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PLURIBUS DIUM

In the election of October, 1867, Diaz was The equalization of assessments of property an unsuccessful candidate against Juarez for which takes place every five years, was made the presidency of the republic; and in the by the State Board of Equalization this year revolutions which successively marked the five with the following result: years immediately following, he and his partisans were the chief actors. It was during that

Assessed

Equalized

COUNTIES. interval that Diaz paid a short visit to the

Valuation.

Valuation. United States. He again came forward as candidate against Juarez in 1871, but with no Alcona...

$2,644,545 03 $1,950,000 00 Allegan.

8,559,802 00 better fortune than before. After the death

18,000,000 00 Alpena..

1,986,000 00 1,500,000 00 of the Indian President, Diaz offered no oppo Antrim.

908,888 41 900,000 00 sition to the candidacy of Lerdo; nor did any

Baraga.

675,466 00 800,000 00 Barry

4,680,823 00 10,000,000 00 warlike movement on his part intervene be Bay...

8,186,768 05 7,000,000 00 tween that time and the publication, in 1876,

Benzie.

578,823 00 550,000 00 Berrien.

6,276,186 00 16,025,000 0 of the plan of Tuxtepec, and the beginning of Branch.

4,635,755 00 17,500,000 00 the revolution which ended in the flight of Calhoun..

7.990

24,000,000 60 Lerdo and Iglesias from the republic, and as

Cass.

4,552,836 00 15,000,000 00 Charlevoix

438.329 00 450,000 00 sumption of the supreme power by General Cheboygan

1,347,275 00 1,200,000 00 Porfirio Diaz.

Chippewa..

810,940 00 600,000 00

Clare. MICHIGAN. The following is a summary Clinton

1,842,337 61 1,000,00 09

4,404,359 00 9,500,000 00 exhibit of the financial transactions of the Crawford

Attached to Kalkaska. Delta..

990,337 89 800,000 00 Eaton

6,640,076 00 11,150,000 00 Emmet..

871,172 57 300,000 00 Genesee.

6,855,549 00 16,850,000 00 Gladwin.

849,879 00 800,000 00 Grand Traverse.

1,617,714 00 1,500,000 00 Gratiot..

2,818,188 00 2,500,000 00 Hillsdale.

6,849,062 00 20,025,000 00 Houghton.

1,392,328 00 1,100,000 00 Huron...

1,568,670 00 2,500,000 00 Ingham

6,747,143 00 18,000,000 00 Ionia.

4,204, 142 00 14,000,000 00 losco

1,114,812 00 1,000,000 TUI BOR

Isabella.

1,724,504 00 1,600,000 00 Isle Royal

Part of Keweenaw,

100,000 Jackson.

9,460,490 00 26,250,000 00 Kalamazoo.

8738,645 00 23,000,000 00 Kalkaska.

2,658,051 00 1,500,000 000 Kent..

19,407,162 00 31,000,000 00 Keweenaw.

967,897 45 800,000 00 Lake.

1,416,701 80 1,000,000 00 Lapeer.

8,699,457 00 6,250,000 00 Leelanaw.

575,884 00

600,000 00 Lenawee..

11,419,747 00 97,000,000 00 Livingston

7.098,841 00 14,000,000 00 Mackinac..

838,642 00 800,000 00 Macomb.

6,860,165 00 14,050,000 00 STATE SEAL OF MICHIGAN.

Manistee.

1,458,492 19 2,000,000 00 Manitou.

103.501 00

100,000 00 State Treasury during the fiscal twelve months Mason...

Marquette..

8,061,123 50 4,000,000 00

1,181,608 90 2,000,000 00 closing on September 30, 1876:

Mecosta.

2,629,187 00 2.500,000 000 Menominee.

1,869,819 88 1,500,000 0 Gross receipts into State Treasury.

$1,744,406 29
Midland.

899,692 00 1,500,000 00 Balance in Treasury October 1, 1875.

1,229,106 50 Missaukee.

1,262,220 35 1,025,000 00 Monroe.

4,819,285 00 Total for period.

9,500,000 6 $2,973,512 79 Montcalm.

4,294,979 00 Gross expenditures during same time..

4,500,000 W 1,909,507 49 Montmorency..

Attached to Alpena.

Muskegon.. Balance September 30, 1876....

8,412,245 00 4,000,000 00 $1,064,005 30 Newaygo..

2,415,062 00 2,200,000 00 Decrease of balance during year.

$165,101 20
Oakland.

9,635,778 00 26,250,000 00

Oceana.. As stated above, the gross Treasury receipts

1,680,201 00 2,500,000 00 Ogemaw. $1,744,406 29

789,962 51 800,000 00 This covers the price of State swamp-land ex

Ontonagon.

942,977 00 700,000 00

Osceola.. pended in the construction of swamp-land

1,815,486 00 2,000,000 00

Oscoda.. State roads, being not cash...

Attached to Alcona. 84,445 67 Otsego.

651,759 00 650,000 00

Ottawa. Leaving for net cash receipts during the pe

5,808,828 00 7,500,000 m riod.

Presque Isle. $1,709,960 62

925,998 65 750,000 00

Roscommon. of cash there was received as not

782,259 00 750,000 00

Saginaw.. revenue... $531,560 63

8,095,072 00 16,000,000 00

Sanilac.. And from refunding and reim

3,109,686 00 8,050,000 00

Schoolcraft. bursements.. 80,585 30 562,145 93

832,649 10 800,000 00 Shiawassee

2,682,764 00 9,250,000 00 Leaving for net cash receipts from legitimate

St. Clair.

4,601.025 00 8250,000 00 sources of revenue.

St. Joseph.. $1,147,814 69

6,802,436 00 18,025,000 00 Tuscola.

2,160,790 00 4,000,000 M The net cash revenue receipts were:

Van Buren.

9,094.458 00 11,000,000 00 From direct taxes..

$475,588 85
Washtenaw

10.827.545 00 30.000.000 00 From specific taxes..

527.565 59
Wayne,

108,563,242 00 From trust-funds.

97,250,000 00 72,775 15 $1,075,924 59 Wexford. Miscellaneous...

1,295,545 89 1,000,000 00

71,890 10 Total ordinary revenue receipts..

$374,841,031 28 $630,000,000 00 $1,147,814 69

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were..

Totals ...

State Public School..

Acres.

The following is the valuation of the several School in fact: “The bars and iron doors have State institutions :

disappeared, the high fence that walled it in is University....

$488,500 kindling-wood. And the results are, no corAgricultural College..

252,800 Normal School

poral punishment, no escapes since its open62,700

138,380 ing, less destruction of State property, a genInstitution for Deaf, Dumb, and Blind.

438.000 eral tone of comfort and cheerfulness in all its Michigan Insane Asylum..

1,405,280 Eastern Insane Asylum...

220,000

surroundings, and a brighter, better look on Reform School...

245,340 the faces of the boys. The general outfit of House of Correction at Ionia..

110,000 the school is greatly improved. The table and State-prison.....

furnishing, the clothing, etc., are better than Total.......

$3,910,500 heretofore, and all tend toward lifting this The State bonded debt was reduced during the higher plane of a school.” Average num

institution out of the prison-mire, and on to the year $53,000, and during the

four preced- ber in the school, 230; average age when reing years $851,142.81. Of this amount $389,142.81 were matured bonds, and $462,000 ceived, thirteen and a half years. The Board bonds not matured, which were taken up in of Control recommend that boys over eight on

may be received from their parents without The

cash remaining in the Treasury applicable commitment, and that the limit of confinement to the payment of the bonded debt was $486,- be fixed at eighteen instead of twenty-one, as 168.82. Deducting this from the existing at present. Governor Bagley says: bonded debt leaves $906,980.99. The trust In the provision made by the State regarding fund debt of the State is as follows:

vagrant, neglected, and dependent children, through Primary-school fund....

the State Public School, and for criminal children

$2,259,282 01 through the Reform School, it has followed the old Five per cent. primary-school fund..

299,676 59 University fund..

idea of institutional life; but by far the wisest, most

844,855 78 Agricultural College fund..

116,827 68 economical, natural, and humane of all its endeavors Normal School fund..

68,801 82 in this direction is the work being done by the Railroad and other deposits..

8,403 33 county agents of the State Board of Charities, under

the law of 1873 and 1875. The duties of the county Total .........

$3,079,846 71 agents are, to investigate the case of every child ar

rested for crime, and to advise with the magistrates The lands now belonging to the State are:

as to the disposition to be made of it, to visit chil

dren adopted or indentured from the Public or RePrimary-school lands..

869.919.18 form School, to procure homes for children, and Primary-school indemnity..

49,178.29

generally to keep watch and ward over these waif's Primary school forfeited..

25,699.11 Agricultural College...

162,400.84

who seem to be deserted by every one but the State. Agricultural College forfeited.

2,898.40

They have attended to 252 cases of arrests for crimeSalt-spring land..

1,816.63 224 boys and 28 girls--that were disposed of as folSalt-spring forfeited

280 00 lows: 182 were discharged under suspended senAsylum..

tence and returned to parents or guardians, 57 were Asylum forfeited.

1,080.00

sent to the Reform School, 11 were sent to the House University..... University forfeited.

of Correction, and two were fined. The average age

98.25 Normal School forfeited.

of children arrested was twelve and three-fourths Internal improvement..

years ; 86 are reported as having lost fathers, and 67 Asset (received in settlement of claims).

8,850.90 as having no mother. Of the 182 discharged, 12 Swamp-land....

2,405,017.98 were sent to the State Public School, six to poorSwamp indemnity.

46, 718.12 houses, and homes were found for six.' The children Swamp forfeited..

8,868.00 for whom homes were found from the State Public Total acres.

8,078,289.91

School--117 in number-have all been visited and

their situation reported upon to the school. The In the Insane Asylum, at Kalamazoo, there total expense of this work up to September 30, 1876, were, on September 30th, 618 inmates, an in was $474.45. In addition to these formal duties recrease within two years of 137. Weekly cost quired by law, they have been of incalculable ser

vice in preventing crime, preserving peace in famiof support per patient, $4.87. Number of in- lies, restraining cruelty, and in many other ways, sane in the State according to reports of Su- if the work of these agents was to be estimated perintendent of the Poor, 1,193. A new asy- by simply dollars and cents, the amount of money lum at Pontiac is in course of construction, and saved the State by keeping boys out of institutior's will be nearly or quite ready for reception of would be found to be very large. patients within a year.

The following are the statistics for the year The State Public School, at Coldwater, con- relating to primary schools: structed to furnish homes and education for Number of towns and cities....

1,004 children who are objects of bounty, has re “ districts....

5,834

$48 50 ceived since it was opened 412 children, of Average wages per month, males.

$28 78 whom 255 still remain. The most of these Number of children between ages of five and were taken from the poor-houses of the State.

twenty years.

459.847 Increase for the year

10,666 Places are found for these in private families Whole number of children that attended school as rapidly as opportunities offer.

during the year...

844,956 The State Reform School for Juvenile Of- Average number of months schools were

7.8 fenders, at Lansing, is reported as in a very Number of volumes added to district libraries satisfactory condition. Governor Bagley, in Paid Tor books for district libraries..

16,418

$16,269 74 his retiring message, reports it as a Reform Number of volumes in district libraries.. 141,478

680.00

200.00

160.00
880.81

females..

140

8,003

Number of school-houses....

5,661 The cost of maintaining jails for the year is Number of pupils who can be seated.

426,611 Value of school-houses and lots..

$9,257,094 estimated at $102,767.60. The condition of Number of graded schools..

"299 jails is said to be wretched beyond description, " qualified teachers employed, males.

3,983 though not exceptional as compared with those

females. Total wages of teachers for the year, males.... $787,775 53 of other States. A large majority of the pris

females. 1,238,949 36 Number of volumes added to town libraries

oners are innocent in point of law, nothing, as during the year...

5,115 yet, having been proved against then; they Whole number of volumes in town libraries... 55,875 are accused only; they are forced into the soNumber of new districts organized... Number of private or select schools in the

ciety of hardened criminals. The promiscuous State....

170 association of all classes of accused prisoners, Number attending private or select schools, as

with no possible employment or occupation, is near as may be known. Money on hand September 6, 1870, belonging

declared to be demoralizing in a high degree, to the several districts..

$598,505 71 and the question is asked: " If the State, while Two-mill tax..

512,889 82 Received from primary-school fund..

220,896 27

it has a right to punish, has no right to conFrom tuition of non-resident scholars

35,466 96 taminate, may not the prisoner claim proteeDistrict taxes for all purposes...

2,261,119 65 tion from such contamination, and especially Raised from all other sources.. Total resources for the year.

4,067,801 68 if he be innocent, as nearly all in jails are in Paid male teachers..........

786,886 15 point of law, may he not claim of the State Paid female teachers. Paid for building and repairs.

451,426 49 protection from the criminal contagion to Paid on bonded indebtedness.

369,780 20 which the jail system exposes him? If he is Paid for all other purposes.

620,949 84 but accused of wrong, shall he be placed in Amount on hand September 4, 1876..

609,296 17 Total expenditures for the year, including

circumstances where nothing tends to repress amount on hand...

4,067,801 68 crime, but all instrumentalities are active to Bonded debts of the districts September 4, 1876....

1,559,534 43

generate it? Accused persons are, in fact, Total indebtedness of districts September 4,

held by the State as but hostages for justice. 1576...

1,672,710 92 The State has no right to impair the security, The number of pupils in the Asylum for him to such damage that, after having failed

no right to take an innocent man and expose the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind, is: Mutes, 178; blind, 42: total, 220. Cost per head of 'mainto make out a case against him, it returns him taining them, $177.33. Very few are reported to society a worse man actually than he would in the State as needing such an institution who have appeared if simply guilty of the accusuhave not been gathered in here.

tion against him." The State-prison is reported as greatly over- State for all purposes is estimated by Governor

The gross amount of taxation levied in the crowded. Number confined at end of the year, Bagley at $15,000,000. The indebtedness of 835; increase within the year, 47. Of those received within the year 77 per cent. were in the incorporated cities is $6,584,590.48. No temperate. The State-prison is more than self- report is made of other municipal indebtedsupporting, the net earnings for the last two ness. The following reference is made in the years being about $20,000.

inessage of the retiring Governor to the liquorThe report of the Board of Commissioners

traffic of the State: on Charitable, Penal, Pauper, and Reformatory The law of 1875 providing for the regulation and Institutions. estimated the number of persons taxation of the liquor-traffic has been in operation receiving aid or wholly supported by the State nearly two years. It was the purpose of the friends and counties to be as follows:

of this act not only to regulate but to restrain the

traffic in strong drink that had grown to be, under In county poor-houses....

other laws, the greatest evil of the day. For the Temporarily relieved outside.

35,240 purpose of ascertaining what has been accomplished State Public School..

under it, I addressed the treasurer of each county, Asylum for Insane.

1,016 asking for full details of the operation of the law in Institutions for Mutes and Blind..

250 their respective counties. A tabulated statement of Harper Hospital, Detroit..

51 the replies, together with a report made by the AuDetroit House of Correction. State-prison, Jackson..

2,836 ditor-General for 1875, by the same officers, is pubReform School....

1,094 lished herewith. The information is somewhat in. County jails..

7,256 complete, but is probably as near correct as could be

expected. Total......

54,210

In 1875 the number assessed, as reported to me,

was 4,974. Of these, 4,215 paid the tax, amounting In estimating the cost of supporting these to $461,462.92. It is altogether probable that those persons, it is assumed that the State-prison who have not paid have retired from the business

. and House of Correction are self-supporting. In 1876 the number assessed was 4,558. Of these, Expenses of other support:

3,385 are reported as having paid the tax, amounting

to $384,387. The collectors of internal revenue reFor paupers in poor-houses, exclusive of value of

port the number of persons assessed in 1876 by the labor

.. $287,197 20 General Government as dealers in liquors as 5,838, For temporary relief..

255,579 23 but this includes druggists, who, as a rule, are not For transportation......... For the insane..

12,646 61 assessed under the State law; 'while in 1874 the For deaf, dumb, and blind.

122.600 64 number assessed was 6,444, showing a decrease of For boys in the Reform School.

26.235 88 1,106 in two years. It is evident, therefore, that the For children in State Public School.

28,408 49 act of 1875 has decreased the number of places where

liquor is sold very largely. As many of the persons Total....

$725,168 00 assessed have retired from the business, and others

5.882

255

5,917 419,662 12,900

have been assessed for periods less than a year, I es- session of the Legislature, there is little to retimate from the reports that there are about 4,000 port beyond the usual statistics of the primary

The official reports of the police officers of the schools. The State University had its usual cities of Detroit, Grand Rapids, East Saginaw, and prosperity, modified somewhat by the very Jackson, report 3,974 arrests for drunkenness in determined opposition of a portion of the 1874, 3,232 in 1876, and 2,228 for 1876. This de- "regular" medical profession, growing out of crease of drunkeuness, and of places where human- the establishment of an homeopathic school. ity is made barter of and dollars traded for degrada- This

diminished the attendance of medical tion, must be gratifying to every citizen.

The reports show very generally that behind this students somewhat, but not so greatly as was law there stands a public sentiment that says, En- anticipated. The two medical schools had no force it. There are counties, however, as shown by connection whatever, except that students in the reports of 1876, in which it has not been proper- the new school were admitted to some of the ton, Ingham, Jackson, Kent, Lapeer, Marquette, st. lectures in the old. The Agricultural College Clair, Saginaw, and Wayne Counties. Some of the had a year of prosperity, with the exception officers whose business it is to enforce the law have of the accidental destruction of one of the dorlost sight of the restrictive and restraining, idea mitories by fire. Number of students, 166; underlying it, and, rather than close up the business; number graduated, 17. The college held in account. I find this system in vogue quite exten- January a series of six institutes in different sively. There is no time fixed in the law for the parts of the State, which were largely attended collection by the sheriff, or for return of warrant by by farmers, and at which papers were dishim. I suggest, therefore, that the law be amended, cussed. About one-half of these were predays in which he may receive the tax, giving to the sented by farmers. The State Normal School sheriff not exceeding thirty days in which to collect, was attended by 722 students, an increase of and five days additional in which to make his return. 236 in two years. Its condition under the When his return is made, he should be required to management of Principal Estabrook is in every furnish a copy of it to the prosecuting attorney of respect prosperous. The statistics of primary proceedings at once in all cases where the tax has schools, so far as yet received, are the follownot been paid.

ing: The general business of the State was great- Number of tenildren between ages of five and twenty. 467,789

848,947 ly depressed during the whole year. In the of school-houses.... lumber-regions it was especially dull, though

of sittings in school-houses.

of teachers employed.... mills were kept in operation to an extent that Value of school-buildings and grounds. $9,882,270 00 decreased steadily the stock of lumber remain- Total school expenditure for the year. 4,128,707 00

1,674,176 00 ing on hand at the places of manufacture and Annual income from primary-school fund held at points of storage. The iron and copper by State.....

214,860 83 interests were characterized by no activity. A convention of the Republican party of Report of production for taxation--copper, Michigan, to appoint delegates to the Republi15,164 tons; iron, 739,645 tons. In the manufacture of salt it was different. The report of held at Grand Rapids on May 10th. The fol

can National Convention at Cincinnati, was inspection for the year shows the following lowing delegates at large were chosen : Henry result:

P. Baldwin, William A. Howard, Silas S. Tyler, Fine salt, barrels.

1,402,410 and Jonathan J. Woodman. Packers salt, barrels.. Solar salt, barrels..

The following resolutions were adopted by Second quality, barrels.

21,668 the convention: Total.........

1,462,729 We, the Republicans of Michigan, in convention

assembled, in this Centennial year of the nation's This would amount in bushels to 7,313,645, life, reiterate our firm and abiding faith in the prinan increase of 1,904,320 bushels or 380,864 bar- ciples of the Republican party as enunciated in forrels over the preceding year. The manufacturers mer national platforms, while we point with pride

to were pretty effectually united in a combination, in behalf of freedom, equal rights, and good govern

the party's glorious record of grand achievements and nearly all the salt sold passed through the ment. We exult in the reflection that from the day hands of an association which allowed on re of the party's organization within the borders of ceiving it a certain price, and sold in its dis- this State to the present time the people of Michicretion. The amount in the hands of the asso- gan have attested their steadfast fealty to the party's

true views and purposes. In the unbroken line of ciation at the end of the year was very large. Republican victories we recognize the fact that no

In fish-culture since December 1, 1874, the past achievements or declaration of principles, howState has expended $23,057.20. Of white-fish, ever just and patriotic, will deserve or can alone se12,400,000 have been placed in the waters of cure success without candidates of known ability, the State ; of salmon, 1,470,000; of lake-trout, integrity, stability, and character. Therefore, 150,000. The results thus far are very satis- represent us in the forthcoming National Convenfactory. Salmon are occasionally caught, and tion be requested to act in the convention with harpromise finely. A large stock eggs of sal- mony and as much unity among themselves as is mon and white-fish is on hand and being other delegations, and treat with deference the opin

possible; that they extend all proper courtesy to hatched in the Detroit and Pokagon batcheries. ions of those representing States less reliably Re

In respect to education, as there was no publican than our own; but under no possible cir

14,288
24,418

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cumstances may they yield anything of Republican 5. That while political parties are necessary agenprinciple. While we are willing to waive personal cies in administering the Government, yet the love preferences, our delegates must never consent to com- of party should always be subordinate to patriotism, mit Republican principles to any standard-bearer of and it unfit persons are nominated such action is doubtful position, or to one who does not, in his not binding. own character, afford an assurance of practical econ 6. That no party deserves success at the polls exomy, honesty, and purity, in all matters of admin- cept upon the basis of unselfish devotion to the best istration.

good of the whole people.

7. Leaving details to legislators, we reassert that The convention of the Democratic party, to coin is the only money recoguized by the traditions appoint delegates to the Democratic National of the Democratic party as warranted by the ConConvention at St. Louis, assembled at Lan-stitution. sing, on May 24th. A majority and a minority that the principal part of its office-holders have be

8. That when a party has been in power so long report were made by the Committee on Reso- come corrupt, it is impossible to obtain genuine relutions. The majority report was adopted by form within the party. a vote of 157 to 70. The report was as fol

9. We recommend to all local Democratic cutlows:

ventions to place in nomination such men only as

are known to be honest, capable, and efficient men, The Democrats of Michigan in convention as- who have the contidence of the community, and sembled, considering that, by a departure from the who, if elected, will strive to lessen the burden of principles on which our nation was formed, the taxation on the people. Government of the country is being changed from a 10. That we have confidence that our delegates to Federal Union of States to a centralized oligarchy; the National Convention will support only those that the powers and trusts conferred by law, instead who are proper representatives of the foregoing of being used for the benefit of the whole people, principles, and we leave them free to exercise their are used by officials for their private and personal discretion as to the choice of men best fitted to bring benefit; and with a view, so far as is in our power, about thorough reform in the administration of our of correcting these evils, declare that we recoge national affairs; that in the interest of pure governnize the following as principles held by the constit- ment outraged, free institutions imperiled, and to

redeem the American name from the stigma attached to it by the corruptions of the party in power, we cordially invite the coöperation of all honest men, irrespective of former party affiliations.

The Republican Convention to nominate candidates for State offices assembled at Lansing, on August 3d. The following nominations were made : For Governor, O. M. Croswell; Lieutenant-Govern

or, Alonzo Sessions; Sec011

retary of State, E. G. Holden ; State Treasurer, W. B. McCreery ; AuditorGeneral, Ralph Ely: LandCommissioner's Office, B. F. Partridge; AttorneyGeneral, Otto Kirchner; Superintendent of Public Instruction, H. S. Tarbell. The resolutions adopted were substantially as fol

lows: uency we represent, and we personally pledge our The first affirms allegiance and fidelity to the deeselves to labor for their general adoption, viz. : larations of principles

and the nominees of the Re1. That the officers under our system of govern- publican National Convention, and declares that the ment have and should exercise only such powers as letters of acceptance of the candidates are a sure are conferred upon them by law, and these should guarantee that the party's record in the future, as in be used only for the good of the whole people, with- the past, will be distinguished for the preservation out reference to party.

of the Union, faithfunless of its financial engage 2. We utterly repudiate the idea that there can be ments, protection to all in the equality of civil and any spoils of office for victors in an honest adminis- political rights, and a prompt and efficient reform tration of the Government.

in the Government service. 3. We repudiate the idea that candidates have a The second resolution declares that the history right to manipulate conventions and thrust them- of the party appeals to the patriotism of to-day selves into nomination.

that, with a Treasury exhausted in 1861, it created 4. That the use of money to influence elections is unlimited financial credit; that, with eleven States demoralizing to the people, and any candidate who defying the national authority and a gigantic rebelwill seek by the use of money to influence nomi- lion inaugurated, it boldly met the crisis with a panations or elections is unworthy of support. triotism and energy unequaled in history; that,

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NEW STATE CAPITOL AT LANSING.

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