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prevailed, and in the convention Mr. Gaston specting the feelings of the conquered, notwithstandwithdrew his name. The ticket was as fol- ing the question

of right and wrong between the lows: For Governor, Charles Francis Adams, and religion alike forbid one act, one word, of venof Quincy; Lieutenant-Governor, William R. geance or resentment. Patriotism and Christianity Plunkett, of Pittsfield; Secretary of State, unite the arguments of earthly welfare and the moEdwin H. Lothrop, of Springfield; Auditor, tive of heavenly inspiration to persuade us to put John E. Fitzgerald, of "Boston; Treasurer, citizens and as men in the work of social and ecoWeston Howland, of Fairhaven; Attorney- pomic reorganization, each one doing with his might General, Richard Olney, of Boston.

whatever his hand findeth to do." The following platform was adopted :

That among the misdeeds of the Republican party The Democrats of Massachusetts and their com- not the least conspicuous is the mismanagement of patriots hail with satisfaction the auspicious action the Freedmen's Savings and Trust Company, charof the recent national council at St. Louis. Its decla- tered by a Republican Congress, without sufficient ration of principles, together with the letters of ac- safeguards to protect the interests of its depositors, ceptance of its nominees, composes an harinonious which has resulted in the robbery of many thousands and beneficent body of political doctrine which, wise of contiding freedmen, and that it is therefore the ly applied, by the statesmer happily chosen for

that duty of Congress to take

all legal measures to secure great trust, to the existing critical condition of the to the sufferers full indemnity for their losses. country, would speedily result in a reinvigoration of State, the

depression in its trade and commerce, are

That the prostration of the industries of this tions that dishonor the public service, financial sound the natural results of the maladministration and misness and good government, with tranquillity and government of the Republican party, and the conwell-regulated liberty in all parts of the Union. tinuance of that party in power

will increase the The national bonor and credit demand exact justice present deplorable waste of the invested capital of to all creditors of the Government, the pensioner, laboring-classes, and bring

misery, ruin, and

ill-health coin of the debt represented by legal-tender notes, heretofore been able to bear up against the hard held by the people at large, equally with the bonded times under

which this state now

suffers. debt held by capitalists. After eleven years' experience of Republican neglect and incapacity to formulate and carry out a financial policy for the resumption of specie payments, the people of the country should intrust to the party that never in the history of its power gave sanction to the dishonest system of an inconvertible paper currency the accomplishment of this vital need of our commerce.

To the national House of Representatives the gratitude of the country is especially due for its courageous and largely successful efforts, in spite of the implacable hostility of an improvident Administration and its supporters, to reduce the expenses of Government to a scale adjusted to the economic necessities of a period of unexampled industrial distress, and the requirements of republican simplicity and frugality. Also, for its resolute inquests into official mal-administration, whereby gross corruptions have been ex. posed to popular execration, unfaithful officers expelled in disgrace from the exalted places of authority they defiled, and the honest sentiment of the country aroused to a knowledge of evils and the imperative need of reform. The action of the Democratic House, in the measures that met its sanction, conclusively refutes the absurd charges of a malevolent opposition, and that the Democratic party entertains any feeling or purpose disloyal to the national spirit or to the integrity of the republic, or to the letter or

STATE HOUSE, BOSTON. spirit of the Federal Constitution in any of its parts.

We rejoice in the social order, rapidly-reviving. We view with indignation the supineness of the prosperity, and established cordial relations between party in power in neglecting to take measures against the races, which have followed as the result of the the causes of the decline of our commerce and manurestoration of Democratic control of affairs in the factures. We look in vain in the platform of that several lately disturbed States. Wherever honest party for the indications of any comprehensive policy government has gone, violence, disorders, and race- of statesmanship for the emergency. And we see conflicts, have disappeared, and the theatre of outrages nothing in the qualifications of those nominated by upon public order and private right that shock the them to national and State leadership that indicates humane sense and blot our institutions is confined to any relief from the consequences of the feeble statesthose narrow limits of the South where Republican manship, careless, do-nothing policy, and ring-control, misrule

still obtains and the ruffian elements of so- which now paralyze the energies of the country. ciety are left free from the restraints of law enforced That amid the depression of all business among by competent authority.

us there is an imperative demand for a reduction of That we hold the position so well expressed by the State, county, and municipal expenses in this Comlate Governor Andrew in his valedictory address in monwealth; the cutting down of salaries to a more 1866: “There ought now to be a vigorous prosecution reasonable relation to the general profit of industry of the peace—just as vigorous as our recent prosecu- among the tax-paying citizens, the dispensing

with tion of the war. We ought to extend our hands with unnecessary offices, the abolishing of sinecures, the cordial good-will to meet the proffered hands of the suppression of all' unnecessary appropriations, and South; demanding no attitude of humiliation from the return from extravagance to simplicity, and econ-any, inflicting no acts of humiliation upon any; re- omy. We view with alarm the rapid increase at

VOL. XVI.-38 A


the same time of public taxation and public indebt- has a double meaning on the suffrage issues. The edness, and desire to awaken the honest instincts of Democratic party of the State has refused to take our citizens to limit and restrain the growing evils. any action on the subject. The Prohibitory party

That it is the right and duty of the Commonwealth of the State, on the contrary, has invited women to to protect its industrial interests from the oppression take part in its primary meetings, with an equal of any system which deprives the laborer of the le- voice and vote in the nomination of candidates and gitimate fruits of his toil, or of the means of the the transaction of business. It has made the estab proper development of his physical and mental pow- lishment of woman-suffrage one of its avowed objects, ers.

and has nominated candidates all of whom are sufThat the elective franchise is a right the exercise fragists. of which should not be abridged by the payment of State governments have jurisdiction over matters any money price as a condition.

with which the national Government has no concern. That we pledge our united support to the candi- We maintain that State officers should be elected dates this day nominated, and we invite all citizens upon State issues, independent of national politics. who deplore the present evils to join with us in their And, whereas woman-sutfrage is purely a question of support.

State policy, it is the duty of the woman-suffragists That, in presenting to the people of this Common- of Massachusetts so to cast their ballots next Nowealth' Charles Francis Adams as candidate for vember as to represent their principles in the choice Governor, we make the principles of our platform a of State officers. reality in practice. The publio services and private Believing that “governments are just only when virtues of this illustrious citizen need no recital here, they rest on the consent of the governed," and that and we believe his election will but subserve the in- the establishinent of a truly representative governterests of the Democratic party in Massachusetts. ment is vastly more important than the success of

Rice or Adams, we commend the nominees of this Mr. Adams accepted the nomination for Woman-Suffrage State Convention to the suffrages of Governor in the following letter:

the people, irrespective of party, as the candidates The Hon. W. W. Warren, President Convention of all.

who represent impartial suitrage and equal rights to Delegates, etc. PHILADELPHIA, September 12, 1876.

Resolutions were also adopted as follows; DEAR Str: Your letter informing me of my nomi Whereas, Neither the Republican nor Democratic nation by a convention of voters of Massachusetts party cares for the cause of woman-suffrage; whereas, opposed to the present administration of national the Republican party, through the chairman of its and State affairs, held at Worcester on the 6th inst., convention Committee on Resolutions, the Hon. John has been forwarded to me at this place.

D. Long, has made the declaration that its resoluFully appreciating the honor conferred upon me by tions for woman-suffrage meant nothing; and, wherethe manner as well as the substance of the call so as, the Prohibitory party, national and State, has unanimously made upon me, I cannot in principle do adopted woman-suffrage as one of its cardinal princiotherwise than obey. I never in my life have solicit- ples: ed an office, but when summoned to it I have never Resolved, That we send hearty greeting to the Prodared to refuse. The time for service on my part is hibitionists. fast passing away, but my interest in the prosperity Resolved, that we hereby urge our friends to vote and the honor of the country will cease only with for that long-tried friend of woman-suffrage, the my life. Convinced as I am that the policy of the Hon. John I. Baker, for Governor of Massachusetts, ruling party will not tend to the eradication of the and for the other nominees of this convention. great evil that prevails, the tendency to corruption Resolved, That we pledge ourselves as suffragists in official station; neither will it promote the restora- to vote for no person for Senator or Representative to tion of internal peace and harmony, a vital object in the General Court who is not fully committed to the my opinion to the complete restoration of the coun suffrage-movement, and that the State Central Comtry: I can only say that whatever service I may be mittee be instructed to take measures to enable sufable to render to the attainment of these ends, how- fragists to carry out the resolution at the polls. ever feeble it may be, is entirely at your command. With great respect,

The ticket of the Prohibitionists was also CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS. taken up by the Labor-Reformers and the Mr. Lothrop declined the nomination for candidates for presidential electors at a thinly

“Greenback party.” The latter nominated Secretary of State, and the name of Weston attended convention in Boston, October 11th. Howland was substituted on the ticket by the State Central Committee.

The election took place on the 7th of NoA Woman-Suffrage Convention was held in tors was 259,619, of which 150,063 were for

vember. The total vote for presidential elecBoston, on the 12th of September, and ac- the Hayes and Wheeler ticket, 108,777 for cepted the ticket of the Prohibitionists. The Tilden and Hendricks, and 779 scattering: Refollowing address to the people was issued :

publican majority, 41,286. The vote for GorThe woman-suffragists of Massachusetts, in dele- ernor was 256,904, of which Mr. Rice received the people of the Commonwealth the reasons which 137,665, Mr. Adams 106,850, Mr. Baker 12,compel them for the first time to make independent 274, and 115 were scattering. The plurality nominations for State officers.

of Rice over Adams was 30,815; majority over For many years they have appealed to both the all others, 18,426. The largest Republican great political parties of the State to rectify the in- vote was 142,210 for Treasurer, and Endicott's consent, and which subjects them to cruel legal dis- majority over Skillings was 27,751. Of the abilities as wives, mothers, and widows. But their Executive Council chosen, seven were Republiappeals have been disregarded. The Republican cans and one Democrat. Thirteen Representaparty of Massachusetts, after repeatedly. indorsing tives to Congress were chosen, all being Rethe Legislature, has just refused to invite Republican publicans except Leopold Morse in the Fourth women to take part in the nomination of their candi- District. In the Seventh District there were dates, and has framed a platform which they declare three candidates: Benjamin F. Butler, who

had the regular Republican nomination; John much approval in England. The American air K. Tarbox, Democrat; and E. R. Hoar, who and automatic brakes of Westinghouse are was supported as an Independent candidate by acquiring full recognition. A new system of the Republicans opposed to Butler. The vote automatic telegraphical signaling invented by stood 12,100 for Butler, 9,379 for Tarbox, and one of our citizens has been extensively intro1,955 for Hoar. The Legislature of 1877, duced upon our roads, and is heralded as a chosen at the same time, consists of 33 Repub- triumph of ingenuity and utility. licans in the Senate and 178 in the House, and In the founderies of Terre Noire la Voulte 7 Democrats in the Senate and 62 in the House, and Bessèges, in France, a process is in use for making the Republican majority 26 in the Sen- the conversion of cast-iron, containing phosate, 116 in the House, and 142 on joint ballot. phoric impurities, into steel. Cast-iron, con

ÞECHANICAL IMPROVEMENTS AND taining not over .04 per cent. of phosphorus, is INVENTIONS. The chief problem which en- smelted in a furnace, of the Martin-Siemens lists the ingenuity of mechanicians at present construction usually, and refined by metallic relates rather to the economy of fuel and its oxides, scoria, or salts. When carbon has been more complete utilization in the steam-engine eliminated down to an insignificant quantity, than to the construction and the adjustment 1 to 24 per cent. of ferro-manganese, containof parts of our motors. Still important im- ing 50 per cent. or over of manganese

, is addprovements in governors and prime movers ed. Ferro-silicium may be employed also. The have lately been introduced ; while the fallacy metal obtained by this simple and cheap proof the rotary engine is coming to be under cess contains 1 to 4 per cent. of phosphorus, stood, and the question of superheated steam, and some traces of carbon and manganese, and the question of safety-compartment boilers, and is adapted to most of the uses to which steel the matter of boiler material, are undergoing is put. liberal and full experimentation. The long

Prof. Reuleaux, the director of the Gewerbeexperiment made by the Government upon the Academie of Berlin, and late commissioner to ship Gallatin on the relative merits of simple the Centennial Exhibition, has given great atand compound engines for sea-going purposes tention to theoretical mechanics, and has conhave reasonably demonstrated the superiority tributed important considerations for the underof the latter. The subject of the utilization standing of the principles of mechanical moof the force of falling water, ite application at tions. He shows that the original elements of a distance, and its storage, is not neglected. mechanisms always go in pairs, bodies allowIt is calculated that in the best-constructed ing each other at the same instant one single furnaces 80 or 85 per cent. of the mechani- motion. These pairs of elements are of two cal effect of the combustion is wasted; and orders, the simpler order, like the screw and the economization of this enormous loss is nut, hook and eye, etc., in wlich, when one the burning question of the age in mechanics. element is fixed, all the points in the other Its solution lies, it is thought, in the interme- traverse paths of similar geometrical form, and diation of some further chemical process, or the higher order, in which the points have perhaps in the supplementation or substitution different but regular and mathematically deof another force-evolving chemical transforma- terminable patts, which often form curves of tion, perhaps in the ready generation and suc- great beauty. A mechanism is formed of links, cessful domination of electrical force. In the or bodies, generally rigid, containing elements first connection hopes are entertained of the of different pairs linked together. The absolute new Lowe water-gas process, which can de- motion obtained in the mechanism depends monstrably be applied to the generation of upon the particular link which is stationary heat with a vast saving over the coal-furnace, for the time being. The principles of the but only with the evolution of a terribly subtilé direct-acting engine, the oscillating engine, the and deadly gas-poison. Of electrical motors quick-return action, and others, are demonseveral different forms have been developed, strated to be the same, and the different forms and there is promise of the cheap generation of the rotary engine are shown to be only of electricity on a large scale: the mechanical modifications of the direct-acting engine, with generation of magneto-electricity is the method a considerable loss of force. Prof. Reuleaux which most engages the attention of experi- bas formed a collection of some thousand mentalists. The possibility of conserving and models for the illustration of the principles of transporting mechanical force by means of mechanics. His apparatus shows how, accordcompressed air and otherwise is being utilized ing to the theorem of Poinsot, the relative in various novel ways. In telegraphy the motion of two bodies may be exemplified by grand invention of the age is the duplex sys- the rolling of two curves upon each other: tem, described in the last volume. A still more their point of contact is the momentary centre wonderful invention, sound - telegraphy, will of the motion, and all the points of each curve vastly increase the utility of the telegraph are the momentary centres of the motion of for rapid correspondence. In railroad-engi- corresponding points in the other curve. A neering the urgent need of a safety-coup- number of experimental models, designed by ling has impressed itself upon the public mind. Prof. Reuleaux, demonstrate how advantageA safety-coupling of Belgian invention finds ously fluids, when inclosed in proper vessels,

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might be employed in mechanics. He shows sels. The motive agent is compressed water, that a column of Auid, with valves, is perfectly whose elasticity, by the aid of an hydraulic analogous to a ratchet-gear.

capstan, or the numerous similar apparatus, or Among the many inethods devised of late any other mechanism which is employed to for propelling street-cars by other power than convert hydraulic pressure into motion, is that of horses, the invention of M. Mékarski, brought to bear on the running-gear of the which was put into practical use this last year cars. The water under pressure is supplied by in Paris, deserves special notice. The motive a powerful engine to a reservoir connected power is compressed air, which must be sup- with a pipe, which is laid under the track for plied from reservoirs at the end of the line, its entire length, with taps at intervals for supfilled by expansive condensing engines, which plying the cars with the compressed water. work compressing pumps with a power of The still greater elasticity of air is utilized in compressing air to a pressure of 25 or 30 connection with the compressed water. Conatmospheres. The air is heated as used by necting with the cylinders containing the water, passing through a column of hot water, which, either directly or through a piston, is a receiver when injected into the heater, has a tempera- containing air, which, when the cylinders are ture of 170° to 180° O., and thus becomes charged, has a pressure of 20 to 30 atmospberes. saturated with steam at a high temperature: It is the water which comes in contact with 70 or 80 litres of water are sufficient for 1,500 the machinery of the car. litres of air. As the pressure in the reservoirs The automatic railway-signal, invented by is not constant in degree, a special apparatus David Rousseau, has been in use for some time regulates the supply to the cylinders. The on the New York Central road, and has remingled air and steam passes from the heater cently been adopted by other railroads in this through a clack valve, which closes over the country. The weight of a train when passing discharge vent, and which is kept open by a a signal-station is made to act upon an electricertain degree of pressure upon a piston con- cal closing-key placed under one of the rails. nected with it; and by the discharge the press. By a telegraph-wire and an electro-mechaniure upon the piston is reversed, and a force cal signal-apparatus the signal at the last stais exerted upon the valve which tends to close tion passed is set at "danger;" and upon passit. The pressure upon the piston is equal to ing the next station this is restored to "clear," the pressure of the compressed air in the regu- and the next one moved to “ danger." Upon lator; and the pressure of the air and steam single-track lines the system can be applied to in the cylinders is thus regulated automatically blocking ahead as well as in the rear. to a certain point. It is, furthermore, regulated George Westinghouse, Jr., inventor of the by a small plunger, which the driver works well-known air-brake which bears his name, with a hand-wheel. The running-gear is similar has recently developed an instrument by which to that of a locomotive-engine. Air saturated the speed of a railroad-train at any moment is with steam is highly expansive, and allows of accurately indicated, and also the diminutions a long run with a small quantity of air: about and fluctuations of speed, so that, when experi11 cubic feet of compressed air per mile, at the menting with railroad-brakes, diagrams can be pressure of 25 atmospheres, has been found made showing the exact effect of the brake for sufficient. The steam does not exhaust, but, each instant. The principle of this speed-incondensing in the cylinders, restores to the air dicator consists in controlling by the action of its latent heat. After each course the reser- centrifugal force the escape of water under voirs, of which there are several, situated un- pressure. The higher the rate of speed, the der the floor of the car and connected by greater the pressure exerted upon an escapecopper pipes, are pumped full of compressed valve by certain revolving weights; and the air, and the water in the heater is reheated by greater the pressure upon the valve, the greater steam conducted through a flexible hose. The the pressure upon the surface of the chamber management of this tram-car is much more by the water detained. This pressure is miperfect than that of a horse-car; the speed nutely indicated by a pressure-gauge. This may be increased or slackened, the car stopped principle is entirely novel in its application, or reversed, almost instantly, at the will of the and, although very simple, much study and driver.

ingenuity were required to perfect the instruSteam tram-cars upon the model of the ones ment. which were first introduced by the Merry A process of manufacturing car-wheels by weathers, of London, have been in use in Paris twisting a long flat plate of metal about one for some time. Their construction is light, and of its ends upon a mandril, then heating it in their working safe and economical; but the es- a furnace and welding it under pressure, has cape of smoke and steam would be a serious been patented by Herr Krupp, the Prussian objection in most cities. An engine invented engineer. The skelp is grooved below with a by Mr. Hughes, in England, is noiseless, and rib above, and is wide at both ends which the steam is condensed into a tank, which can make the hub and rim of the wheel. The prodbe emptied after each completed course. uct, apart from the facility of its manufact

Another new method for driving street-cars ure, is superior to other sorts of wheels in harhas been invented by M. L. Rousseau, of Brus- ing the fibres of the metal arranged in the di

rection of the periphery, instead of radially or of acquiring a combustible gas, by the action tangentially.

of burning carbon upon superheated steam, A rink of artificial ice for summer skating easily and cheaply, now sufficiently tested, has been provided by a Mr. Gamgee, in Eng- opens up great possibilities of economical heat land, and has found much favor. The glacia- as well as light in the future. The problem of rium, as it is called, differs from the other con- the saving of the 80 or 85 per cent. of heattrivances of its kind principally in the use of effect, now wasted in the combustion of fuel glycerine and water as a refrigerating medium in the most perfect heat-generators, seems apinstead of brine, which is destructive to metal- proaching its solution. lic surfaces. Iron pipes of rectangular section The process of toughening glass consists in are imbedded in a concrete bottom, with their cooling it rapidly by plunging it in a bath of upper surface only exposed. The water to be grease, after it has been shaped, annealed, and congealed is contained in this concrete trough, reheated to redness. The effect is to cause and is about two inches deep. The glyceriné a different primary arrangement of the moand water, which remains fluid at a tempera- lecular particles; toughened glass is less dense ture below zero, after passing through the re- than ordinary glass, and when broken does not frigerator is pumped up into a tank from which present sharp edges. To be successfully toughit flows steadily through the iron pipes and ened it must be reduced to a malleable and pasty into the refrigerator again. But, before enter- consistency, but will lose its shape if too soft. ing the main refrigerator, its temperature is The more rapidly the cooling takes place, the reduced by letting it flow through a worm sur- more perfectly the glass is toughened: but too rounded by the powdered ice swept from the low a temperature will cause the glass to break. rink mixed with salt. The refrigerator is an The temperature at which the toughening can ether-machine, in which a steam-power air- take place varies according to the composition pump exhausts the ether from the refrigerat- of the material, and the size and thickness of ing chamber and forces it into a condenser. the article. Crystal made of six parts of sand The ether is brought into proximity with the to two of potash and soda and one of red lead glycerine mixture in a copper box with round succeeds the best. The temperature of the holes passing through it; the box is sur- bath for crystal, in which pure grease is used, rounded by a wooden tank through which may be from 60° to 120° centigrade. For the glycerine mixture is constantly flowing. glass grease mixed with oil is used, and the The ether, as well as the congealing mixture, hardening is produced at a temperature of 150° is in constant motion, passing from the refrig- to 300° č. The process described is the one erator into the condenser and back again in a of M. de la Bastie. The other process resemsteady flow.

bles it in all important particulars. Many imThe Lowe water-gas process, in which the provements have been introduced lately. difficulties that attended former efforts to ob Julius Bluethner, of Leipsic, whose pianotain illuminating gas by the decomposition of forte factory is one of the largest and comwater were sufficiently overcome to give prac- pletest in Europe, lias made a study of the techtical value to this method, was first put into nical application of the important principles successful operation at Phoenixville, Pa., about of acoustics recently discovered, preëminently three years since. Works were built at Utica through the investigations of Helmholtz. He in 1874, which were afterward destroyed by fire. has succeeded in making these scientific disThis year a still larger establishment has gone coveries practically available in an instrument into operation at Manayunk, near Philadelphia, which he manufactures under the name of the and others are opening in several large towns aliquot piano. Among all the important imof the Northern States and Canada. The Mana- provements introduced within the last twelve yunk works produce about 150,000 feet of years in the manufacture of this most valuable twenty-candle gas daily, though their capacity musical instrument, this of Herr Bluethner will, is more than double that quantity. The works beyond dispute, take the foremost rank. As occupy only a tenth of the space that is re- the name implies, the aliquot piano renders quired in coal - gas manufacture. The plant the quality called timbre in tone, whose nature consists of three generators ten feet six inches has been explained by Helmholtz's analysis of in height, with an internal diameter of forty musical sounds. The harmonious upper notes inches; six superheaters, three to superheat the detected by Helmholtz, and the so-called comsteam and three to fix the gas, each fifteen feet bination-tones, into which the lower octave high with thirty-four inches internal diame- enters, are emphasized in this instrument by ter, and condensers, purifiers, etc. The labor of the simultaneous vibration, by a mechanical seven men only is employed for the present attachment, of their appropriate strings. To prodaction, three in the night and four by day. successfully accomplish this object, it was neThe cost of the gas is, considering its superior cessary to entirely change the construction of quality, something like one-half that of the gas the instrument, to change the pedal-arrangemanufactured by the old process. About three ment, and to employ seventy-two more strings gallons of petroleum are consumed in the pro- for pianos of the ordinary size. The difficulties duction of 1,000 cubic feet. The process is very have been so successfully overcome that the much quicker than the old one. This method new instrument is as easy to tune as the others,

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