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Burnaby; “The Shores of Lake Aral,” by Major Herbert Wood, R. E.; “Clouds in the East: Travels and Adventures on the PersoTurkoman Frontier,” by Valentine Baker; and “The Crimea and Transcaucasia,” by J. Buchan Telfer, R. N. Of Oceanic explorations we notice “Pearls of the Pacific,” by J. W. Boddam-Whethan ; “The South Pacific,” by Rev. W. Wyatt Gill; “Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea and the D'Entrecastereaux Islands,” by Captain J. Moseby; and “Yachting in the Arctic Seas,” by James Lamont. Coming nearer home: “Rambles and Studies in Greece,” by J. P. Mahaffy; “Historical and Architectural Sketches, chiefly Italian,” by E. A. Freeman; “The Balearic Islands,” by Charles T. Bidwell; “Holidays in the Tyrol,” by Walter White; “The Great Divide: Travels on the Upper Yellowstone,” by the Earl of Dunraven; “German Home Life; ” “Dutch Guiana,” by W. G. Palgrave; and among circumnavigators, “Over the Sea and Far Away: Narrative of Wanderings round the World,” by T. W. Hinchliff, President of the Alpine Club, are noticeabe. In Science and Philosophy, the most striking work that has appeared is Mr. A. R. Wallace's “Geographical Distribution of Animals;” an “Introduction to Animal Morphology,” by Alexander Macalister; Lord Amberly’s “Analysis of Religious Belief,” a work of personal interest rather than of philosophical value; two other posthumous books: “Fragments on Ethical Subjects,” by the late George Grote; “Thoughts on Art, Philosophy, and Religion, from the Unpublished Papers of Sydney Dobell; ” Darwin’s “Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants; ” Prof. E. R. Lancaster's “History of Creation; ” not to mention the numerous compilations intended to popularize science. Of original works in theological science the number is small. Dr. F. J. A. Hort's “Two Dissertations: 1. On MONOTENHX 0EOX in Scripture and Tradition. 2. On the Constantinopolitan Creed and other Eastern Creeds; ” an essay in reply to “Supernatural Religion,” entitled “The Gospels in the Second Century,” by W. Sanday; a piece of recondite Biblical investigation, “The Missing Fragment of the Latin Translation of the Fourth Book of Esdras,” by R. L. Bensley; Principal Tulloch on “The Christian Doctrine of Sin ; ” the Bampton Lectures of Bishop Alexander, on “The Witness of the Psalms to Christ and Christianity;” and the remarkable “University Sermons of Rev. J. B. Mozley, D. D., are among the chief. MiscellANEors.-Of classical essays, Mr. Gladstone’s “Homeric Synchronism,” and
Prof. Jebb’s “Attic Orators,” deserve particular notice; as well as Mr. Leslie Stephen's second series of “liours in a Library;” Mr. J. Ormsby's “Stray Papers,” and Mr. Alexander Schmidt’s “Shakespeare Lexicon; a Complete Dictionary of all the English Words, Phrases, and Constructions, in the Works of the Poet.” A revised edition of “Chambers's Encyclopaedia” has been published; and the ninth edition of the “Encyclopaedia Britannica” is in process of publication. LOCOMOTIVE, CoMPREssed-AIR. In boring a tunnel of any considerable length, removal of the rubbish has hitherto been found one of the most difficult parts of the work. The use of steam is out of the question, as it prevents effectual ventilation; while the employment of horses or mules to draw the trucks on which the débris is piled is attended with great expense, and the need of an extra supply of fresh air in the gallery. In the excavation of St. Gothard Tunnel, now going on, machines' moved by compressed air have been recently introduced for dragging the trucks, and have proved a marked success. It is well known that compressed air is used to work the perforating machines for boring the tunnel; then, by the employment of compressed-air locomotives, ventilation of the galleries is secured, as these machines allow only pure air to escape; such motors are also more powerful than horses, and effect more rapidly the clearing away of the débris. The first attempt to use compressed air for this purpose was made with two ordinary locomotives, one at each side of the tunnel; the boilers, in which, of course, there was no water, being filled with condensed air under a pressure of four atmospheres. This air played the part usually done by steam, passed into slide-valves, entered the cylinders alternately on each face of the pistons, which it set in motion, and then escaped into the atmosphere.
It is easily seen that, if compressed air were to be employed, it would be indispensable to have a very considerable quantity of it; the boiler of a locomotive, sufficient when it is worked by means of steam constantly produced under the action of heat, was too small to contain the quantity of air required for use without
are openings m m, that communicate with another cylinder 0, which surrounds it to the game extent, and which is connected with the slide-valve by which the air is distributed, or, more generally, with the space in which this air is to be utilized. On one side moves a piston E, which shuts the cylinder and hinders the escape of the air. This piston carries externally a shaft F, which supports externally a spiral spring H, the force of which is regulated by means of a screw. Internally it is connected by another shaft L with a second
piston N, which bears a cylinder M, movable
in the interior of the principal pump, and forming thus a sort of internal sheath. This sheath presents openings n n, which may coincide exactly with those already referred to, and in that case the air passes without difficulty from the reservoir at the point where it is to be employed. But if the sheath is displaced, the openings no longer correspond, there is resistance to the passage, and consequently diminution of the quantity of air which flows out, and hence lowering of pressure in the exterior cylinder. By making the position of the sheath to vary continuously we may make the pressure of exit constant, notwithstanding the continuous variation at entry. But the apparatus is automatic. In fact, the part of the cylinder B' comprised between the bottom and the piston N communicates by openings pp (which are never covered with the escapetube of the gas), in such a manner that upon its posterior face the piston N receives the pressure of the air at the moment when it flows, a pressure which it is sought to render constant. The piston E receives on its anterior face the action of the spring which can be regulated at pleasure. As to the other faces of the two pistons, they are subjected to equal actions proceeding from the pressure of the air at its entry, actions which thus counteract each other; so that the forces which determine the position of the movable system are, on the one hand, the tension of the spring, a constant and determined force, and, on the other hand, the pressure of the flowing air; and thus equilibrium cannot occur unless the two forces are equal. If the air should flow in too great a quantity, the pressure increases on the posterior face of the piston N, the spring is overcome, and the movable system advances a little toward the left; but then the orifices are partly covered and the flow diminishes. If the pressure then becomes too weak at the exit, the spring in its turn prevails, pushes the sheath toward the right, uncovers the orifices, and consequently a greater quantity of air may enter. The machines which are now used at the St. Gothard Tunnel, genuine compressed-air locomotives, are furnished with M. Ribourt's apparatus. They consist of the following parts: A sheet-iron reservoir to contain the compressed air is mounted on a framework quite like that of steam-locomotives (Fig. 2), and
carrying glasses, cylinders, distributing apparatus, etc. The tube for receiving the air carries, within reach of the driver, the automatic valve of M. Ribourt. The screw being easily regulated, the air can with certainty be made to issue from the apparatus at a determined pressure. This air then passes into a small reservoir (about one-third metre cube), intended to deaden the shocks, which are always produced when the machine is set going or stopped. Lastly, this small reservoir communicates with the cylinders, and the air which reaches them acts in the same manner as steam in ordinary locomotives.
LONSDALE, HENRY LowthER, Earl of, born March 27, 1818; died August 15, 1876. He was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge, at which university he graduated M.A. in 1835. In 1841 he entered the army as cornet in the First LifeGuards, and retired from the service in 1854. He was Lord-Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of Cumberland and Westmoreland, and represented West Cumberland in the House of Commons from 1847 till his accession to the peerage in 1872. Lord Lonsdale was a keen sportsman, keeping a select racing-stud, like his predecessor, and for several years was master of the Cottesmore hounds. He was succeeded by his oldest son, St. George Henry, Wiscount Lowther, born October 4, 1855.
LORQUET, Louis Michael PoleMox, a Haytian general, born December 5, 1825; died in April, 1876, in defense of the government of President Dominigue. His father was a colonel in the army. After leaving school, Lorquet entered the ranks of the regiment, and soon after became secretary to General Inginac. After the Revolution of 1843, when President Boyer fled to Jamaica, young Lorquet attended him, and remained with him till 1845, when he returned to Hayti. He was appointed chief-clerk in the custom - house, but was removed by General Soulouque, and went to reside at Gonaives. In 1849, when Sonlouque was proclaimed Emperor, under the title of Faustin I., through the influence of the Duke de Saint-Louis du Sud, Lorquet was appointed judge at Gonaives. On March 28, 1854, he was commissioned public prosecutor for Gonaives. In December, 1858, when the imperial throne was shaken, and Jeffrard became President, he appointed Lorquet ChiefJustice, Minister of Instruction, and temporary commander of the republican forces. On the 11th of November, 1865, he was made General of the Army, and in 1866 was aidede-camp of Salnave. Lorquet returned to Hayti from exile in Jamaica on the 8th of May, 1868, and took part in the Salnave revolution. On the 13th of May, 1871, he was appointed military commander of the capital city of Portau-Prince, by President Nissage Saget, which position he filled for several years. He was decorated with the Spanish Order of Isabel la Católica.
LOUGH, John GRAHAM, a British sculptor, born about 1805; died April 9, 1876. In early life he was a ploughboy in Northumberland, where accidentally his artistic taste became known to a neighboring gentleman, who assisted him to obtain a suitable education. He came up to London, made the Elgin Marbles in the British Museum his study, and became an exhibitor at the Royal Academy in 1826. In the following year he produced a statue of Milo, which, together with a companionstatue, “Samson,” was purchased by the Duke of Wellington. He afterward spent four years in Rome. In 1845 he executed the statue of Prince Albert, for Lloyd's. He was also commissioned in the first instance to execute the lions for the Nelson Monument in Trafalgar
uare. *śisiana. The regular session of the Louisiana Legislature began on the 3d of January, and came to a close on the 2d of March. Lieutenant-Governor Antoine presided in the Senate, and Mr. Estilette was Speaker of the House. On the 11th of January a motion was made, in the House, to proceed to the election of a United States Senator. A protest was made by several Republican members, on the ground that P. B. S. Pinchback had been duly elected in 1873, and no vacancy existed. A vote was, nevertheless, taken, most of the Republicans refusing to take part in the election, and J. B. Eustis received 61 votes out of the 63 cast. He was subsequently chosen Senator in joint convention of the two Houses, and a petition was sent to the Senate of the United States by three Republican members of the Legislature, praying that Mr. Eustis be admitted to a seat in that body, and setting forth their reasons for participating in the election. Chief among these was that the seat had been virtually refused to Mr. Pinchback, and a vacancy existed, which it was for the interest of the State to have filled.
The legislation of the session was not so important for what was done as for what was attempted by the House and defeated by the Senate. Several important measures looking to a reduction of expenses and a reform of abuses originated in the lower branch and failed to pass the upper. The most important subject discussed was the regulation of elections. A strong effort was made in the House to replace the old election law with a new one. A bill for the purpose was reported, with the following descriptive title:
An act to provide for the time, manner, and place of holding elections in this State; to provide for the appointment of commissioners of election, and directing the mode of counting and of compiling the votes, and making the returns of the election, and directing the promulgating of the results of elections; to provide penalties for intimidation and violence at o o: and other attempts to prevent a fair, free, and peaceable election; to provide proseedings for contest for office, and to repeal all other laws inconsistent with this act.
It was very stringent in its provisions, but vol. xvi.-31 A
proposed to do away with the Returning Board contrivance, and impose upon the Secretary of State the duty of consolidating the returns received from the clerks of the district courts and make an official report of the vote to the Governor, who should proclaim the result. This act passed the House, and a counter-movement was made in the Senate, through another election bill, making some changes in the law, but retaining the Returning Board feature, three of the members of the Board to be elected by the Senate and two by the House of Representatives. Neither House would agree to the bill passed by the other, and a conference committee failed to devise any measure acceptable to both, so that no change was made in the existing law.
state seal, OF LOUISLAN.A.
Among the acts passed during the sessron was one apportioning the representation in the Legislature among the various districts of the State, and one submitting several amendments to the constitution. The first amendment limits the expenses of the General Assembly to $175,000 per year, and fixes the salary of the members of the Legislature at $5 a day, and their mileage at twenty cents a mile; the second provides that all bills must be signed by tho Governor five days after their reception by him during the session, or become laws; and that all bills not signed by him twenty days after the session shall become laws; the third abolishes the parish judges, and confers their jurisdiction on the district judges; the fourth reduces the salary of the Governor from $8,000 to $6,000 a year; the fifth prohibits the taking of any fees by the Auditor of State, State Treasurer, Attorney-General of the State, or any district attorney.
A joint resolution was adopted asking government aid for the Texas Pacific Railroad.
Judge Jacob Hawkins, of the Superior Dis. trict Court of the parish of Orleans, was removed from office by an address of the two Houses directing the Governor to make the removal, for incompetency and arbitrary conduct. The committee reporting the address based their action on twenty-eight allegations, showing unfitness for the position. A report was made about the middle of February by the House committee appointed at the extra session of 1875, to examine into the accounts of the Auditor and Treasurer. In this it was stated that at different times in 1874 and 1875 sums amounting in the aggregate to $198,417.31 had been drawn from the interestfund without warrant. These were mostly advances for police expenses, and were restored to the fund, so that the State suffered no loss. The committee declared that Antoine Dubuclet, the Treasurer, was less guilty in the violations of law that had been committed than “William Pitt Kellogg, the originator of the whole scheme—than Jacob Hawkins, the Judge of the Superior District Court of Orleans, who used his influence to encourage the nefarious deed—than Henry C. Dibble, the then acting Attorney-General, who advised the unlawful act, when he should have guarded the interests of the State—less guilty than J. H. Oglesby, the Fiscal Agent of the Metropolitan Board of Police, and president of the bank, the depositary of the State funds, who lent his official aid to a diversion of funds, of which he was the keeper under the law, and, as it will appear, received a pecuniary compensation of $6,696.67, for interest and commission on a loan made out of State funds by the State Treasurer.” The report closed with a recommendation that Governor Kellogg and Treasurer Dubuclet be impeached, that Assistant Attorney-General H. C. Dibble be “addressed out of office,” and that criminal proceedings be instituted against Alfred Shaw and J. H. Oglesby. On the 25th of February a resolution was adopted in the House, providing for the appointment of a committee of seven, “to examine and ascertain charges against W. P. Kellogg, and, if there are any, to so report, with a view to impeachment.” The committee was immediately appointed. A majority reported on the 27th that Governor Kellogg had been “guilty of many and divers high crimes and misdemeanors in office against the laws, the constitution, and the people of the State of Louisiana,” subsequent to the 14th of April, 1875, at which time it had been agreed by the “Wheeler compromise" that he should not be disturbed for any previous official misconduct. The principal offense charged was procuring a withdrawal from the Treasury of money set apart for the payment of interest, and using it for other purposes. The report concluded with a resolution impeaching William P. Kellogg, “acting Governor of the State of Louisiana,” for high crimes and misdemeanors, and directing the appointment of a committee of five to prepare articles of impeachment. A minority of the committee of seven, consisting of two members, submitted a report protesting against the action of the majority in reporting resolutions of impeachment, without examining
into the charges or taking any evidence, or even allowing the Governor to appear in person or by counsel before the committee. The majority report was adopted on the 28th by a vote of 61 to 45, and a committee was at once appointed to prepare articles of impeachment, and to notify the Senate of the proceedings. Notice was given to the Senate the same evening, and that body immediately resolved itself into a High Court of Impeachment, Chief-Justice Ludeling presiding. A resolution was adopted, by a vote of 23 to 9, notifying the House that the Senate was ready to proceed with the trial, and would allow until 7 P. M., it being then after six, for the preparation and presentation of charges. None being made before that hour, an order was adopted, by a vote of 25 to 9, dismissing the impeachment, and declaring that such action amounted to an acquittal. The reasons given were: “Because the committee appointed to investigate Governor Kellogg refused to give him the right of appearing at their deliberations; that they furnished no list of witnesses; that the impeachment was prompted by revolutionary and partisan purposes; that it was in violation of the Wheeler compromise; that it is known to the Senate that Governor Kellogg's official acts were not unlawful; that the House had adjourned before a notification could be given that the Senate was ready to proceed to trial, and that such adjournment was for the purpose of obstructing the trial, and preventing the Senate from proceeding with it; and, finally, that the impeachment articles contained no specific charges.” The following protest was made by several Senators, but the Senate, by a vote of 21 to 13, refused to allow it to be read or entered upon the minutes: That not an hour was given to the House of Representatives to prepare specified articles of impeachment. That the managers of the House of Representatives were not recognized by the court. That every motion to close the doors and deliberate upon the important questions submitted was voted down. That the order of acquittal has been declared without giving the prosecution an opportunity to be ...i. without any evidence adduced, without any deliberation or discussion, and is calculated to encourage the commission of high crimes and misdemeanors by public officials, and by this unauthorized impunity from trial offers a premium to public of fenders. The Chief-Justice then formally declared Kellogg acquitted, and the court adjourned sine die. Notwithstanding this action, the committee of the House prepared fourteen articles of impeachment, and submitted them on the 1st of March, when they were adopted by the House. On the 2d of March, the last day of the session, the committee made a report, reciting the facts and circumstances of the case, and submitting the following resolutions, which, with the report itself, were adopted by a vote of 54 to 37: Resolved by the House of Representatives, That the Senate, by its partisan and arbitrary conduct, has