, to which more than one-half of their deaths must be attributed. On the other hand, fevers are entirely unknown to them; although, in contact with the whites, they are often exposed to scarlet fever, no such case has ever been reported among them. Over the whole territory of the colony numerous depots have been established, which furnish the sick natives medicine and other assistance. The medicine, however, helps them but little, for they either refuse to take it, or after its use they do not observe the necessary care. AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY, an empire in Central Europe. Emperor, Francis Joseph I., born August 18, 1830; succeeded his uncle, the Emperor Ferdinand I., on December 2, 1848. Heir-apparent to the throne, Archduke Rudolphus, born August 21, 1858. The ministry for the common affairs of the empire consisted, toward the close of the year 1876, of Count Andrassy, Minister of Foreign
Affairs and of the Imperial House (appointed 1871); Baron Leopold Friedrich von Hofmann, Minister of the Finances of the Empire (appointed 1876); and Count Arthur BylandtRheidt, Minister of War (appointed 1876). The ministry of cis-Leithan Austria was in 1876 composed of Prince Adolf von Auersperg, President (appointed November, 1871); J. Lasser Baron von Bollheims, Interior (November, 1871); C. von Stremayr, Public Works and Instruction (November, 1871); Glaser, Justice (November, 1871); J. Ritter von Chlumeccky, Commerce and Political Economy (appointed in November, 1871, Minister of Agriculture; transferred to the Ministry of Commerce in May, 1875); Baron von Pretis-Cagnois, Finances (January, 1872); Colonel Horst, Defense of the Country (appointed pro tem. November, 1871, definitely March, 1871); Count Mannsfeld, Agriculture (May, 1875); J. Unger (November, 1871) and Florian Ziemialkowski (April, 1873), ministers without portfolio. Area of the monarchy, 240,348 square miles; population, according to the census of 1860, 35,901,435. The area of cis-Leithan Austria (the land represented in the Reichsrath) is 115,908 square miles; population, at the end of 1874, officially estimated at 21,169,341. The estimate is based upon the census of December 31, 1869, by adding the average percentage of increase. It was distributed among the different crown-lands as follows:
Countries. Inhabitants in 1872. Austria below the Enns................. 2,087,930 Austria above the Enns -- 741.918
. 158,386 . 1,164.512 838.045
The civil population of Vienna, according to the enumeration of April 17, 1875, was 1,001,999 persons.
Dr. A. Ficker estimates the distribution of the different nationalities for 1876 as follows:
Nationalities. Austria. Hungary. Total.
Germans................. 7,800,000 | 1,800,000 || 9,600,000 Czechs, Moravians, and Slo
vaks..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,000,000 || 2,000,000 || 7,000,000 Ruthenians............... 2.600,000 600,000 8,200,000 Poles.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,500,000 | ....... 2,500,000 Croats and Servians.......] 580,000 || 2,570,000 || 8,150,000 Slovens.... . 1,190,000 60,000 | 1.250,000 Magyars... 20,000 5,680,000 5,700,000 Roumanian 200,000 2,800,000 || 3,000,000 Italians.... 630,000 3. 633,000 Jews .......... 860,000 580,000 | 1.440,000 Gypsies.... 1,000 159,000 160,000 Bulgarians -- - - - 80,000 30,000 Armenians 4,000 5,000 9,000 Albanians 1,500 2,100 8,600 Greeks................... 2,300 1,000 3.300 Others.................... | 1:... o| o
CLASSES OF SCHOOLS. *:::::: Teachers. Pupils. Universities.................... 6 689 8,664 Technical institutions........... 7 287 8,570 Agricultural and mining highschools...................... - 4 61 248 Commercial academies.. -- 4 78 1,845 Art high-schools...... -- 1 22 216 Theological schools.............. 45 240 1,849 Superior schools............ GTT137 || 15392 Gymnasia, sub-gymnasia, realgymnasia, real-schools, and subreal-schools................... 229 8,829 55,689 Training-schools for J male..... 42 544 4,953 teachers........... female... 28 832 2,848 Secondary schools........... 299 4,705 63,490 Schools of midwifery............ 14 14 781 Nautical schools................ 4 80 74 Commercial schools............. 47 838 6,426 Itdustrial schools............... 186 688 16,495 Schools of art and music......... 171 469 8,457 Schools of agriculture and forestry 69 895 1,701 Mining schools.................. 6 12 140 Philological schools.............. 68 83 1,578 Schools for gymnastics.......... 20 86 2,516 Female work-schools............ 169 279 6,550 Other special schools............ 385 1,755 20,950 Special schools......... ..... 1,089 4,099 65,668 Burgher and ple's schools (Bürger-und Woul. |.... 15,166 31,196 (2,134,688
sic, art, fashion, sport, | Dailies.................. 85 etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 || Four times a week 2 Journals of fiction and Tri-weeklies....... 20 humor................ 59 Semi-weeklies. 55 Non-political local papers. 62 Weeklies...... 267 Commercial and other ad- Tri-monthlies. 31 vertising papers....... 83 Semi-monthlies.. 188 — | Monthlies............... 147 Total............... $10 || Four to ten times per an
BRAUNAU, Bohem LA.
According to the common budget of the whole empire for the year 1877, the amount required for the ordinary branches of administration was 117,091,389 florins. The receipts for the same branches were estimated at 5,779,730 florins, the receipts from customs at 11,000,000 florins, leaving 100,311,659 florins to be distributed among Austria and Hungary. Of this amount, 2,006,233 florins were to come from the Treasury of Hungary, as a part of the Military Frontier had been placed under civil government during the year; and of the balance Austria contributed seventy per cent. and Hungary thirty per cent. The common debt of the empire on January 1, 1876, amounted to 411,999,941 florins. The budget of Austria proper, for 1876, was as follows (in florins):
| Cost of Collec
receipts. Total Receipts. tion Expenditures. Ordinary. Extraordinary. 1. Ministry of Finance.......... 816,829,657 52,862,250 1. Civil list.................... 4,650,000 ............ 2. Ministry of Commerce.. -- 18,565,000 19,208,000 2. Imperial Cabinet Chancery.. 74,745 |............ 8. Ministry of Agriculture....... 10,942,070 8,269,100 3. Reichsrath............... - - 679,200 1,000,000 -- --- 4. Imperial Court............. 22,000 |............ Total for 1, 2, 3........... 846,836,727 80,339,850 5. Council of Ministers........ 702,360 25,000 Ordinary. Extraordinary. 6. Ministry of the Interior..... 16,250,000 2,730,800 ------------------------- 844.984,906 1,351,821 7. Ministry of Public Defense.. 7,775,800 jo, 4. Council of Ministers...... . . . 431,200 |... 8. Ministry of Education...... 18,899,900 3,950,008 5. Ministry of the Interior... 1,108,800 9. Ministry of Finances....... 69,242,150 1,558,100 6. Ministry of Public Defense.. 84.1 10. Ministry of Commerce...... 20.895,000 8,354,800 7. Ministry of Education.... 5,009,293 11. Ministry of Agriculture..... 10,298,950 1.26S 520 8. Ministry of Justice... - 887,400 12. Ministry of Justice......... 19,669,900 1,738,185 9. llaneous......... ------- 155,600 18,235,756 | 18. Board of Control........... 157,500 1,000 —l—l 14. Pensions................... 13,108,000 ............ Total...................... 352,201,322 21,351,020 . Dotations.. 582,000 26,190,918 --- 101,056,051 1,352,951 Total receipts.... 373,552,342 Net receipts....... - 293,212,992 debt..................... 759,800 18. Cis-Leithan portion of the common expenditure...... 81,518,897 Total............... ------- 861,831,258 Total expenditure........ 404,156,480
68 vessels.......... ---- 117,070 18,101 404
The number of telegraph-stations was 2,212. The number of dispatches sent and received was 4,547,830.
The new armament of the Austrian artillery with the Uchatius gun was completed during the year. The Uchatius gun like the Krupp, is a breech-loader, and has given, in comparison with the Prussian weapon, the most satisfactory results. The alloy of which it is made is a simple mixture of copper and tin, but the peculiar plan adopted for suddenly cooling the mass after casting is maintained a close secret. Analysis of the metal gives no clew to the nature of this operation, the result of which is to secure an even and crystalline alloy free from “honey-comb” and “tin-pitting,” which are the usual defects met with in bronze-work. After casting the cannon, and suddenly cooling it, General von Uchatius dilates the bore by introducing a steel wedge, which increases the calibre considerably, and places the weapon in a state of tension that is said to add much to its capacity to withstand the effects of continued firing. The expense of the bronze weapon is far less than that of the steel cannon of Krupp, for while a field-piece of the latter construction costs no less than £114, if fashioned of crucible steel, the value of the Uchatius gun is not more than £35. As it is, the new weapons are to cost the Austrian Gov
ernment upward of £1,500,000, so that, had the Austro-Hungarian army been fitted out with Krupp guns instead, more than three times as much money would have been required. The two Houses of the Reichsrath resumed their labors in January. The Herrenhaus on January 14th took up the discussion of the monastic association bill, which had been brought in by the Government in 1874.” Cardinal Schwarzenberg and all the bishops and abbots had taken their seats on this occasion. It was bitterly attacked by the cardinal and other Catholic speakers. The former stated that whoever attacked the convents attacked Christianity. The convents were the bulwarks of the Church, and were the first points to be attacked by those who opposed the Catholic Church. Minister Stremayr, speaking for the Government, stated that no hostile act against these corporations was intended by the law. It could never be the object of the state to meddle with the inner relations of the Church. On the 17th the entire law was finally passed to a second and third reading. On the other hand, the law regulating the legal status of the Old Catholics was rejected.t. The monastic association law was passed in the Chamber of Deputies in February, after considerable debate. In November, Minister Stremayr informed the confessional committee of the House of Deputies that the Emperor had refused to sign the law as framed by the two Houses of the Reichsrath, but that he had authorized the ministry to bring in a new law. On February 9th the Chamber of Deputies adopted the new marriage law, according to the majority report of the committee. The discussion turned chiefly on the question in what manner the impediment to marriage was to be removed in the case of clerics. The majority report as adopted by the House made a distinction between those who had received the higher and the lower orders, and proposed that, in the case of the former, the impediment to marriage should only be removed by a change of religion, while the latter would merely be required to leave the clergy. The minority was opposed to this distinction, and proposed that the vow of celibacy should no longer be valid after the cleric had renounced his profession, no matter whether he had received higher or lower orders, and without leaving the religious community which regarded the vow of celibacy as an impediment to marriage. A third proposition, by Freiherr von Händel, which was sanctioned by the Minister of Justice, also wished to see no distinction made between the higher and the lower clergy, but demanded that a change of religion should in all cases precede the legalization of marriage. The other propositions of the committee regarding mixed marriages, and the remarriage of persons who had left the Catholic Church, were adopted without change. The Reichsrath adjourned on March
* See ANNUAL Cyclopædia for 1874, p. 56. + See ANNUAL CyclopæDIA for 1875, p. 59.