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Gold-mining continued to be carried on suc- which is from 23 to 24 miles long, and in its cessfully in the various colonies. New mines widest part seven miles wide, did not exist were discovered early in the year at the head twenty-four years ago. In 1852 the deepest part of the Palmer River, in the colony of Queens- of the lake was covered by a morass, while all land, and large numbers flocked thither. The the rest was rich alluvial ground. The depth crops were generally poor. In New South of the present lake is only 25 to 30 feet, which, Wales a heavy drought was reported, while in considering its great extent, is a strong arguVictoria the crops were seriously damaged by ment in favor of the supposition that the successive heavy rainfalls.

lake has existed at some previous time, and The plan to unite all the Australian colonies was at least just as extensive as at present. into one confederacy continued to be strongly This supposition is strengthened by the old urged during the year. A considerable im- alluvial terraces of the creeks, which lie 10 or pulse was given to it by the Intercolonial Ex- 12 feet above the present level of the lake. bibition held at Melbourne in the early part But this could not be the case one or even of the year.

several centuries ago, as the present lake is The laying of the submarine cable between surrounded by a wide belt of forest-trees, Sydney and New Zealand was successfully which must have grown at a period which completed in the beginning of the year, and dates farther back than a century from the it was opened in February.

The exploration of the interior of the Australian Continent continued to be carried on with unabated energy. News was received in August from Mr. Wilshire, in the Northern Territory, announcing the discovery of good land on the Victoria and Daly Rivers, with grassy plains and soil fit for all tropical productions.

The last surviving native of Tasmania died during the year. It was the Queen, Lidgiwidgi Tancaninni, called Lalla Rookh' by the white population. Tasmania, or the island of Van Dieinen, which became in 1803 an English colony, had in 1815 a native population of 5,000; in 1847 there were only 45 left, and now the last of the race is dead. Lalla Rookh had been married five times, and each time to a king. She lived at Hobart Town, in the house of the Government inspector, and received a small pension from the British Government. She was seventy-three years old, and died of paralysis.

A sanguinary affair took place among the natives of Feejee in the early part of the year. A number of tribes not yet converted to Chris- date of the present inundation. The chief tianity made an attack upon the colony. They reason for the present growth of the lake, were aided by a number of natives who, once Abbay thinks, may be found in the destruction converted, had reverted to their heathen state of the forests in the cavity, the southern end in consequence of the measles, which had of which is at present occupied by the lake. raged so terribly in the colony in 1875. They The consequence of the disappearance of the destroyed entire villages, and celebrated their forests was a more rapid drainage of the envictory by eating eighteen women and chil- tire basin, the water could flow off quickly and dren. In consequence of these atrocities the accumulate in the deepest part of the basin, Governor, Sir Arthur Gordon, marched against while the loss by evaporizing was greatly dithem, and succeeded in completely defeat- minished, as the water now reaches the lake ing them. Thirty-five of the leaders were in a few hours, even from the most distant tried and sentenced to death, but only fourteen part of the basin. Lake Bathurst, a few miles were executed.

distant, also shows a considerable increase in During the middle of the year the vessel its volume of water. Dancing Wave was captured by the natives During the month of March meetings were of the Solomon Islands, who devoured the en- held in Sydney to discuss a new journey of tire crew. Only one escaped and reported exploration of D'Albertis in New_Guinea. the affair. The man-of-war Sanafly was sent D'Albertis proposed to travel up the Fly River out to punish the murderers.

to the centre of the island, where he expected Mr. R. Abbay, in an article on the periodi- to find its source, and then to return overland city of fresh-water lakes of Australia, in No. to Yule Island or Port Morley. He expected 342 of Nature, makes the following interesting to perform the journey in from six to eight statements : Lake George, in New South Wales, months. This plan was very favorably re

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BOTTLE-TREE OF AUSTRALIA.

COUNTRIES.

ceived by the colonial authorities. The Gov- Affairs and of the Imperial House (appointed ernment placed the steamer Neva at the dis- 1871); Baron Leopold Friedrich von Hofmann, position of D'Albertis, and a subscription was Minister of the Finances of the Empire (apopened to secure the necessary expenses. pointed 1876); and Count Artbur Bylandt

The annual report of the sub-Protector of Rheidt, Minister of War (appointed 1876). Aborigines in South Australia for 1875 con The ministry of cis-Leithan Austria was in tains some interesting statements showing bow 1876 composed of Prince Adolf von Auersperg, rapidly the native Australians are disappear. President (appointed November, 1871); J. Lasing even in that colony, where more is done ser Baron von Bollheims, Interior (November, for their protection than in any other. As an 1871); C. von Stremayr, Public Works and Inexample may be cited the Narringerie tribe, struction (November, 1871); Glaser, Justice which in 1842 numbered 3,200 persons, against (November, 1871); J. Ritter von Chlumeccky, 511 in 1875. This diminution cannot be ac- Commerce and Political Economy (appointed

in November, 1871, Minister of Agriculture; transferred to the Ministry of Commerce in May, 1875); Baron von Pretis-Cagnois, Finances (January, 1872); Colonel Horst, Defense of the Country (appointed pro tem. November, 1871, definitely March, 1871); Count Mannsfeld, Agriculture (May, 1875); J. Unger (November, 1871) and Florian Ziemialkowski (April, 1873), ministers without portfolio.

Area of the monarchy, 240,348 square miles; population, according to the census of 1860, 35,901,435. The area of cis-Leithan Austria (the land represented in the Reichsrath) is

115,908 square miles; population, at the end of BANDED BANDICOOT.

1874, officially estimated at 21,169,341. The counted for by wars with other tribes, or with ber 31, 1869, by adding the average percentage

estimate is based upon the census of Decemthe whites, for the Narringerie have been of increase. It was distributed among the difaffected more by civilization than any other ferent crown-lands as follows: tribe, and live at peace with the whites. It

Inhabitants in 187: seems that the natives die out all the quicker Austria below the Enns...

2,087,930 the more they assume the mode of living of Austria above the Enns.

741,918 the European settlers. It has been deter

Salzburg

158,306 Styria.

1,164,512 inined that the largest ratio of deaths and Carinthia the smallest of births are to be found among

Trieste.. those blacks who have definitely settled. In the entire native population of South Austra

Istria..

266,803 lia, as far as could be determined, 140 deaths

Tyrol,

Vorarlberg .. and 52 births were counted in 1875, making an Bohemia

5,287.244 excess of deaths of 88. The measles and the

2,056,081

544,459 small-pox, which they have received from the

Galicia

5,827,798 whites, constitute a great danger to them. Bukowina

587,815 But their greatest scourge is consumption, to

Dalmatia.

460,827 which more than one-half of their deaths Total.......

21,169,311 must be attributed. On the other hand, fevers are entirely unknown to them; although, in the enumeration of April 17, 1875, was 1,001,

The civil population of Vienna, according to contact with the whites, they are often ex- 999 persons. posed to scarlet fever, no such case has ever

Dr. A. Ficker estimates the distribution of been reported among them. Over the whole the different nationalities for 1876 as follows: territory of the colony numerous depots have been established, which furnish the sick na

Hungary. Total. tives medicine and other assistance. The med

Germans icine, however, helps them but little, for they Czechs, Moravians, and Slo

7,800,000 1,800,000 9,600,000 either refuse to take it, or after its use they do

6,000,000 2,000,000 7,000,000 not observe the necessary care.

Ruthenians.

2,600,000 600,000 8,200,000 Poles...

2,500,000

2,500,000 AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY, an

580,000 2,570,000 8,150.000 empire in Central Europe. Emperor, Francis Slovens.

1,190,000 60,000 1,250,000

20,000 5,680,000 5,700,000 Joseph I., born August 18, 1830; succeeded Roumanians..

200,000 2,800,000 3,000,000 his unclo, the Emperor Ferdinand I., on De- Italians.

630,000

639,000

860,000 580,000 1,440,000 cember 2, 1848. Meir-apparent to the throne,

Gypsies...

1,000 159,000 160,000 Archduke Rudolphus, born August 21, 1858. Bulgarians.

80,000 30,000

9,000 The ministry for the common affairs of the Armenians.

1,500 2,100 8,600 empire consisted, toward the close of the year Greeks..

2,300 1,000 8,300 1876, of Count Andrassy, Minister of Foreign Others...

15,000 7,100 22,100

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Carniola.

838,045 468,065 132,274 212.349

Göritz and Gradisca.

787.494 103,841

Moravia..
Silesia..

NATIONALITIES.

Austria.

vaks..

Croats and Servians.

3,000

Jews

4,000

5.000

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22

The movements of population in Austria Croats, 354 Italians, 129 Roumanians, 396 Magproper, from 1870 to 1874, was as follows: yars, and 111 spoké other languages.

The periodical press of Austria, in 1874, was

Excess of YEAR. Marriages. Births Deaths.

divided as follows: Births.

1. ACCORDING TO THE CON 2. ACCORDING TO LAN1870 199,085 826,882 617,182 209,700

TENTS.

GUAGES. 1871 194,591 820,869 636,083 184,786

Political papers...

279 In German. 1672. 192,406 829,250 696,125 133,125 Journals for politicalecon In Czechic.

108 1878. 194,815 848,206 831,326 16,880

omy...
81 In Polish.

47 1674. 189,017 845,678 662,929 185,749 Agricultural journals. 58 In Ruthenian. Industrial and technical In Slovenian.

18 The following are the statistics for 1875 of Military and

.

47 In Servo-Croatian nautical In Italian....

57 the Austrian schools :

journals....

10 In German and Czechic.. 6

Journals for medicine and In Italian and Servo-CroNumber of

the natural sciences... 28 atian.. CLASSES OF SCHOOLS. Teachers. Pupile. Law journals...

11 In French Schools.

Theological and religious In Greek.. Universities..

journals....

26 In Hebrew (or with Ho6 689 8,664 Journals for pedagogy,

brew type)......

11 Technical institutions.

287 8,570 Agricultural and mining high

stenography, and for
the young.
63 Total.......

810 schools.

61

248 Historical and literary Commercial academies.

78 1,845
journals.

16

8. ACCORDING TO THE MODE At high-schools.

216
Journals for theatre, mu-

OF PUBLICATION. Theological schools.

45 240 1,849
sic, art, fashion, sport, Dailies, ....

85
etc..
87 Four times a week.

2 Superior schools..... 67 1,377 15,392 Journals of fiction and Tri-weeklies..

20 humor... 59 Semi-weeklies..

55 Gymnasia, sub-gymnasia, real

Non-political local papers. 62 Weeklies.....

267 gymnasia, real-schools, and sub

Cominercial and other ad Tri-monthlies.

31 real-schools. 229 8,829 55,689

188 Training - schools for male...

vertising papers....... 33 Semi-monthlies.
42
544 4,953

Monthlies...

147 teachers.. female... 28 882 2,848 Total....

810 Four to ten times per annum....

15 Secondary schools..... 299 4,705 63,490

Total..

810 Schools of midwifery.

14 14 781 Nautical schools. 30

866

Total 1873. Commercial schools.

47

Total 1872. 888 6,426

885 Iedustrial schools..

186 688 16,495 Schools of art and music..

171 469 8,457 Schools of agriculture and forestry

69 895 1,701 Mining schools..

6

12 140 Philological schools.

68 88 1,578 Schools for gymnastics.

20 86 2,516 Female work-schools..

279

6,550 Other special schools.

885

1,755 20,950 Special schools....

1,089 4,099 65,668 Burgher and people's schools

(Bürger- und Volksschulen).... 15,166 31,196 2,134,683

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169

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29

78
71

209 587 881 614

918 1.885 3,810

123 238

Czernovitz ...
Cracow

BRAUNAU, BOHEMIA.
Gratz.
Innspruck
Lemberg

According to the common budget of the Prague

whole empire for the year 1877, the amount Vienna

required for the ordinary branches of adminisTotal.

8,904 tration was 117,091,389 florins. The receipts

for the same branches were estimated at 5,779,Of the total number of students, 7,620 were 730 florins, the receipts from customs at 11,ordinary and 1,281 extraordinary; 7,432 were 000,000 florins, leaving 100,311,659 florins to Anstrians, and 1,169 foreigners. Of the latter, be distributed among Anstria and Hungary. 1,055 were from Hungary, 144 from Germany, Of this amount, 2,006,233 florins were to come 35 from Switzerland, 53 from Italy, 2 from from the Treasury of Hungary, as a part of the Belgium, 1 from the Netherlands, 8 from Great Military Frontier had been placed under civil Britain, 66 from Russia, 12 from Turkey, 16 government during the year; and of the balfrom Servia, 8 from Greece, 54 from Rouma- ance Austria contributed seventy per cent. and nia, 3 from Asia, 13 from America, and 1 from Hungary thirty per cent. The common debt Australia. According to the language, 4,162 of the empire on January 1, 1876, amounted were Germans, 1,540 Czechs, 1,338 Poles, 454 to 411,999,941 florins. The budget of Austria Ruthenians, 194 Slovenians, 223 Servians and proper, for 1876, was as follows (in florins):

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1. Civil list..

4,650,000 2. Imperial Cabinet Chancery.. 74,745 8. Reichsrath..

679,200 1,000,000 4. Imperial Court.

22,000 5. Council of Ministers..

702,860 25,000 6. Ministry of the Interior.. 16,250,000 2,780,800 7. Ministry of Public Defense.. 7,775,800

660,000 8. Ministry of Education 18,899,900 8,950,008 9. Ministry of Finances

69,242, 150 1.558, 100 10. Ministry of Commerce. 20,895,000 8,854,800 11. Ministry of Agriculture. 10,298,950 1,268,520 12. Ministry of Justice.

19,669,900 1,788,185 18. Board of Control..

157,500 1,000 14. Pensions..

18,103,000 15. Dotations.

582,000 26,190,918 16. Public debt.

101,056,051 1,352,951 17. Administration of public debt.

759,800 18. Cis-Leithan portion of the

common expenditure...... 81,518,897 Total......

861,831,253 42,825,227 Total expenditure.....

404,156,480

Total.....

Total receipts.
Net receipts

The public debt of Austria proper on January 1, 1876, was as follows (in florins):

The navy was commanded in October, 1875, by the following staff of officers:

IMPORTS.

Bearing no
TITLE OF DEBT. Bearing Interest.

Total,
OFFICERS.

In Peace. In War.
Interest.
Admiral......

1 1. Consolidated

Vice-admirals

1 debt, old... 089,582 726,698 1,816,280

Rear-admirals.

5

6 Consolidated

of ships-of-the-line

16

18 debt, new.. 2,546,658,975 131,920,515 2,678.649,490 Captains of frigates.

17

19 2. Floating debt. 29,137,981 781,592 29,919,573

of corvettes

18 20 3. Rentes for da

Lieutenants.

120 185 mages.... 12,556,808

12,556,808
Ensigns..

150 170 4. Rentes to Ba

Cadets.

110 185 varia... 1,750,000

1,750,000 Tit'l, Jan.1, 1876. 2,590,698,341 133,498,805 / 2,724,192,146 “ 'Jan. 1, 1875. 2,599,107,804 136,600,841 2,785,708,645

The number of sailors was to be 5,836 in peace, and 11,532 in war.

The total commerce, exclusive of precious The army in August, 1876, was composed as metals, within the imperial line of customs, for follows:

1873 and 1874, was as follows: PEACE-FOOTING.

WAR-FOOTING. ARMY.

EXPORTS. Officers. Men, Horses. Oficers. Men, Horses,

COUNTRIES.

1878.
1874.

1878. 1874. Regular army. 14,666 257,091 46,135 23,504 733,992 148,236 Imp'rial Land

German Cuswehr

572
1,999
24 2,916 118,626 6,070

toms Union.. 427,800,000 895,400,000 262,600,000 265,800,000 Royal Hunga

Switzerland... 2,200,000 2,200,000 1.400.000 1,400,000 rian Land

Italy

20,500,000 19,700,000 23.300,000 24,100,000 wehr

461 7,818 1,880 3,028 127,234 16,742 Turkey 84,000,000 37,400,000 46,100,000 52,600,000 Others 148 18,903 148 18,903

Russia

17,000,000 27,600,000, 27,000,000 84,100,000 Total.... 15,847 280,311 47,539 29,596 1,018,755 171,048

Total by land'501,500,000'482,800,000 860,400,000 378,000,000

Total by sea. 81,600,000 86,400,000, 63,200,000, 71,300,000 The navy in August, 1876, was

588,100,000 568,700,000 423,600,000 449.800,000 lows:

The commerce of Trieste in 1874 and 1875 VESSELS.

Tons. Horse-Power. Guns. was as follows: 12 Iron-clads.

58,480 9,850 188 8 Frigates... 9,510 1,700

IMPORTS.

EXPORTS. 8 Corvettes 13,520 2,850 65

PORTS. 5 Gunboats 8,830 1,010 18

1874. 1875. 1874. 1875, 5 Screw-sloops.

2,590

405

10 8 Side-wheel steamers 1,690

400

7 European ports 91,525,000 94,202,000 62,835,000 70,686,000 9 Other steamers

11,880 2,850 19 Transatlantic 26,683,000 29,018,000 127,000 4.237,000 2 Monitors ...

620

160

4 Austrian ports. 10,255,000 18,848,000 25,196,000 27,450,000 9 School-ships

8,280

50 6 Hulks...

4,560

10 Total........ 128,868,000 187,068,000 92,658,000 102,406,000 5 Tenders

1,060

286 1 Towboat.

200
90

The movement of shipping in the port of 88 vessels 117,070 18,101 404

Trieste was as follows in 1875:

Total........

as fol

OLEARED.

VESSELS.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tops,

laden

in ballast..

913

241

99

No.

Tons.

Or

78 25

ENTERED.

ernment upward of £1,500,000, so that, had the Austro-Hungarian army been fitted out with Krupp guns instead, more than three times

as much money would have been required. Balling-Fessels

.... 5,703 269,530 4,992 323,589
94,107 1,668 46,872

The two Houses of the Reichsrath resumed Steamers

laden 1,295 606,551 1,442 595,246 their labors in January. The Herrenhaus on in ballast..

88,426

48,628

January 14th took up the discussion of the moTotal. 8,152 1,003,914 8,201 1,009,385 nastic association bisl, which had been brought

in by the Government in 1874.* Cardinal The commercial navy on January 1, 1876, Schwarzenberg and all the bishops and abbots was as follows:

had taken their seats on this occasion. It was VESSELS.

bitterly attacked by the cardinal and other

Catholio speakers. The former stated that 8ea-going vessels...

577 280,502 whoever attacked the convents attacked ChrisCoasting-vessels..

1,974 85,407 Fishing-barks and lighters.

tianity. The convents were the bulwarks of the 4,889 13,811

Church, and were the first points to be attacked

64,880 Steamers Short voyage (16,450 horse-power)

by those who opposed the Catholic Church.

1,891 Sailing-vessels...

7,842 272,949

Minister Stremayr, speaking for the Govern

ment, stated that no hostile act against these Total .....

7,440 | 829,220 corporations was intended by the law. It could The railroads in operation in Austria proper the inner relations of the Church. On the 17th

never be the object of the state to meddle with on January 1, 1876, comprised 10,397 kilome- the entire law was finally passed to a second tres (1 kilometre = 0.62 mile). The work of the Post-Office in Austria proper regulating the legal status of the Old Catholics

and third reading. On the other hand, the law in 1875 was as follows:

was rejected. The monastic association law Letters on which postage was due...... 169,276,000 was passed in the Chamber of Deputies in FebPostal-cards

21,428,000 Free letters.

26,255,000 ruary, after considerable debate. In NovemSamples..

5,678,000 ber, Minister Stremayr informed the confesPrinted matter

19,794,000

sional committee of the House of Deputies The number of post-offices was 4,126. that the Emperor had refused to sign the law

The telegraph lines and wires in operation as framed by the two Houses of the Reichsrath, in 1875 were as follows:

but that he had authorized the ministry to

bring in a new law. On February 9th the Lines.....

82,888.4

Chamber of Deputies adopted the new marWires

84,884

riage law, according to the majority report of The number of telegraph-stations was 2,212. the committee. The discussion turned chiefly The number of dispatches sent and received on the question in what manner the impediwas 4,547,830.

ment to marriage was to be removed in the The new armament of the Austrian artillery case of clerics. The majority report as adopted with the Uchatius gun was completed during by the House made a distinction between those the year. The Uchatius gun like the Krupp, who had received the higher and the lower is a breech-loader, and has given, in comparison orders, and proposed that, in the case of the with the Prussian weapon, the most satisfac- former, the impediment to marriage should tory results. The alloy of which it is made is only be removed by a change of religion, while a simple mixture of copper and tin, but the pe- the latter would merely be required to leave culiar plan adopted for suddenly cooling the the clergy. The minority was opposed to this mass after casting is maintained a close secret. distinction, and proposed that the vow of Analysis of the metal gives no clew to the na- celibacy should no longer be valid after the ture of this operation, the result of which is cleric had renounced his profession, no matter to secure an even and crystalline alloy free from whether he had received higher or lower orders, " honey-comb" and "tin-pitting," which are and without leaving the religious community the usual defects met with in bronze-work. which regarded the vow of celibacy as an imAfter casting the cannon, and suddenly cool- pediment to marriage. A third proposition, ing it, General von Uchatius dilates the bore by Freiherr von Händel, which was sanctioned by introducing a steel wedge, which increases by the Minister of Justice, also wished to see the calibre considerably, and places the weapon no distinction made between the higher and in a state of tension that is said to add much the lower clergy, but demanded that a change to its capacity to withstand the effects of of religion should in all cases precede the legalcontinued firing. The expense of the bronze ization of marriage. The other propositions Feapon is far less than that of the steel can- of the committee regarding mixed marriages, non of Krupp, for while a field-piece of the and the remarriage of persons who had left latter construction costs no less than £114, if the Catholic Church, were adopted without fashioned of crucible steel, the value of the change. The Reichsrath adjourned on March Dehatius gun is not more than £35. As it is,

* See ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1874, p. 86. the new weapons are to cost the Austrian Gor + See ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875, p. 59.

Kilometres.

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