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meteorites were seen to fall by eight or ten The fragments thrown off by the explosion persons. Twelve fragments were found, the were more retarded than the principal mass largest of which weighed four and a half by the resistance of the atmosphere, so that, pounds.
in the last part of the course, the appearance On the 25th of June, between nine and ten was that of an elongated cluster about 30 in o'clock A, M., a small meteorite fell in Kansas breadth and 20° in length. The height of City, Mo.
the meteor when first seen was probably 70 or A large fire-ball, moving in a westerly direc- 75 miles; length of the visible track, 1,000 tion, passed over the States of Michigan and miles; time of flight, two minutes; velocity Wisconsin, on Saturday evening, July 8th, with reference to the earth's surface, 8 miles about fifteen minutes before nine o'clock per second ; true orbital velocity, between 22 (Chicago time). It was seen by Mr. E. L. and 25 miles per second. The interval between Linsley, at Stratford, Conn.; Mr. Benjamin the disappearance of the meteor and the vioVail, at Henryville, Clarke County, Ind. ; Mr. lent detonation as observed at Bloomington, William L. Taylor, at Wolcottville, La Grange Ind., was fifteen minutes, indicating a distance County, Ind. ; Rev. Robert Beer, at Valpa- of about 180 miles. A fragment of the meraiso, Ind., and by many others in various teoric mass, weighing about a pound, was found parts of the Western and Northwestern States. three miles northwest of Rochester, Fulton From the observations of the persons named, County, Ind., on the following morning, Dewith those of others who witnessed the phe- cember 22d. nomenon, it has been found that the course of Star Systems.-Polaris has long been known the meteor was a few degrees north of west; as a double star, its companion being of the that its height when first observed was cer- ninth magnitude, and at a distance of eighteen tainly over 100 miles; that it passed vertically seconds from the larger component. In 1869, over the counties of Branch, St. Joseph, Cass, M. de Boë, at Antwerp, detected two other and Berrien, Mich.; that it did not reach the companions, much nearer and fainter than that earth's surface, but passed out of the atmos- previously known. The observer sought, subphere in its cometary orbit about the sun; and sequently, to confirm his discovery, but his efthat its nearest approach to the earth could forts, until recently, were without success. In not have been less than 70 miles.
1876, using a six-inch equatorial, he rediscorThe meteor was apparently one of great ered the two new stars, and the observation magnitude, as its brilliancy was compared by has been lately confirmed by that of Baron von observers to "the glare of a calcium-light." Eithorn. The light of the new members of The body left a luminous track in the atmos- the system is probably variable. phere, which continued visible at least thirty The Binary Star Omega Leonis.- In the minutes.
" Transactions” of the Royal Irish Academy, On Saturday morning, Deceinber 16th, at vol. xxvi., Dr. Doberck, of Markree Observa12h. 45., an immense ball of fire was seen from tory, Ireland, has given the details of his elab. San Francisco, Cal. When first observed it orate determination of the elements of this was descending rapidly, and, a few moments binary system. The period is 111 years-conafterward, it fell into the sea at apparently no siderably greater than that of Uranus; the ecgreat distance from the shore. The fall was centricity, 0.536. followed by a loud explosion.
Gamma Coronæ Australis.-Prof. SchiapaOn Thursday evening, December 21st, at relli has recently measured this binary star with 81. 45",, Cincinnati time, a meteor of extraor- the eight-inch Merz equatorial of the Observadinary magnitude passed over the States of tory of Brera, Milan, and, by comparing his Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and own observations with those of Powell, Sir Pennsylvania. Its course was 17° or 18° north John Herschel, and Jacob, has calculated its of east, and it passed almost vertically over orbit. The periastron passage will take place Fort Riley, Kan.; Weston, Mo.; Peoria, Ill. ; in 1882; the orbital eccentricity is 0.6989, and Rochester, Ind.; Toledo, Ohio, and Erie, Pa., the period of revolution 55.582 years-somesomewhat south, however, of the place last what greater than that of Sirius. named. At Bloomington, Ind., the meteor Eta Cassiopeia.—During the past year, Dr. was first seen at a point about 10° south of Doberck has rediscussed the observations of west, and less than 5° above the horizon. It this star and obtained new elements differing appeared as a single globe of light, surpass- considerably from those previously computed. ing the moon in magnitude and brightness. The periastron passage will occur in the spring When north west of Bloomington, Ind., or soon of 1909; the eccentricity is 0.5763; the period, after it had passed the zenith of Peoria, III., 222.4 years; and the
semi-axis major, 9.83". the body was seen to separate into numerous The parallax of Eta Cassiopeiæ, according to fragınents. The apparent size, however, of Struve, is om of a second. It results from the principal mass, was not sensibly diminished. these data that the mean distance of the comThe explosion was followed by a violent deto- panion from the principal star is about 64 times nation, resembling a heavy clap of thunder. the radius of the earth's orbit, and the mass of The height of the meteor when the explosion the system 5.25 times that of the sun. The occurred was estimated at from 45 to 49 miles. distance and apparent magnitude of this binary
system are very nearly identical with those of the trapezium in Orion. The instrument used 70 Ophiuchi, while the mass of the latter is less was the Foucault telescope of 31 inches aperthan that of the former in the ratio of three ture, then recently mounted. Especial attento five.
tion was given to those stars which M. 0. Sirius.—From a discussion of the observa- Struve had designated as variable, and not tions of the companion of Sirius, Dr. Auwers only were the suspicions of the Pulkowa obhas found the period of revolution to be 49 server for the inost part confirmed, but in the years and 146 days; the semi-axis of the or- case of several other stars in which he had bit, 37 times the distance of the earth from the detected no change variations of magnitude san; and the eccentricity, 0.6148-somewhat were clearly indicated. The existence of so greater than that of Faye's comet. The mass many variable stars in this remarkable nebula of the companion is half that of the principal will be regarded by astronomers as a fact of star; or, more exactly, the mass of Sirius is no ordinary interest and significance. 13.76, and that of the telescopic star 6.71, the The Pleiades.—The report of the Council mass of the sun being uvity. As the light of of the Royal Astronomical Society to the Sirius, according to Sir John Herschel, is 324 fifty-sixth annual meeting (1876) contains times that of an average star of the sixth mag- the following statements in regard to the nitade, and as the satellite discovered by Pleiades group, several members of which are Clarke is of the ninth or tenth magnitude, the found to be variable: light of the latter must be much less than onethousandth part of that received from the prin- series of measurements of this interesting group of
M. Wolf, of the Paris Observatory, has made a cipal star. The facts seem to indicate å re- stars, including all visible through an object-glass markable difference between the physical con- of 0.31 millimetre aperture. The exact positions of stitution of Sirius and its satellite.
the 58 stars observed by Bessel, referred to Eta Procyon. It was stated, in our volume for distance, are given in a table containing the meas
Tauri by differences of right ascension and polar 1874, that M. Otto Struve had discovered a surements of M. Wolf, compared with those of small companion of Procyon, by which it was Bessel reduced to January 1, 1874. The relative believed the anomalous motion of that star magnitudes of these 53 principal stars have been might be satisfactorily explained. Strangely determined with very great care, in order to detect enough, however, the most diligent search for observations. M. Wolf has been able to detect no this new star with the twenty-six-inch re- less than 499 stars around Eta Tauri, contained fractor of the Washington Observatory has within a rectangle of 185 minutes of arc in length been hitherto unsuccessful, although three and
90 minutes breadth. These vary from the third other companions have been distinctly recog- tudes have been compared with those in the cata
to the fourteenth magnitude. The observed magninized by Profs. Newcomb and Holden; their logues of Jeauret, Lalande, Piazzi, Bessel, and distances from Procyon being 6", 9", and 10", Argelander; from which M. Wolf concludes that respectively. The difference of atmospheric among the eight principal stars of the group, circumstances could scarcely explain the con- Merope and Atlas are decidedly variable, and Maja tradictory character of the observations at the observations of Piazzi and Bessel. The five Pulkowa and Washington. We must conclude, others show no evidence of variability, but some of therefore, that the observations of Struve were the smaller stars have certainly changed their relasomehow erroneous, or that the light of the tive brightness since the former observations. new star is variable.
He concludes, from a comparison of the differ
ences between his and Bessel's measurements of Cincinnati Catalogue of New Double Stars. the 58 principal stars, that the Pleiades form a group - The search for new double stars has been whose members are physically connected one with recently prosecuted with eminent success at the other; and, moreover, there appears to exist in the Cincinnati Observatory. As a first result the group a relative displacement of the stars, which of these labors, the director, Mr. Ormond carries the greater number of them in a contrary
direction to the diurnal motion, slightly diminishStone, has distributed a catalogue of fifty, all ing their polar distance. M. Wolf hopes that his two included in the zone between 8° and 40° south years' observations may serve as a certain basis, at declination. They vary in distance between a future period, for the determination of the proper 0.8" and 8". The estimated magnitudes of motion of the separate components forming the
Pleiades group. the components are given, together with their distances asunder, and their angles of position. Spectroscopic Obserrations.-Sir George B.
Variable Stars.-Dr. Gonld, Director of the Airy, the astronomer royal, has recently pubCordova Observatory, has found the period of lished the results of spectroscopic observa& variable star in Musca to be less than that of tions made at Greenwich for determining the any other variable hitherto determined. This motions of stars in the line of sight. The star, at minimum, is entirely beyond the reach velocity of approach or recession of the stars of unassisted vision even in the sky of Cor- observed is found by the displacements of the dova, though at maximum it is distinctly visi- lines of known elements in their spectra; the ble. The period of variation is about thirty estimated rates of motion being corrected for hours.
the earth's velocity resolved in the direction In February, 1876, M. Tisserand, Director of the star. The rate of recession assigned to of the Observatory of Toulouse, undertook a Sirius by these observations is 27 miles per series of observations on the small stars near second, or about 852,000,000 miles per annum
VOL. XVI.-4 A
24 27 33 89
--a velocity considerably greater than that of with Merope, but extending slightly toward the the earth in its orbit. At this rate of motion east; the other, more luminous, was about seven the star will describe a distance equal to that seconds of arc from the star, on the same parallel, which now separates it from the solar system month of November, 1874, to the end of February, in less than 140,000 years. The velocities 1875, the nebula was invisible, although it was with which certain other stars are receding looked for on many occasions when the sky was from the solar system are as follows:
very favorable for the purpose. M. Wolf, therefore,
considers that this nebula is certainly variable, with Beta Ursæ Majoris.... 15 miles per second. . a moderately short period. Castor...
Knobel's Reference Catalogue of AstronomiRigel. Regulus
cal Papers and Researches. --The thirty-sixth Procyon.
volume of the “Monthly Notices” of the Spici...... 50
Royal Astronomical Society contains, in its The following, on the other hand, are ap- haustive catalogue of the literature of sidereal
supplementary number, an elaborate and exproaching the sun:
This catalogue, prepared by E. Alpha Pegasi.. 22 miles per second. B. Knobel, Esq., consists of a list of references Arcturus
to all books, papers, and notes, relating to the Vega...
following subjects: Alpha Andromedæ... 89 Alpha Ursa Majoris... 40
1. Double Stars, including the Mathematical Gamma Leonis....
Investigation of the Orbits of Binary Systems.
2. Variable Stars. It will be noticed that Alpha and Beta of
3. Red Stars. the Great Bear (the two stars known as "the
4. Nebulæ and Clusters. pointers") are moving in different directions.
5. Proper Motions of Stars. The former, which is nearer the pole, is ap 6. Parallax and Distance of Stars. proaching the sun; the latter is receding from 7. Star Spectra. it.
The list of references is derived mainly from Nebula.-M. Stephan, Director of the Mar
a systematic examination of the libraries of seilles Observatory, has been recently devoting the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical special attention to the search for new nebulæ. Society, the first of which is said to be pecul. The result has been the discovery of 400 of iarly rich and complete in the transactions of these bodies, all of which had escaped the scientific societies. The work was prepared, notice of former observers. The fact that the compiler informs us, “in the hope that they are generally small is favorable to the these references may be found useful to asaccurate determination of their positions—a tronomers in guiding them to the particular point of great importance for the future inves- literature giving information on the abovetigation of their proper motions.
mentioned branches of stellar astronomy, and Supposed Changes in Messier's Nebula No. 17. thereby reducing their labors in reading up -This nebula, which was discovered by Mes- the subject to a minimum." sier nearly a century since, has lately been the
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Sosubject of critical study by Prof. Edward S. ciety.-The gold medal of the Royal AstroHolden, of the Washington Observatory. It nomical Society was awarded, in 1876, to M. was the object of these researches to deter- Leverrier, Director of the Paris Observatory, mine whether the nebula has undergone any for his theories of the four great planets, sensible changes since the date of the earliest Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. "Levertrustworthy descriptions. The conclusion de- rier's theoretical investigations of the motions rived from an elaborate discussion is that, of all the priņcipal planets have now been prewhile the stars in and about the nebula have sented to the Académie des Sciences. His retained their relative positions, the part of theories of the four inner planets were comthe nebula known as the “Horseshoe " has pleted several years since, and for these, it moved with reference to the stars, and that, will be remembered, the medal of the society therefore, " we have evidence of a change going was awarded him 'in 1868. At the annual on in this nebula." This may be a change in meeting in February, 1876, the president, the nebula’s internal structure, or it may be Prof. Ådams, reviewed the labors of the dis“the bodily shifting of the whole nebula in tinguished mathematician, upon whom the space in some plane inclined to the line of highest honor of the association had been a sight."
second time conferred; explained the grounds Variable Nebula in the Pleiades.--Of this on which the council had based their decision; interesting object the " Monthly Notices" of and, in concluding, expressed to M. Leverrier the Royal Astronomical Society for February, the deep interest with which astronomers had 1876, says:
followed him in his unwearied researches, and The most remarkable object of the group is the the admiration which they had felt " for the nebula around Merope. Discovered by M. Tempel skill and perseverance by which he had sucin 1859, it has also been seen by Profs. D'Arrest and ceeded in binding all the principal planets of must be variable. On March 7, 1874, it consisted of our system, from Mercury to Neptune, in the two portions, one of which was nearly concentric chains of his analysis."
AUERSPERG, ANTON ALEXANDER, Count with the exception of one session. In all vox, also well known by his nom de plume, questions of legislation he voted with the LibAnastasius Grün, an Austrian statesman and erals, while in the constitutional debates he poet, born April 11, 1806 ; died September 12, was with those who advocated centralization 1876. He received his first education at home, and afterward dualism, rejecting the federal was sent to the Theresianum in Vienna, in idea decidedly. The address of January, 1870, 1813, from there he went to the Engineering was an able argument for the preservation of Academy. Upon the death of bis father he the constitution, and against the impending was placed in a private institution to prepare federalistic experiments of the minority; that himself for the university. After having of November, 1870, culminated in a most destudied law and philosophy in the Universities cisive vote against the vacillating policy of the of Vienna and Gratz, he traveled through Italy, ministry, and was adopted even in the HerrenFrance, England, and Germany; took charge of haus by an almost unanimous vote. He spoke bis estates in 1831, and in 1839 married the repeatedly for a peaceful and constitutional Countess Maria von Attems, living after that settlement of the difficulties with Hungary, partly on his estates and partly in Gratz and and for a closer connection of Austria and Vienna. Every office in the service of the Germany. In the Diet of Carniola, from Government or of the court he decidedly 1861 to 1867, and afterward in that of Styria, refused, being bitterly opposed to the policy of he was an active supporter of German ideas Prince Metternich. He began early to gain a and of the Liberals. In 1868 he was upanireputation as a poet. Even while a student in mously elected president of the delegation of Vienna he had contributed numerous small the Austrian crown-lands. But, with the expoems to the Philomele and the Theaterzeitung, ception of his seat in the Herrenhaus, he and in 1830 published a small volume under the resigned all his positions. In this body he title of “Blätter der Liebe, von Anastasius continued to take an active interest up to his Grün.". Under the same nom de plume he pub- death. Among bis speeches those delivered lished, during the same year, "Der letzte Rit- during the confessional debates of 1868 and ter” (eighth edition, 1860), a romance, in which 1874 have gained particular celebrity. His he intended to show to the effeminate admin- last poetical work of any importance was a istration of that period the manly picture of German version of “Robin Hood” (1864). the last knight, Maximilian, in the form of AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. The Theuerdank. This was followed by "Spazier- area and population of Australia and Polynesia gänge eines Wiener Poeten” (1831; sixth edi- were, according to the latest accounts, as foltion, 1861), which appeared anonymously in lows: 1831 in Hamburg. This volume, a collection of
Sq. Miles Sq. Miles Popul'tion Populathirty patriotic poems, produced great excitement throughout Germany. The authorities employed every means to discover the author, New South Wales.. 808,560
684,278 and when they finally found that the “Vien- Victoria .
88,451 nese poet," Anastasius Grün, and Count Auers
168,517 perg, were one and the same person, the latter Western Australia.
26,209 was fined fifty ducats. In 1835 he published Northeru Territory.. 523,531 another collection of patriotic poems, under the
CONTINENT OF AUSTRAtitle of “Schutt" (twelfth edition, 1869), which
2,945,227 1,841,700 is generally considered as his best production. Tasmania.
104,176 He then collected his smaller poems, sketches, Other islands.
1,777 etc., into one volume, “Gedichte” (1837; four- ISLANDS SOUTH OF THE teenth edition, 1868). In 1848 he was elected a TROPIC OF CAPRICORN
1,000,000 member of the German “Vorparlament,” and New Guinea..
. afterward of the National Assembly in Frank- New Caledonia :: 6,697 fort. In this body he always voted with the Feejee Islands.
25,000 Left Centre, but left it in September, 1848, be- Friendly Islands,
83,000 cause the murders of Lychnowski and Auers- Tahiti.. wald had utterly disgusted him. For some years Other islands..
Marquesas Jolands he lived in entire seclusion on his estates, pub- IBLANDS BETWEEN THE
804,500 lishing in 1852 the poetical works of his friend EQUATOR AND Nikolaus Lenau. After the change of affairs
TROPIC OF CAPRICORN
838,952 2,207,000 Sandwich Islands.. 7,618
56,897 in Austria in 1859, he again took an active part Caroline Islands.
18,800 in public life. In that year he was appointed Pelew Islands. by the Government a member of a commission Other islands
16,200 to draw up a communal law for Carniola. In Islands NORTH OF THE 1860 he was called by the Emperor to the EQUATOR..
140,900 Verstärkter Reichsrath” for Carniola, and Total..........
8,485,102 4,682,400 in 1861 was created a life-member of the Austrian Herrenhaus. Here he was the regular According to the enumerations of the years reporter and author of addresses to the throne, 1869–71there were 1,300,452 Protestants,
or Sub of of Sub tion of divisions. Divisions. divisions. Divisiore.
443,442 Catholics, 8,243 Hebrews, 15,521 of
Marriages. other denominations, and 46,839 not known.
Deaths. In New Zealand there were, in 1874, 241,082 New South Wales.. 4,313 22,178
8,652 Protestants, 40,371 Catholics, 1,215 Hebrews, South Australia.
4,925 26,800 12,222
1,611 7,606 8,434 4,764 pagans, 4,367 of other denominations, Queensland,
1,340 6,883 2,794 and 7,715 whose religion was unknown. Of
West Australia. the inhabitants of Australia in 1871, 1,817,187 New Zealand
2,828 12,844 4,161 were born on British territory ; of these, 993,362 were born in Australia, and 807,786
15,940 79,874 83,439 in Great Britain. There were also 35,506 persons born in Germany, 5,475 in the United The following table shows the rate of taxStates, 3,046 in France, 31,036 in China, and ation per head of population, the revenue, the 23,525 were born in other countries.
imports and the exports for 1874, and the pubThe movement of population in 1874 was as lic debt on December 31, 1874, for each of the follows:
Australian colonies :
Education in the different colonies is pro The postal statistics for the different colonies vided for by primary schools, grammar-schools, were as follows: colleges, and universities. The latest statistics of the primary schools were as follows:
N. South Wales (1873) 654 9,602,000 5,468,800 21792,744 New South Wales... 1,503
Victoria (1878). 800 14,475,085 6,787,828 210 113,185 2,334 57,917 52,870 110,287
South Australia (1875) 844 4,234,881 2,774,003 Victoria.. 1,048 2,416 78,826 62,136 135,962
West Australia (1874)
7.181 (1874) 83
8,000 Tasmania (1874)...
Queensland (1673).. 1852,459,484 1,688.882
42 83,506 288 Queensland (1874).. 208 590 12,890 16,112 29,002
New Zealand (1878). . 533 7,915,985 3,269,195 52,851 New Zealand (1874)*! 680 1,272 21,774 19,258 41,027 The railroad statistics for 1874 were as fol- New Zealand was estimated as follows on May
The population of the four principal cities of lows:
1, 1876: Dunedin, 19,657 ; Auckland, 13,186 ; COLONIES.
Miles in Miles la Wellington, 11,298; Christchurch, 10,772.
Operation. Building, The agricultural statistics of New Zealand New South Wales..
show Canterbury, standing at the head of all Victoria....
provinces, with 550,759 acres in cultivation; South Australia.
Otago coming next, with 451,669; Wellington West Australia Tasmania.....
third, with 432,802; and Auckland fourth, with Queensland...
356,988 acres; the total for the whole colony New Zealand.
being 2,230,988 acres, showing an increase of Total......
1,680.5 1,376 442,221 over 1875. Canterbury has the largest
area in every kind of crop, with the single exThe length of telegraph-lines at the close of ception of oats, in which the Scottish province the year 1874, the length of wires at the close of Otago takes first place. The area sown of 1875, and the number of stations in 1875, with wheat shows a decrease for the whole were as follows:
colony of 14,868 acres as compared with the Stations.
A census of South Australia, taken on New South Wales...
March 26, 1876, gave a population of 213,721, Victoria...
3,888 4,618 South Australia..
of whom 110,941 were males, and 102,780
8,900 8,904 West Australia.
females. Adelaide had 31,573 inhabitants, of Tasmania
291 547 82
whom 15,104 were males and 16,469 females. Queensland..
3,616 8,617 New Zealand.
The next largest cities were Norwood and
Kensington with 6,576, Hindmarsh with 4,120, Total..... 22,089 27,469 658
Port Adelaide with 2,885, and Glenely with * Inclusive of grammar-schools and colleges. 2,028 inhabitants.
187 163 105 20