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indeed, that a publisher is to be found who, countries ; Dr. A. S. Guldberg, a work “On like Maisner, of Milan, is inclined to make the Theory of Determinants;." C. de Sene an outlay of 20,000 francs on one large volume (in German), a treatise, “Windrosen des südin quarto, with illustrations, containing the lichen Norwegens.” The last work is printed learned narrative by Prof. Enrico Giglioli of as a programme of the university. his great scientific voyage round the world in The renowned mathematician, Prof. O. J. the Magenta. The work deserves to take its Broch, has made a most important contribution place among the best standard works of travel. to the knowledge of his native country in his It has been edited with the utmost care. The new book, entitled “The Kingdom of Norethnological introduction which Prof. Paolo way and the Norwegian People. This work, Mantegazza has prefixed increases the value which also appears in French translation, has of this book, which may be pronounced to be been provoked by the Exhibition at Brusthe most important work that has appeared sels. this year.
PORTUGAL.-In ten months we have had Although it would be difficult to point ont, ninety translations. The “ Vida Infernal" of amid this mass of books, a single one that could Gaboriau side by side with the “Cartas a um be called a work of first-class originality and Sceptico” of Balmes; the “ Historia e Milamerit, yet I can conscientiously aver that none gres da Virgem de Lourdes” of Lasserre in of these publications can be styled common- front of the “ Historia dos Coitadinhos Ceplace : each one has its own characteristics, and lebres" of H. Kock. Here are the two curhas its own individual merits. Thus, among rents of the new literature, which are still the the novels, there are several in which there is illustrations of our manners and customs. On much to appreciate and to admire.
one side the Ultramontane school publishes In dramatic and in lyric poetry Italian au- the “Syllabus Justificado " and the “Egrethors have not been idle during 1876. The ja Triumphante ” of Maupier, multiplies the year has given us our earliest printed copies of number of catechisms and prayer-books, issues several dramas by authors who just now are new editions of the works of the old mystic enjoying popularity.
authors; on the other side, a literary party, Political excitement has more or less sub- without name and without character, translates sided; accordingly our poets have recently en- immoral romances, and makes detestable verses joyed more favor than has been bestowed on full of profanity and caricatures of the most them for some years past. Italy's former love sacred things. of art has revived, and has partly expressed Of original works I cannot cite many. The itself in the care shown by the editors of sev- “Douro Illustrado," by the Viscount de Villa eral poetical collections.
Maior, is considered by competent authorities NORWAY.—The present year has not been as up to the mark of the author's capacity: he rich in literary productions. In belles-lettres is known by his studies and writings respectthere is nothing deserving mention. Turning ing viniculture; but the present is more a treato historical literature, I may mention that the tise on curiosities and statistics than a work of edition of the many and important historical science. Prof. A. A. d’Aguiar, who was the and philological essays of the late Prof. P. A. Portuguese Commissioner to the Exhibition of Munch, by Dr. Gustav Storm, has been recent- Wines in London, has already published part ly finished with the publication of the fourth of his lectures on agriculture. They created volume.
for him adversaries and heart-burnings. This In theology merit to be named the Rev. E. was to be expected, for Senhor d'Aguiar is a F. B. Horn's book “ On Atonement and Justi- man distinguished for science, conscientiousfication," and the Rev. A. O. Bang's learned ness, and honesty, and, moreover, speaks what essay “On the Historical Reality of the Resur- he thinks. His lectures, which made so great rection of Christ.” The first of these works an impression when spoken, lose nothing of has provoked several protests from the strictly their expressiveness in a printed form. orthodox party, as it in several respects clashes In the section of belles lettres, the reaction with the old Lutheran dogmas, but his views against the extravagance of the French style have been defended by the
author himself, not begins to operate; the romances of Julio-Diniz without talent, and have also found approval serve for an example. Pedro Ivo, Bento Moin the eyes of several authorities.
reno, two noms de plume, figure on the titleIn law, Prof. Aschehoug continues his im- pages of notable books. The first, who was portant work, “ Norges offentlige Ret" ("On already known by his “Contos," has now the Norwegian Constitution and Govern- published “O Sello da Roda,” and Bento Moment"), and Prof. Ingstad has written an es- reno has issued the “Comedia do Campo,” say on the study of Roman law, in which he pictures of manners, scenes in the Minho, small also treats of the present state of that study in unaffeeted stories, admirably, nay, adorably England.
narrated. Axel Blytt has produced a learned essay (in A. Sarmento has also published the “ Contos the English language) “On the Immigration do Soalheiro," an estimable work, in which is of the Norwegian Flora,” which, as it de- found a rich collection of proverbs, adages, serves, has attracted much attention in foreign idiotisms, and popular Portuguese phrases, as
well as a description of the customs and su- sance, as has been the case in Germany ard perstitions of our people.
Italy; unfortunately, however, in Spain the Dona Maria Amalia Vaz de Carvalho, the southern character predominates in a great deauthoress of the “ Vozes do Ermo,” is already gree, and destroys most part of the other adknown among us not only as a poetess of dis- vantages. One instance of this is furnished tinction, but also as a prose-writer of eminence. by the debates held at the Ateneo of Madrid, There is not one of the Portuguese ladies who a neutral ground on which celebrities of every aspire to literary honors able to compete with school meet to discuss every kind of subject. her. The “ Vozes do Ermo" is the only book The debates of this year have been held on imof verses which I consider I ought to particu- portant social problems, and also to discuss Jarize.
whether it would be advisable to have the proI desist from mentioning some agreeable tection of the Government for certain literary books of travels, as well as some pleasing productions. The orators have enchanted their poems of small importance.
audiences by their eloquence, without, howIn dramatic literature, excepting the drama, ever, convincing them; for the ideas which “Os Lazaristas," of A. Ennes, there has not they support in religion, philosophy, and social appeared anything worthy of notice. This science, possess so eclectic a tendency that it drama is not only a work of propaganda against is not easy for half a dozen individuals to agree the Jesuits, but must be rated, when we set in a concrete solution. aside a few slight blemishes, a true production Such is the general aspect of the intellectual of art.
life of 1866. The books which have appeared Theophilo Braga, a workman of untiring during the year have been few, and none of industry, has issued the “Anthologia Portu- any great importance. gueza,
," the “Manual da Litteratura Portu SWEDEN.- The prosperity, which in a mategueza,” the “Grammatica Comparada da Lin- rial point of view has been the result of abungua Portugueza,” and also published the dant harvests and progress in all the depart# Cancioneiro do Vaticano." All these works ments of commerce and industry, has naturally are commendable.
exercised a beneficial influence on the bookSPAIN.–A tendency is to be observed in market. The number of original works is
, Spain to foster the study of science by estab- however, not very large; translations, on the lishing it on a more solid foundation, and one other hand, are more numerous The latter, more in accordance with modern ideas. This with a few exceptions, must here be omitted. has continued in the present year almost to a To turn to philosophy, there has been pubgreater extent than in former ones. The estab- lished the first installment of a selection of S. lishment of new literary centres and scientific Grubbe's works. Grubbe was Professor of periodicals, the foreign books which are con- Philosophy at the University of Upsala, and as tinually translated, and the excellent literary a stylist he ranks among our greatest authors. reviews which appear, show us that the Span- This work is published by A. Nyblæus, who, ish public is becoming anxious to learn and in “Den filosofiska Forskningen i Sverige från favor studies of all kinds.
slutet af adertonde århundradet" (" PhilosophFor many years French books have been the ical Researches in Sweden from the end of the only channel through which foreign ideas and Eighteenth Century'), and other books, has scientific impulses have entered Spain. There proved himself not only a learned inquirer, is a great change at the present time. A large but a master of the art of writing in a clear number of books are translated directly from and popular style. Another volume of great German and English, most of them of a scien- interest is G. Bring's “ Immanuel Kants Fortific kind; and they meet with a ready sale, hållande till den filosofiska Teologien" ("I. which would not have been the case twenty Kant's Relation to Philosophic Theology "). years ago. Among them may be mentioned The researches in Swedish history have not Mackeldy's “Studies of Roman Law," Momm- produced any great results this year. sen's “ History of Rome,” Draper's “Science The interest taken in fine arts and their bisand Religion," besides works of Hegel, Kant, tory has been increasing, especially since the and the Greek philosophers, which have been opening of the new National Museum, simultranslated and greatly commented upon lately. taneously with the great exhibition of producOne of the reasons which have contributed to tions of art and industry in Stockholm, 1866. make these studies popular in Spain is, that In consequence, the time seems to have arthe best Spanish literary journals publish a rived for producing an art-journal-an idea special foreign correspondence direct from the that was realized two years ago. L. DietrichEuropean literary centres. These facts clearly son is the editor; contributions have been furprove that the Spanish public is becoming more nished by Prof. Nyblom, Ljunggren, and othalive to the advantages of private enterprise ; ers, and the artistic part of the work has been there is, undoubtedly, progress, though, if com- provided for by engaging the services of dispared with the modern life of other nations, tinguished etchers, Unger, Klaus, Lowenstan. the result is poor. Literary writings are scanty, Dr. Fr. Sander has this year completed and the country is going through one of those work relating to its valuable collection of periods which generally come before a renais- pictures, under the title of “Nationalmuseum,
bidrag till tafle galleriets historia" ("The in poetry the event of the year has been the National Museum, Contributions to the His- republication of the poems and dramas of tory of the Picture Gallery "), based on care- Count Alexis Tolstoi. This edition, while fal researches. The productions of the modern containing many things that were scattered pictorial art of the North are represented by through the pages of periodicals, is not com* Nordiska målares taflor” ("Pictures by plete, in the sense that it does not contain some Northern Painters "), with an explanatory text; poems which the censorship would forbid from and the exhibition of the works of Egron their political satire, and some which were Lundgren (the painter in water-colors so high- never intended for publication, but only for ly esteemned in England), which had the hon- the amusement of friends, being caricatures or of numbering the Queen of England among of men of the time, or full of Rabelaisian huits exhibitors, together with our present exhi- mor. bition of industrial productions of art-proofs The strong point with the Russian literature that the fine arts are cultivated in Sweden. of 1876, as for many years of late, is in history
The Swedish literature has this year been en- and historical material. Of the latter, three riched with a most valuable collection of po- journals deserve a special mention for their ems, written by C.D. af Wirsén. These songs, general as well as their historical interest, the pervaded as they are by a mournful tone, memoirs of Michael Garnofsky, of Madame through which, however, glimmers forth a man- Passek, and of Baron Rosen. Garnofsky was ly trust that is based on Christian principles, an artillery colonel, who was for many years carry the reader into a poetical atmosphere, the overseer of the houses, villas, and glasswhich reminds him of that which surrounds B. works, of Prince Potemkin in St. Petersburg; E. Malmstrom's best productions.
and during the frequent absences of the prince Russia.—The literature of Russia for the from the capital had charge of all his affairs, year seems barren. The continuation of what not only those of property, but of various comis so far a really great novel, still unfinished, missions, and business at the court and with Count Leo Tolstoi's “ Anna Karenina,” is all people in near relations to the Empress CathRussia can boast of. What is, perhaps, the erine, as also with various ministries and degreatest production of the year has not yet suc. partments of the Government. Potemkin conceeded in satisfying the censorship, and is still sidered him as his right hand, all houses in St. retained in the printing-office, the important Petersburg were open to him, and he was on work of Prince Vasiltchikof,' “ Land Tenure intimate terms with many of the leading men and Agriculture.” Turgeneff appears in one of the epoch. They are written in a clear and short tale only, “The Watch," in which he business-like but lively style, and extend from shows all his old pathos. Moved by the Bul- 1786 to 1790. “The Řecollections of Madame garian horrors, he sent to one of the Russian Passek," of which a small portion had already newspapers a short poem-a vision of a game been printed, begins with the accession of of croquet at Windsor—which, in its half- the Empress Catherine II., and extends to dozen stanzas, gave a more impressive picture 1812. The recollections concern rather the than any Russian poem which has appeared for writer herself and her iminediate acquaintances years. Fortunately his pen has not been idle, than political affairs in general, although they and a new novel, longer than most of his for- are full of valuable references. The publicamer works, "Nov," is now in course of publi- tion of the memoirs of Baron Rosen is a new cation. Dostoiefsky has devoted all his force, proof of the great interest which the present not to works of art or to realistic novels, but generation takes in all that concerns the Deto his serial," The Journal of an Author," half cernbrists, that band of noble and enthusiastic autobiographical and half critical, on society young men who endeavored to prevent Nichand politics. The poems and dramas of the olas from ascending the throne in 1825, and to late Count Alexis Tolstoi have been collected force upon Russia a free government. Another and published; Stchedrin (Soltykof) has given interesting contribution to historical literature, us some new satirical sketches, “ Conservative for it covers and attempts to decide many Talk;" and Pypin has begun a series of studies knotty points, is "The French in Moscow in on the history of Russian literature, which are 1812," by D. N. Popot. the writer has carealready good and promise to be better. Be- fully studied the whole literature of the subyond this we find nothing but the productions ject, and many diaries and papers which have of third-rate writers—à play or two, some never been published, and gives us full mateslight though graceful verses, and a few novels, rials to judge for ourselves how and why Mosoccasionally of merit. Such things are pub- cow was burned. lished and are read because the Russian read Among other historical publications should ing public is growing_larger, and must, some- be noted the “Relations of Russia with the how, be satisfied. To supplement the defi- European Powers before the War of 1815," by ciency of native talent, now, as once before in A. Popof; the second and third volumes of the Russian literary history, translations of the new edition of the “ Complete Collection of best contemporary authors are in vogue, and Russian Laws,” etc., which extend to 1723; are becoming more and more the staple of some the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth volof the magazines.
umes of the Collection of the Russian Histori
cal Society;" the second and third volumes for the initiated, and, if his “fit audience * of the Russian Historical Library ;” the proves to be also very "few," to put up with eighth and ninth volumes of the “ Archives of it as “the best his circumstance allows." The Prince Vorontzof;" the “ History of Tver," chief poetical sensation of the year was the disby Borzakofsky; the “Embassy to England in covery by Mr. Swinburne and the republica1600 of Gregory Mikulin;" the “Historical tion of "Joseph and bis Brethren,” a drama Value of Russian Brigand Songs,” by N. Ari- by Charles Wells, published forty years ago, stof; the fifth volume of F. Bienemann's “Briefe neglected and forgotten, but pronounced by und Urkunden zur Geschichte Livlands," from Mr. Swinburne to be worthy of comparison 1558 to 1562; and Johann Renner's “Livlän- with the plays of Shakespeare. What adds to dische Historien."
the surprising features of the case is the fact From history to politics the transition is easy. that the author whose work thus failed to gain The chief works in this division are, the third public attention is still living to enjoy his latevolume of Prof. Marten's “Collection of Rus- blossoming reputation, a reputation which will sian Treaties and Conventions,” which includes not come up to the height of Mr. Swinburne's the treaties with Austria from 1808 to 1815; praise, but will make some amends for his prethe second volume of Prof. Gradovsky's “Ger- vious total failure. The usual quota of minor man Constitution; " "Sketch of the History poetry has appeared, but nothing that will exand Dogmas of International Law," by A. N. cite more than a limited and temporary interStoyanof; and J. Keussler's “Communal Prop- est. Perhaps next to the case of Mr. Wells erty and Emancipation."
and his drama in interest is the identification In geographical and scientific literature there of what had been supposed to be genuine old is not much to speak of.
ballads as the work of an eccentric clergyman The profound work of J. R. Aspelin, on lately deceased, the Rev. Robert Stephen Haw"Finnio-Ugric Archæology,” deserves special ker. One of his ballads deceivedl so keenmention, although published in Finnish. As it sighted a judge as Lord Macaulay. The name of is profusely illustrated, it may be useful even Mr. Hawker has been brought before the public to those ignorant of that language.
in an unpleasant way by a biography in which LITERATURE, ENGLISH. The extent to his memory is by no means honored, but which the best literature of England and which the public have reason to consider as America is interchanged has been referred to more discreditable to the author than to the in the article LITERATURE AND LITERARY PROG- subject. RESS, with a notice of some of the principal ÑOVELs.-In the department of prose fiction, English works republished in the United States
. the best is disappointing. Nobody but George In the present article, consequently, mention Eliot could have written " Daniel Deronda," is chiefly made of books not yet reproduced but it has not raised nor even sustained her in American editions. And among these, the great reputation. Mr. William Black's "Madmass of compiled and ephemeral publications cap Violet” is scarcely inferior to his best. call for no particular notice. It is true that there As in his previous novels, the plot is open to is some risk in this rather wholesale and sum- exception, and some of his characters seem mary judgment, and it may prove to have been approach the extreme of human possibility, if presumptuous in respect of some authors thus they do not overstep the modesty of Nature. passed by, but the purpose of these reviews is But with whatever drawbacks, the power of not so much criticism as the record of con- his genius is incontestable. Mr. R. D. Blacktemporary estimates of literature, to note more's " Cripps the Carrier" is not a producwhat books did in fact make an impression on tion that can add anything to the credit of the the public, rather than to express our judgment author of “ Lorna Doone " and of “ Alice Loras to what books ought to have been honored raine,” however superior to the average novel. with the public approval.
" Thé Hand of Ethelberta," by Mr. Thomas Poetry. In the higher order of creative Hardy, comes nearer to doing justice to his literary art, England had not much to show recognized position among literary artists. Mr. during the last year. The lanreate put forth Justin McCarthy's tale, “Dear Lady Disdain," another tragedy. “Harold," regarded as á is well conceived and worked out with his poem, will not discredit Mr. Tennyson, though usual firmness of hand. “The Dilemma," by it can add nothing to his fame; as a drama, Colonel Chesney, author of "The Battle of while free from some of the faults of his Dorking,” besides its high merits as a fiction, “Queen Mary,” it is equally deficient in dra- presents striking pictures of the Sepoy mutiny, matic vitality. Mr. Browning gave us a vol. in India. “The Atonement of Learn Dundas," ume with the enigmatic title "Pacchiarotto, by Mrs. Linn Linton, takes a very high place and how he worked in Distemper, and Other among sensational novels, in fact, almost rises Poems.” The leading piece is meant as "a into a higher realm of fiction. Mrs. Oliphant's fable for critics,” but the critics for whom it is last two novels, “ The Curate in Charge," and meant are less likely to wince under his satire “Phæbe Junior, a Last Chronicle of Carling. than to point to the poem as a confirmatory ford,” are in her best style, which is a very instance of what they have alleged against the good style indeed. “ Thomas Wingfold, Cupoet. Mr. Browning must be content to sing rate,” by Dr. George Macdonald, in a very
different style, is an advance in respect to ar- Shelburne,” in three volumes, has been comtistic power upon his previous productions. pleted. “Political and Military Episodes from "Rose Turquand," by Ellice Hopkins, and “The the Life and Correspondence of the Rt. Hon. Master of Riverswood," by Mrs. Arthur Lewis, John Burgoyne," by E. B. Fonblanque, will are productions of much promise, assuming enlarge the ideas of those whose only knowlthem to be by new writers. A considerable edge of the subject is, that he surrendered at list might be made out of fictions that attain Saratoga. The "Memoir of Earl Spencer," betto a respectable mediocrity of merit, and to ter known as Lord Althorp, the leader of the something more than that in single features, House of Commons by which the Reform Bill but to what end?
of 1832 was passed, is interesting as a biograHISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY.—The completion phy, and valuable as a memorial of an imporof Mr. E. A. Freeman's "History of the Nor- tant political epoch. The “Life of Lord Palman Conquest of England” is a matter of con- merston,” by the Hon. Evelyn Ashley, throws gratulation. Mr. Freeman is not a master of light on a more recent period of political hisnarration or of description. He is not what tory. “Syria and Egypt under the Last Five is termed an eloquent historian. But for clear Sultans of Turkey” are exhibited in a striking exposition, placing the reader in the points of light in the "Experiences during Fifty Years view from which he can best see the subject of Mr. Consul-General Barker,” by his son. in all its parts, he stands in the first rank, and Of works in Literary and General Biography his work, we believe, is a permanent addition the most important during the year was the to the masterpieces of English literature. “Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay,” by G. Prof. George Rawlinson has published his 0. Trevelyan, which, if a cordial reception "Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy: History by the public can guarantee fame, promises to of the Sassanians,” continuing, with undimin- be a permanent addition to English literature. ished grasp of learning and critical sagacity, Of great and varied but painful interest is the to embody the results of recent Oriental inves- "Memoirs of Robert William Haydon.” Mr. tigations. The series is completed, bringing John Forster's “Life of Swift," of which great Oriental history down to the era from which expectations were anthorized by the first volmodern history dates. Dean Stanley's thirdume, is left a fragment by the lamented death series of " Lectures on the History of the Jew- of the author. “ William Whewell: an Acish Church" expounds a portion of the Jewish count of his Writings, with Selections from annals, the dryness of which, as commonly his Scientific and Literary Correspondence," treated, makes it by no means attractive to any by I. Todhunter, commemorates a man who but very inquisitive investigators. But noth- held a great place in the public view, and who ing can resist the magic of Dean Stanley's en- in point of ability and acquirements was worthy thusiasm. Whatever he touches turns up an of his position. Other works in this departinteresting side, or is made to appear interest- ment of writing are: “Life and Opinions of ing by virtue of some association or sugges- Heinrich Heine," by William Stigand; “Life tion caught by his fertile mind and brought of Michelangelo," by Charles Heath Wilson; into relation with it. His mild and concilia- and “Forty Years' Recollections of Life, Litertory attitude of mind toward all forms of doc- ature, and Public Affairs,” by Charles Mackey. trine, and hospitality to new ideas, are also ex TRAVEL AND EXPLORATION.—The number of hibited, if possible, more than in his previous valuable and entertaining books of travel, exproductions. Part I. of a “ History of the ploration, and description, issued during the Moslems, from the Ninth to the Nineteenth year, was unusually large. Of Oriental travel, Century," by Henry H. Howorth, is the be- we have “Notes of an Indian Journey," by M. ginning of an important work. “ Islam under E. Grant Duff, M. P.; "The Indian Alps, and the Arabs," by Major R. D. Osborn, deals how we crossed them,” by “A Lady Piowith an interesting topic that needed elucida- neer; ” “The Karens of the Golden Chersontion. “The Ecclesiastical History of Ireland,” ese," by Lieutenant-Colonel A. R. McMahon; by W. D. Killen, D. D., treats the subject “ Our Trip to Burmah, with Notes on that from a Presbyterian point of view. Mr. Leslie Country," by Surgeon-General Charles AlexanStephen's “ History of English Thought in the der Gordon; "From the Hebrides to the HimaEighteenth Century” is a philosophical review layas," by Miss Constance F. Gordon Cumming; rather than a bistory of events. It is the fruit “Mandelay to Momien: a Narrative of the of earnest study by one who is himself an ad- two Expeditions to Western China in 1868 and vanced thinker. “The English Bible; an Ex- 1875," by John Anderson, M. D.; “The Jourternal and Critical History of the Various Eng. ney of Augnstus Raymond Margary, from lish Translations of the Scriptures,” etc., by Shanghai to Bhamo and back to Mayre,” with a the late Dr. John Eadie, can hardly be said to biographical preface and concluding chapter by add to what has been before published on the Sir Rutherford Alcock; “The Roof of the subject. It is a convenient compilation of the World: a Journey over the High Plateau of known facts, with some considerations in favor Tibet to the Russian Frontier, and the Oxus of the revision of the authorized version. Sources on Panmir," by Lieutenant-Colonel T.
Several biographical works of historical value E. Gordon; “A Ride to Khiva: Travels and have appeared. The “Life of William Earl of Adventures in Central Asia," by Frederick