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The principles upon which the award was The principal point upon which Mr. Beck made are briefly stated thus :
disagreed with his colleagues was as to the 1. So far as the original charter boundary has
location of the Watkins's Point of Lord Baltibeen uniformly observed and the occupancy of both
more's charter. has conformed thereto, it must be recognized as the
The biennial session of the Legislature began boundary still.
on the 5th of January, and continued until the 2. Wherever one State has gone over the charter- 3d of April. Among the acts passed was one line and taken territory which originally, belonged providing for the general valuation and assessto the other and kept it, without let or hinderance, ment of all property subject to taxation. It for more than twenty years, the boundary must now be so run as to include such territory within the divides the counties and cities of the State into State that has it.
assessment districts, and gives to the Govern3. Where any contract or agreement has changed or, with the advice and consent of the Senate, the charter-line at a particular place so as to make a authority to appoint assessors for each district, binding if it has been followed by a corresponding and Boards of Control and Review for the occupancy.
several counties and the city of Baltimore. 4. But no agreement to transfer territory or change Appeals from the action of the assessors and boundaries can count for anything now if the actual Boards of Control and Review can be made to possession was never changed. Continued occu- the county commissioners and to the Appeal sive proof that the agreement was extinguished and Tax Court in the city of Baltimore, and thence the parties remitted to their original rights. appeals may be made to the Court of Appeals.
5. The waters are divided by the charter-line The general supervision of the conduct of aswhere that line has been undisturbed by the subse- sessors and Boards of Review is given to the quent acts of the parties, but where acquisitions State Controller. All shares of stock and have been made by one from the other of territory bonds of corporations owned by citizens of the bounded by bays and rivers, such acquisitions extend constructively to the middle of the water. State, whether such corporations are located
in the State or elsewhere, are made subject to or near Brookville by the most feasible and taxation, as also the securities of other States direct railroad communication practicable." and countries, and all investments in private Several acts were passed relating to the consecurities, "except mortgages upon property duct of elections in the city of Baltimore. One in this State and the mortgage debts respec- of these provided for a thorough revision of tively secured thereon."
the registration lists and the removal of the A new corporation act was also passed pro- names of deceased persons and those frauduviding for the creation and regulation of in- lently registered. Another took the control corporated companies. It defines the powers of elections from the board of police and vested and privileges of railroad companies, and it in a board of supervisors to be appointed by makes all necessary provision for the organiza- the Governor. Another act provided that a tion and operation without a special charter. census of legal voters should be taken and the A special act was, however, passed incorporat- city divided into election precincts of not more ing the National Railroad Company, the object than 600 voters each. of which was to “connect Washington with Among the other acts passed was one abolthe Pennsylvania system of railroads through ishing the system of police magistrates in Bal
timore, reducing the number of justices, and of the preceding year. The total value of exgiving the Governor power to appoint them ports for six months was $18,613,144, against for the city at large instead of by wards; one $14,170,514 in 1875. The largest amount, laying a tax on the property of railroads; $9,865,793, in value, was sent to England; the one prohibiting the employment of children next, $3,868,344, to Germany; the next, $1,under sixteen years of age in any factory more 631, 120, to Holland and Belgium; and $1,292,than ten hours a day; one providing for the 776 to Brazil. The largest single item in the inspection of mines and the security of miners; export trade of the city was corn, of which and one repealing the law which prevented 11,937,906 bushels were shipped, an increase grocers and others than druggists from selling of 7,221,000 bushels over the first half of 1876, patent medicines.
and over 5,000,000 more than during that enTwo investigations were ordered, one into tire year. The other important commodities the management of the Chesapeake & Ohio exported were, petroleum, 17,849,598 gallons; Canal, and the other into the last election of bacon, 3,113,833 lbs.; lard, 5,696,118 lbs.; oilGovernor. The former resulted in the vindica- cake, 6,249,294 lbs.; staves, 1,338,694 in numtion of the canal management froin all charges, ber; lumber, 1,825,157 feet; wheat, 473,807 and the latter in the withdrawal of Mr. Harris, bushels; flour, 215,573 barrels; tallow, 681,176 the contestant for the office of Governor, be- lbs.; and tobacco, 28,929 hogsheads in leaf, fore the inquiry was completed.
2,976 hogsheads of stems, 2,201 cases in variAn extra session of the Senate was held in ous forms, and 373,549 lbs. manufactured. the latter part of April, for the purpose of con There was no State election in Maryland firming appointments of assessors and Boards this year, but the political parties held convenof Control and Review under the new assess- tions for the appointment of delegates to the ment law, but occupied only two days. National Conventions, and for the nomination
The public debt of the State at the close of of electors of President and Vice-President. the last fiscal year, September 30th, was $10,- The Republicans met at Frederick, on the 4th 730,525.46, of which $5,014,333.35 consisted of May, and accomplished both these purposes. of sterling bonds, with interest yable in coin Resolutions were adopted expressing gratitude in London. The reduction of the debt for the that all investigations had failed to touch the year amounted to $677,088.88. The State has honor and integrity of President Grant, whose productive investments amounting to $4,329,- Administration had been wise, patriotic, and 105.89, and unproductive investments to the prudent in the reduction of the public debt, amount of $29,287,041.76. The receipts of the and the adoption of measures looking to an Treasury for the year amounted to $3,078,- early resumption of specie payments. They 241.95, including a balance of $1,038,111.33 pledged the vote of Maryland to James G. brought over from the previous year. The re- Blaine as a candidate for President, and comceipts from ordinary sources were $1,838,158.- mended B. H. Bristow for his efforts to expose 53, the sum of $135,050.25 having been raised and prevent corruption. The delegates were by the hospital loan, and $66,924.84 having directed to vote for Mr. Blaine as long as there been received from the United States on ac was a reasonable hope for his nomination. count of war claims. The tax levy of the year The Democrats appointed their delegates to was $740,218.87, of which $429,112.41 was for the National Convention on May 31st, and public schools, and $311,106.46 for interest, nominated candidates for electors on the 13th these being the only purposes for which a tax of September. On the former occasion, a malevy is made. The total valuation on wbich jority of the committee on resolutions reported taxes were levied was $429,112,418. The total that they would submit no declarations of prindisbursements of the year were $2,676,810.66, ciples, but merely a request that capable, honof which $388,564.22 was in redemption of est, and efficient men be sent to the National bonds; $34,469.08 for the completion of the Convention. One member of the committee, Normal School; $20,156.62 for rebuilding the however, submitted a minority report, which State tobacco-warehouses, destroyed by fire; was adopted, declaring that offices are created $133,193.30 for the Maryland Hospital for the for the public good, and not as a reward for poInsane; $15,000 for the Centennial Exposition; litical services and spoils, and for the victors; $68,956.63 for sundry special appropriations; that the traditions of the Democratic party and $1,916,300.47 for the ordinary expenses of recognize coin as the only money warranted by the government. The balance in the Treasury, the Constitution, and favor a speedy return to at the end of the year, was $453,838.63, includ- specie payments, believing that the industries ing $23,995.47 credited to the school-fund, and of the conntry and the interests of the whole $28,408.87 credited to the sinking-fund. The people demand a fixed and not a fluctuating proceeds of the tax levy for public schools were standard of value; and that the delegates to the $565,512.11, of which $452,387.11 was dis- St. Louis Convention be left unpledged and tributed to white schools, $100,000 to colored free in their judgment and discretion as to the schools, and $13,125 to the State Normal School. selection of a candidate for President and Vice
The commerce of the city of Baltimore for President. At the September convention of the first half of the year showed a decided in- the Democrats the following was adopted as crease over that of the corresponding portion the platform of the party :
We, the delegates of the Democratic Conservative obtained from the lowest taxation, in lieu of the party of Maryland, in State Convention assembled, present system, which taxes the largest possible do hereby indorse the platform adopted at St. Louis number of articles at the highest possible rates. June 28, 1876, and the candidates nominated by the Resolved, That the public expenditure should be delegates of the Democratic party of the United reduced to $100,000,000 annually, exclusive of inStates then assembled in convention, to wit: For terest on the public debt, and that the present President, Samuel J. Tilden, of New York; for Vice- House of Representatives deserves the gratitude of President, Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indiana; and the people for its successful efforts in this direction. we do hereby appeal to our fellow-citizens of every Resoloed, That honesty, capacity, and fidelity, be former political connection to unite with us in an constituted the indispensable tests and qualifications earnest effort to elect them, and thus give effect to for the civil service, and that the present House of their pledges of immediate reform in the adminis- Representatives deserves the gratitude of the people tration of the Federal Government-reform in the for its successful efforts to expose the dishonesty, currency; reform in the revenue; reform in expen- incapacity, and infidelity, of those now in possession diture ; reform in taxation; reform in the civil ser- of the Federal Government. vice; reforms in all grades of the public service, and Resolved, That the Constitution of the United in every department of the Government: therefore, States, with its amendments, universally accepted be it
as a final settlement of the controversies which enResoloed, That the national honor and the public gendered civil war, is the supreme law of the land, credit should be sustained, and resumption of specie and commands our absolute obedience. payments be established, without unnecessary or Resolved, That the Constitution of the United artificial contraction, and without disturbing the in- States establishes the supremacy of the civil over dustry, trade, and commerce of the country. the military powers, and that the order of Secretary
Resoleed, That the revenue of the country should Cameron, and the instructions of Attorney-General be so adjusted that the largest revenue should be Taft, recently issued in reference to the interference
of the military in elections, are flagrant perversions priation of the school-fund to sectarian institutions, of law, and assumptions of power which deserve the or any legislation which permits any sectarian interindignant denunciation of all honorable men. “Aference with the public schools established by the free people should hold no middle term with tyranny, State for the education of the people. oppression, and usurpation."
Resolved, That the Democratic party in the legislaResoloed, That the Democratic party at all times tion of this State has demonstrated its willingness proclaims the right of free speech, and heartily de- and ability to extend to every rank, station, and nounces all attempts at violence, riot, or interference condition of society equal political, civil
, and indiintended or calculated to abridge this sacred right vidual rights, by extending to all á free and unobof the people.
structed ballot, and by providing the means of Resoloed, That the Constitution of the United education from a common fund for the advancement States secures perfect equality to all citizens, of of every one, without respect to race or color, which whatever race or color, before the law, and that is the surest guarantee of their fairness and justice while we abhor and detest the tyranny, oppression, to the whole people of the State. and usurpation, of the present Republican Administration, we pledge our best efforts to guarantee to
At the election on the 7th of November every citizen all his rights of person and property, there were 163,793 votes cast for presidential without regard to race or color.
electors. Of these the Democratic candidates Resolved, that the Constitution of the United States secures the entire separation of church and received 91,779; Republican, 71,980 ; “Greenstate in the interest of civil and religious freedom; back," 33; and Prohibition, 1. The Demowherefore, we pledge ourselves to oppose any appro- cratic majority was 19,765. The six members
of Congress chosen at the same time were all sealed up in glass jars. They were discovered Democrats. The total vote in the city of Bal- and stolen, and no trace of them could aftertimore was 54,289, and the Democratic major- ward be found. The Circuit Court of Baltiity 16,129.
more City decreed that the company should On the 22d of February, Daniel C. Gilman issue to the former owner of these bonds cerwas installed as President of the Johns Hop- tificates of indebtedness in lieu of them, and kins University, in Baltimore. This institution should pay them at maturity, with interest had been founded by a board of trustees, ap- thereon semi-annually, upon his giving secupointed by the late Johns Hopkins, to carry rity to indemnify the company against loss in into effect the purposes of a munificent be- the event of the production of the original quest of $3,500,000. They were left untram- bonds in the hands of bona fide holders. This meled by conditions and restrictions, and their decree was affirmed by the Court of Appeals. plans contemplate the establishment of a well MASSACHUSETTS. The total amount of equipped university, which shall include not taxable property in the State of Massachusetts only an academic department, but special is $2,123,099,579.09. This includes $1,262,141,schools of science, medicine, and jurisprudence. 092 of real estate, as assessed May 1st; $537.Several chairs of instruction have been filled, 708,263.86 personal estate, including nationaland courses of lectures established. For the bank shares, as assessed May 1st; $243,340,temporary accommodation of the institution, 642.75 deposits in savings-banks, October 1st; buildings have been leased in the heart of the and $79,909,580.48 corporate property, other city of Baltimore; but the permanent site is than real estate and machinery. The aggreat Clifton, where it is proposed to construct gate shows a falling off of $70,809,505.11 from simple but substantial edifices adapted in the the amount in 1875. best manner to the purposes for which they The amount and character of the public debt are intended. At the beginning of the aen- of the State, and the changes of the year, are demic year 1876–77, Prof. Huxley, of England, shown in the following statement : delivered an address before the university on Amount outstanding Jannary 1, 1876........... $33,856,464 the “ Higher Education," and during the year Negotiated during the year: courses of lectures were given by eminent Worcester Hospital loan.
$350,000 'scholars from different parts of the country.
Iarbor improvement loan........ 800,000 An important decision, involving the respon
1,100,000 sibility of national banks for securities placed
$34,986,464 in their keeping, was rendered by the Court Paid during the year: of Appeals in the latter part of February. A Union Fund loan of 1561 (final)..
1,436.000 Baltimore firm had in 1866 deposited bonds, Aggregate funded debt, Jangary 1,1877..........
$33,550,464 valued at $26,500, with the Third National Classified as follows: Bank of that city, as collateral security for War loans...
11,068,188 payment of all obligations then existing, or Ordinary loans...
4,713,230 thereafter to be incurred, with the understand
Net reduction of debt in 1876........ $$86,000 ing that the officers of the bank had the right to sell the bonds in satisfaction of such obliga
The loans which mature during the year 1877 tions. The firm was a regular customer of the are the Norwich & Worcester Railroad loan of bank, obtaining discounts, borrowing money, $400,000, a portion of the Union Fund loan and sometimes overdrawing its deposit ac- amounting to $400,000, and the last installcount. In 1872 the bonds were stolen from ment of $50,000 of the Northampton Lunatie the vaults of the bank by burglars, at a time Hospital loan. The redemption of these is fully when nothing was due from the firm. Suit provided for hy sinking-funds and otherwise. was brought to recover their value. At a The following is a statement of the receipts trial before the Superior Court of Baltimore, and expenditures of the Treasury for the year: in 1873, the jury failed to agree. A second Cash on hand January 1, 1876..
$5,806,946 71 trial in Howard County, in September, 1874, Receipts on account of revenue. $6,400.746 78 resulted in a verdict for the plaintiff for the Receipts on account of funds... 4,735,078 82 full amount claimed. An appeal was taken to
11,185,523 10 the Court of Appeals, which decided against Total.....
$16,492,771 81 the bank, confirming the judgment of the Payments from revenue.. $6,101,436 64 court below.
Payments on account of funds.. 6,761,011 93
12,562,448 57 Another interesting case was decided by the Court of Appeals in June. A citizen of Vir- Cash on hand at the close of the year.......... 83,630,328 24 ginia was, prior to 1861, the holder of $8,000 The estimated revenue for the year 1877 i of the coupon bonds of the Chesapeake & $4,008,241; estimated expenditure, $4,771,300. Ohio Canal Company. Being assigned to duty The amount to be raised by State tax to cover in the Southwest, in the early part of the war, the deficiency, and provide for the wants of the he left thein in custody of his wife. At the Treasury in anticipation of the revenues of time of the evacuation of Petersburg, in 1865, 1878, is fixed at $1,400,000. This is a reducshe, being fearful that the bonds would be tion of about $1,000,000 from the average of stolen from her, caused them to be buried, fifteen years.
The railroad system of the State now con- two companies, all infantry; one battalion of sists of 1,837 miles of main track and branches, two companies and one unattached company of 761 miles of siding, and 626 miles of double cavalry; and one battalion of two companies track, and represents a total permanent invest- and one unattached company of artillery. The ment of $110,000,000. There is a mile of rail- expenses of the military department were reroad to every 4.28 square miles of territory duced from $363,630.90 in 1875 to $165,718.08 and 900 inhabitants. The net income from in 1876, a decrease of $197,912.82. the capital invested was 5.6 per cent. for The public-school fund of the State amounts the year. The total earnings were 4.85 per to $2,066,866.43. The income from this, discent. less than in 1875, and 11 per cent. less tributed among the various cities and towns than in 1873. The railroad commissioners for the year 1875–76, was $83,350.99. The have prepared a uniform system of keeping total amount expended throughout the State accounts for all the corporations of the State. for educational purposes was nearly $6,000,000, The Hoosac Tunnel and the connecting road or $19.68 for each child between the ages of are at last substantially completed. The total five and fifteen. The number of children of cost of the work is as follows:
all ages in the public schools during the year Scrip issued to the Troy & Greenfield Rail
was 305,776. The rate of taxation for school road Company before possession was taken
purposes varies in different localities from by the State.
$970,680 00 Amount since paid to January 1, 1876, includ
half a mill to seven and a quarter mills to the ing interest on scrip, less rents, materials
dollar, the average being three and a third mills. sold, etc.
14,128,230 61 Net payments in 1876...
2,106,169 12 Total net cost paid to January 1, 1877........ $17,200,079 73
There was also due and not paid on the contracts $121,939.84, making the total cost $17,322,019.57. The tunnel has been arched with brick. The total length is 25,081 feet, and 20,000,000 bricks have been used in arching. Timber shields have been erected in the central shaft as a protection against falling rocks. It has been found that not the slightest difficulty arises from lack of ventilation. The tunnel line has been during the year under the control of the Governor and Council, who employ a manager and subordinates to carry on its business.
The amount of insurance upon property in the State is $800,000,000, of which $450,000,000 is held by home companies, and $350,
SEAL OF THE STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 000,000 by companies from other States and countries. The annual cash premiums amount There are 37 penal establishments in the to about $7,000,000, and the amount paid for State, including the State-prison, State Worklosses from fire has for three years averaged house, Houses of Industry, Boston House of 45 per cent. of the gross premiums. There are Correction, and the county jails. The total 137 companies from other States and countries number of commitments during the year was doing business in the State, representing a capi- 22,550, including 16,700 different persons. The tal of $50,000,000. The cash capital of home number in confinement on the 1st of October companies is $8,324,200.
was 4,345. The total aggregate expenditure The total amount deposited in savings-banks for these establishments was $617,577. The during the year ending October 31st was $243,- number of convicts in the State-prison at 340,732.66, or $5,491,769.45 more than in the Charlestown on the 30th of September was preceding year. The total amount of new de- 744, an increase for the year of 55. The inposits was $49,776,771.08, while $52,120,524.02 come of the prison was $66,147.22; expenses, was withdrawn, showing an excess of $2,343,- $121,624.37—-showing a deficit of $55,477.15. 752.94 of withdrawals over new deposits. The prison for women at Sherborn is to be
The number of corporations making returns completed about June, 1877. It will cost under the general law was 734 ; total capital, $300,000 for construction, and accommodate $148,880,985; total assets, $244, 130,775 ; total 500 inmates. The number of women in the liabilities, including capital paid in, debts, re- penal institutions of the State on the 1st of serves, etc., $243,814,781.
October was 821, of whom 81 were in county The militia of the State has been reorganized, jails, 231 in houses of correction, 335 in the and now consists of 350 commissioned officers Boston City Prison, and 174 in the State Workand 3,412 enlisted men. The organization in-house. eludes four regiments of eight companies each, The amount already expended on the conthree battalions of six companies, two bat-struction of the new Lunatic Asylum at Dantalions of four companies, and one battalion of vers is $1,373,554.97, and it is probable that