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deprived the people of the State of an opportunity of the records of the State, even hy going behind of bringing to trial the Chief Magistrate of the State, the barrier of the Wheeler adjustment. charged with high crimes and misdemeanors, and Only one other accusation has been made against with criminal neglect and violation of his official me, namely,

that in a time of revolution, of great daty.

public exigenoy, I sanctioned a temporary diversion Resolved, That the members of the Senate, having of the State funds, which could not and did not reformed and expressed their opinion that the said sult in the loss of a dollar to the State, and took this accused is entirely innocent, are disqualified from course solely in the public interest, and to protect now sitting in judgment on the trial of the impeach- the property of the city. ment, and that this House can proceed no further If the Senate had not already acquitted me of high in the premises, and are powerless to resent this fla- crimes and misdemeanors, the accusations passed at grant outrage upon right, justice, and decency, and this late hour would have formed in themselves a can only refer the matter to the people of the State complete assertion of my official rectitude. Added for their consideration.

to this, I refer to the notoriously and often-repeated The same day Governor Kellogg sent a mes- Legislature, and others authorized to speak for them,

propositions made by Democratic members of the sage to the House, replying to the several that if I would secure the passage by the Senate of charges contained in the fourteen articles of the House election bill, and certain other laws to impeachment, and concluding as follows:

further the partisan ends of my accusers, no effort

would be made to impeach me. In these fourteen frivolous accusations are concen

I submit that these facts of themselves fully justrated all charges of wrong-doing which a majority tify me in asserting that my accusers did not and do of the House of Representatives, actuated by the not believe me to have been guilty of high crimes strongest feelings of partisan

enmity, have been able and misdemeanors against the Staté. to concoct against me after fifty-nine days' session, innumerable investigations, and the utmost scrutiny The delegates of the Democratic party of

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the State to the National Convention at St. but all the means in their power will be employed to Louis were appointed at the convention held defeat the further rule of the vicious and ignorant in in New Orleans, on the 5th of January. (For cating these demands, and this committee, as their

this State. Happily, the people are united in advothe platform and other proceedings, see ANNUAL organ, promises an earnest canvass to secure their CYCLOPÆDIA, 1875.) The State Central Com- rights. What remains to be done, is the perfection mittee, which was chosen at the same time, of the Democratic Conservative organization in all had a meeting on the 10th of February, and parishes of the State where action has not been

taken. issued an address to the people. The following extract illustrates the spirit with which the The following resolution was also adopted canvass was opened:

by the committee: The time for decisive action has arrived. The Whereas, It is apparent that the radical party in issues are few in number, and simple in their char- the State of Louisiana, despairing of success by fair acter. The course is plain and straightforward. means, have resolved to pursue the same policy hy There must be an honest government in Louisiana- which in the past they have been enabled, against a State the fairest among all her sisters-or Louisi- the wishes and voice of a majority of the people, to ana, burdened with debt, exhausted by taxation. and secure possession of the government of the State, suffering from the supremacy of ignorance over in- and by the aid of Federal bayonets to retain the telligence, will become a colony for convicts and the possession thus fraudulently and violently obtained; home of 'depravity. The people, for whom this andcommittee speaks, are resolved, in this centennial of Whereas, It is evident that they have determined their liberties, to test the relative strength of intelli- at every cost to perpetuate t!:e Returning Board, gence and ignorance. They will use no violence, which řas heretofore done so much to render futile

our victories at the ballot-box, and to destroy the enactment of such additional laws, and the enforceliberties of the people: therefore, be it

ment of such a policy, as shall secure to every citizen Resolved, That the Central Executive Committee of the United States, in fact as well as iu name, the of the Democratic Conservative party of the State inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of of Louisiana earnestly urges upon the Democratic happiness, irrespective of bis political views, and and Conservative members of the Legislature to ex- irrespective of race, color, or previous condition of haust every means in their power to prevent such an servitude. outrage upon the people of the State as the passage of an election bill containing any provision estab

The Republican Convention for the nominalishing a Returning Board with unlimited power, ortion of candidates for State offices began at with

any power which will enable them to defeat New Orleans on Tuesday, June 27th. There the will of the people as expressed at the ballot- were two prominent factions, and a permanent box.

organization was not effected until the followThe Republican Convention for the nomina- ing Saturday, when P. B. S. Pinchback was tion of delegates to the National Convention chosen president. On the same day a platat Cincinnati was held at New Orleans on the form was adopted, consisting of the following 30th and 31st of May. W. P. Kellogg, P. B. statements, and a reaffirmation of the princiS. Pinchback, S. B. Packard, and W. G. Brown, ples declared at the previous convention: were the delegates at large. The platform, 1. The Republican party of Louisiana, in convenafter alluding to the achievements of the Re- tion assembled, reaffirm the tenets and principles publican party, and pledging coöperation in of the national Republican party as declared from support of its principles, submitted the follow- time to time, and especially as enunciated in the ing measures of national policy:

platform adopted at the National Convention held

at Cincinnati, June 14, 1876. We particularly com1. The nomination of a candidate for the presi- mend and indorse the declaration that the United dency whose personal character will afford a guaran- States of America is a nation and not a league, and tee of an honest, able, economical, and effective that upon the nation devolves the duty of protecte administration of the national Government upon ing the citizens of the United States in all their Republican principles.

rights, at home and abroad; thus maintaining fully 2. A system of Federal finance which will insure tho Constitution of the United States and the amendthe collection of the revenues, punish all official or ments thereto. other frauds upon the Treasury, and bring about a 2. We hail the nomination of Governor Rutherford steady, speedy, and permanent return to the pay- B. Hayes with pleasure and pride, believing that in ment of specie into and out of the Treasury in all his elevation to the presidency the country will Federal transactions.

secure an Administration which will maintain the 3. A system of revenue, taxation, and assessment rights of all classes of citizens of the republic, and which, while it shall provide ample means to meet which will administer the government economically the public

expenditures and obligations, shall assume and execute the laws faithfully. We are not less the protection of certain national interests against gratified at the nomination for Vice-President of the destructive competition of foreign productions, William A. Wheeler, whose reputation as a Repubespecially insisting that the capital and labor em- lican and character as a statesman are national. Ia ployed in the production of the national staples of our ticket we see a guarantee of success. We insugar and rice should be included among any articles dorse and ratify it. entitled to such protection.

3. The Republican party of Louisiana are in full 4. The just apportionment of Federal appropria- accord with the national Republican party upon all tions for national works of internal improvement. financial questions as declared in the Cincinnati Taking into account the immense advances received platform; and we believe that during the Adminisby our more fortunate sister States during the period tration of President Hayes a resumption of specie when Democratic domination denied to the southern payment can be effected through a return to general States their just share of the common fund, such a commercial and productive prosperity throughout measure of equilization would justify national aid the Union. to a Southwestern Pacific Railroad and branches, to the protection by levees of the capital and labor

Two more days were occupied in making employed in the culture of cotton, sugar, and rice, nominations and agreeing upon a State Central and to the effectual navigation of the Mississippi Committee. The ticket for State officers finalRiver, its principal tributaries, and its outlet.

ly accepted was: For Governor, S. B. Packard; Resolutions were also adopted declaring that for Lieutenant-Governor, 0. C. Antoine; for the delegates to the National Convention Secretary of State, Emile Honoré; for Auditor, should be left untrammeled in their action, ex- George B. Johnson; for Attorney-General, W. pressing approval of the Administration of H. Hunt; for Superintendent of Education, President Grant, and declaring the Hon. O. P. W. G. Brown. The candidates for presidenMorton was “entitled to the warm gratitude tial electors were: J. H. Burch, William P. of the Republicans of all the Southern States, Kellogg, at large; and L. A. Sheldon, Peter and especially of Louisiana.” Opposition was Joseph, Morris Marks, A. B. Levissée, O. H. declared to the Hawaiian treaty, and the fol- Brewster, and Oscar Joffrion, from the dislowing was also among the resolutions adopted: tricts. P. B. S. Pinch back was made chairman

Resolved, That the assassination of many hundreds of the State Central Committee. of prominent Union men in the South on account of

The Democratic nominating convention was their political principles, the massacre of thousands held at Baton Rouge, beginning on the 24th of inoffensive colored citizens, the relegation of of July, and continuing four days. The report nearly all the Southern States to the control of the of the Committee on Credentials was not made disloyal elements whose treason brought about the until the third day, and then organization was composed of ex-leaders of the Confederate army, promptly effected, and the following platform indicate grave national dangers, which demand the adopted:

We, the representatives of the Democratic Con- Orleans; for Attorney-General, H. N. Ogden, servative party of the State of Louisiana, in conven- of Orleans; for Secretary of State, William A. and political reform to be the paramount issue in the Strong, of Winn; for Auditor, Allen Jumel, coming general election, and we earnestly appeal to of Iberville; for Superintendent of Public Edour fellow-citizens, of every former political associa- ucation, Robert M. Lusher, of Orleans. The tion of white and colored, to zealously coöperate candidates for electors were: John McEnery with us in our pronounced effort to effect such re- and R. C. Wickliffe, at large, and Louis St. form,

We arraign the radical party of Louisiana for Martin, Felix P. Poché, Alcibiade De Blanc, marked and frequent violations of the letter and W. A. Seay, R. G. Cobb, and K. A. Cross, from spirit of the Constitution; for the assumption of il- the districts. licit powers for the benefit of party, and to the great injury and almost total ruin of the

state; for fomento considerable excitement, was generally, free

The political canvass, though attended with exciting strife and turmoil, thereby cruelly sacrificing from disorder and exhibitions of violence. the lives of colored and white citizens, with the in- There had been some political trouble early in tent of procuring unwarranted and unconstitutional the year in the parishes of East Baton Rouge interference in our State affairs. We denounce the usurpative and bad government

and East Feliciana, but it was of a purely local which Louisiana has suffered for the last four years, character, pertaining to alleged misconduct in a usurpation under which officers elected by the parish offices. In East Feliciana a mass-meetpeople have been displaced, the government arbitra- ing was held in January, in which both white fily overthrown by Federal power, the Legislature and colored citizens took part, and resolutions invaded and dispersed by bayonets in time of pro- were adopted declaring that great good had ference adds but another to the long list of crimes been done in "ridding the parish of malicious, for which the Republican party should be held to ignorant, and corrupt officers," and pledging account in November next.

support to all "fair-minded, competent officers We hereby proclaim that it is our desire and fixed in the maintenance of peace, law, and good purpose under any and every provocation to have a order.” The “malicious, ignorant, and corinsist that there shall be no violence or intimidation rupt officers ” alluded to appear to have been exercised toward such of our colored fellow-citizens driven out of the parish by organizations called as may wish to cooperate with us for the redemption “regulators." In East Baton Rouge, in March, of the State from misrule. We fully recognize the binding effect of the three were called upon to resign, and a petition was

the sheriff, the parish judge, and tax-collector, recent articles of amendment to the Constitution of the United States, and accept the same as a final set- addressed to Governor Kellogg asking him to tlement

of the controversies that engendered civil accept their resignations. The proceedings war, and we pledge ourselves to protect every citizen were taken in a public meeting, in which colin the exercise of the rights acquired and guaranteed ored citizens took part. Governor Kellogg by said amendments, whatever be his race, color, or previous condition.

wrote to the District Attorney, under date of We hereby pledge our party to the satisfaction of March 28th, calling his attention to combinaall the legal obligations issued by the State of Louisi- tions of lawless persons to displace the civil ana; to the most strenuous efforts in the direction authorities of the parish, and requesting him of reform and an economical administration of the to institute proceedings against those concerned necessary public officers; to the reduction of the fees in the recent unlawful disturbances in the and salaries of offices; to the standard of a fair re- city of Baton Rouge.” The District Attorney muneration and the consequent reduction of taxation replied that he knew of no combination of to the lowest possible limit commensurate with the lawless persons; that the action of citizens had necessary expenses of the government and the pres- been taken in public meeting, and was charof the dangerously-large patronage of the chief Ex: acterized by calmness and deprecation of vioecutive of the State.

lence; and that the officials had been induced We declare ourselves in favor of the passage of to resign peaceably and without the violation the Texas Pacific Railroad bill, now pending before of any law. Congress, and recommend our members of Congress to advocate its passage at an early date.

Early in May two men were shot by a masked We advocate the fostering of the public schools assassin at Coushatta, and on the 17th of June for the benefit of all the educatable children of the there was a riot at Port Hudson, in which State, and that equal advantage be given to all chil- shots were fired, but these occurrences appear dren, colored as well as white.

We cordially approve of and indorse the platform to have bad no political significance. There of the national Democratic party, recently assembled was a slight outbreak of race antagonism at in convention at St. Louis, and feel inspired with the Monroe, and through the surrounding country, hope of a better government in the

future; but the about the last of August. There was a gathergreat question of reform is brought before the people ing of armed negroes and threats of burning of the whole country by a great national party, and the town, but finally the negroes were induced the success of those great exponents of national re- to disperse, and there was no serious disorder. form, Samuel J. Tilden and Thomas A. Hendricks. Generally throughout the political canvass the

Conservatives pursued the policy of endeavorOn the fourth day the nominations were ing to prevent any compromise of their claims made, the State ticket being as follows: For through violence and disorder, and of securing Governor, Francis T. Nicholls, of Assumption; the cooperation, so far as possible, of colored for Lieutenant-Governor, Louis A. Wiltz, of citizens. Negro voters were in many places

enrolled in the same clubs with Conservative publican, and that the vote claimed there by whites, for the purpose, it was alleged, of pro- the Democrats was a procured by intimidation, tecting them from intimidation by colored Re- violence, and assassination, and the proof of publicans. In other cases they formed Conserva- this is overwhelming and perfectly conclusive." tive clubs of their own. Colored speakers took The vote, he thought, would be close, "countpart in the canvass on the Democratic side, ing the vote in the tive bulldozed parishes as and the antagonism to the existing State gov- the Democrats claim it; not counting these ernment seemed to extend among all classes. parishes, while the Republicans will be deAn address to the colored citizens of the State prived of a legitimate majority of nearly 4,000, from one of their own number, named Joseph in no contingency can the Democrats have A. Craig, dated September 14th, urged them, carried the State.” Many letters were made in the interest of peace and good government, public, written by colored men in different and for the sake of their own welfare, to vote localities, denying charges of violence and infor the Democratic candidates. In reply to a timidation, while other statements were made letter from a colored Conservative club of New alleging that many were prevented from votOrleans, Mr. Nicholls, Democratic candidate ing as they wished. for Governor, under date of September 20th, There was from the first apprehension on said :

both sides that there would not be a fair count You may rest fully and thoroughly assured that of the votes, and a declaration of the result in your faith and belief are well founded when you say accordance with the actual will of the people. you are satisfied that the ticket nominated at Baton President Grant on the 10th of November had Rouge gives to the colored people throughout the State the assurance that if elected their rights will General Augur instructed to be vigilant with be amply protected and a new era enacted in the the forces at his command "to preserve peace State administration."

and good order, and to see that the proper and My remarks at Baton Rouge, made to the conven- legal Board of Canvassers are unmolested in tion which nominated me, were not only the expresthe performance of their duties. Should there policy, but the enunciation of the plainest principles be any grounds of suspicion of fraudulent of official duty which will have to guide me in the count on either side," he added, "it should be event of my election.

reported and denounced at once. No man The laws should be general in their operation, and worthy of the office of President should be any law

attempted to be passed directed against a willing to hold it if counted in or placed there class or race of the community would meet my most by fraud. Either party can afford to be diswill be made; for, independently of the constitutional appointed in the result. The country cannot barriers which would stand in the way, the Demo- afford to have the result tainted by the suspicratic and Conservative sentiment of the whole State cion of illegal or false returns." He also reis united against such action.

To disregard and go back upon the pledges which quested several gentlemen prominently conI have given on this subject would be to disgrace me nected with the Republican party to proceed before the country; I shall certainly not place my- to New Orleans to witness the canvass of the self in such a position.

vote by the Returning Board. These gentleThe national canvass was made entirely sub- men were John Sherman, of Ohio; E. W. ordinate to that of the State, and occupied Stoughton, of New York; J. H. Van Alen, little attention. Before the election in No- of New York; Eugene Hale, of Maine; J. A. vember, there appeared scarcely any indication Garfield,

of Ohio, Cortlandt Parker, of New of political disturbance. There were some Jersey; Wm. D. Kelley, of Pennsylvania; Sidarrests in the parishes of Orleans and West ney Clark, of Kansas; and J. O. Wilson, of Feliciana for alleged attempts at intimidation Kansas. Several others were associated with of colored voters and for false registration, but them in New Orleans, where they arrived on no outbreaks of violence preceded, attended, the 12th, among whom were Stanley Matthews, or followed them. The election itself passed of Ohio; John A. Kasson, of Iowa; William off with a peace and quiet altogether unusual Cumback, of Indiana; Edward F. Noyes, of in the State.

Ohio; Lew Wallace, of Indiana, and several It was some days before there was any defi- more. At the request of the chairman of the nite knowledge as to the result of the election, National Democratic Committee, several genthe process of making the returns being very tlemen also went out to New Orleans in the slow; but it very soon appeared that a major- interest of the Democratic party. They arity of the votes actually cast were for the rived there on the 13th, and included John Democratic candidates. Nevertheless, on the M. Palmer, Lyman Trumbull, and William R. 11th of November, Governor Kellogg sent a Morrison, of Illinois; Samuel J. Randall

, A. very confident dispatch to the North claiming G. Curtin, and William Bigler, of Pennsylthat there was no doubt of a Republican vic-vania; J. E. McDonald and George W. Julian, tory. He declared that the parishes of East of Indiana ; Henry Watterson and J. W. Stevenand West Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, More- son, of Kentucky ; Oswald Ottendorfer, of house, and Ouachita, had been "overran and New York; J. B. Stallo, of Ohio; Lewis F. intimidated by armed bands of the White Bogy and J. B. Brodhead, of Missouri; John League before and on the day of the election.” Lee Carroll, of Maryland, and others. This He said that these parishes were strongly Re- committee of Democrats, on the 14th of No

vember, addressed a formal request to the vis- disturbance, bribery, or corrupt influences at any iting Republicans, that “in view of the un- such poll or voting-place; and if, from the evidence happy controversies which have heretofore of such statement, they shall be convinced that such

riot, tumult, acts of violence, intimidation, armed arisen from the action of the Returning Board disturbance, bribery, or corrupt influences did not of the State where its action could not in any materially interfere with the purity and freedom of count change the result of a presidential elec- the election at such poll or voting-place, or did not tion, and in view of the desire of all good men prevent a sufficient number of qualified voters thereat that effect should be given to the will of the result of the election, then, and not otherwise, said

from registering or voting to materially change the majority as lawfully expressed, they would returning officers shall canvass and compile the vote meet and confer with them (the Democrats] of such" polling place with those previously canpersonally or through committees, as may be vassed and compiled; but, if the said returning offideemed most wise, in order that such influence cers shall not be fully satisfied thereof, it shall be as we possess may be exerted in behalf of such thereto, and to this end they shall have power to

their duty to examine turther testimony in regard a canvass of the votes actually cast as by its send for persons and papers. "If after such examinafairness and impartiality shall command the tion the said returning officers shall be convinced respect and acquiescence of the American peo- that said riot, tumult, acts of violence, intimidation, ple of all parties."

armed disturbance, bribery, or corrupt influences A reply of considerable length was made on of the election at such poll or voting-place, or did

did materially interfere with the purity and freedom the 16th, in which the Republicans heartily prevent a sufficient number of the qualified electors concurred in the "earnest desire for a perfectly thereat from registering and voting to materially honest and just declaration of the results of change the result of the election, then the said rethe recent election;" but stated that they statement of the votes of such poll or voting-place,

turning officers shall not canvass or compile the knew of no reason to doubt that such a dec- but shall exclude it from their returns: Provided, laration would be made, and did not see the That any person interested in said election, by reason " propriety or utility of a conference.” They of being a candidate for office, shall be allowed a were there as private citizens, with no power application within the time allowed for the forward

hearing before said returning officers upon making to modify the laws of the State or control its ing of the returns of said election. officers, and were unwilling to interfere. They quoted the law of the State as to the powers

Section 26, referred to, is as follows: of the Returning Board, and argued that it SEO. 26. That in any parish, precinct, ward, city, was not desirable to interfere with the judicial or town, in which during the time of registration or functions of that body, or to reduce their ac- there

shall be any riot, tumult, acts of violence, tion to a mere clerical count of the votes as intimidation and disturbance, bribery or corrupt cast. To this reply the Democrats made a influences at any place within said parish, or at or rejoinder, expressing their regret that their near any poll or voting-place, or place of registraefforts at a conference were not met in the tion, or revision of registration, which riot, tümult

, spirit in which they were made, disclaiming bery or corrupt influences, shall prevent, or tend to any desire to interfere with the legal perform- prevent, a fair, free, peaceable, and full vote of all ance of the duties of the Returning Board, the qualified electors of said parish, precinct, ward, and declaring that their only wish was that city, or town, it shall be the duty of the Commisthe joint influence of the visiting committees sioners of Election, if such riot, tumult, acts of

violence, intimidation and disturbance, bribery, or might be used to secure a perfectly fair count. corrupt influences occur on the day of election, or

The law provided that the returning officers of the supervision of registration of the parish, if "for all elections in the State" should consist they occur during the time of registration or reviof five persons, " to be elected by the Senate sion of registration, to make in duplicate, and under from all political parties.” Their powers were ing thereto, and of the

effect produced by such riot, defined in the following section of the act of tumult, acts of violence, intimidation and disturb1874:

ance, bribery or corrupt influences in preventing a

fair, free, and peaceable and full registration or elecSECTION 3. That in such canvass and compilation tion, and of the number of qualified electors dethe returning officers shall observe the following terred by such riots, tumult, acts of violence, iutini. order: They shall compile first the statements from dation and disturbance, bribery or corrupt influences all polls or voting-places at which there shall have from registering or voting, which statement shall been a fair, free, and peaceable registration and elec- also be corroborated under oath by three respectable tion. Whenever, from any poll or voting-place, citizens, qualified electors of the parish.' When there shall be received the statement of any Super- such statement is made by a Commissioner of Elecvisor of Registration or Commissioner of Élection, tion or a Supervisor of Registration, he shall forin form as required by section 26 of this act, on ward it in duplicate to the Supervisor of Registration affidavit of three or more citizens, of any riot, tu- of the parish (if in the city of New Orleans to the mult, acts of violence, intimidation, armed disturb- Secretary of State), one copy of which, if made to ance, bribery, or corrupt influences which prevented the Supervisor of Registration, shall be forwarded or tended to prevent a fair, free, and peaceable vote by him to the returning officers provided for by of all qualified electors entitled to vote at such poll section 2 of this act, when he makes the returns of or voting-place, such returning officers shall not election in his parish. His copy of said statement canvass, count, or compile the statements of votes shall be so annexed to his returns of elections by from such poll or voting-place until the statements paste, wax, or some adhesive substance, ihat the from all other polls or voting-places shall have been same can be kept together, and the other copy the canvassed and compiled. The returning officers Supervisor of Registration shall deliver to the Clerk shall then proceed to investigate the statements of of the Court of his parish for the use of the District riot, tumult, acts of violence, intimidation, armed Attorney.

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