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indeed, that a publisher is to be found who, like Maisner, of Milan, is inclined to make an outlay of 20,000 francs on one large volume in quarto, with illustrations, containing the learned narrative by Prof. Enrico Giglioli of his great scientific voyage round the world in the Magenta. The work deserves to take its place among the best standard works of travel. It has been edited with the utmost care. The ethnological introduction which Prof. Paolo Mantegazza has prefixed increases the value of this book, which may be pronounced to be the most important work that has appeared this year. Although it would be difficult to point out, amid this mass of books, a single one that could be called a work of first-class originality and merit, yet I can conscientiously aver that none of these publications can be styled commonplace: each one has its own characteristics, and has its own individual merits. Thus, among the novels, there are several in which there is much to appreciate and to admire. In dramatic and in lyric poetry Italian authors have not been idle during 1876. The year has given us our earliest printed copies of several dramas by authors who just now are enjoying popularity. Political excitement has more or less subsided; accordingly our poets have recently enjoyed more favor than has been bestowed on them for some years past. Italy's former love of art has revived, and has partly expressed itself in the care shown by the editors of several poetical collections. Norway.—The present year has not been rich in literary productions. In belles-lettres there is nothing deserving mention. Turning to historical literature, I may mention that the edition of the many and important historical and philological essays of the late Prof. P. A. Munch, by Dr. Gustav Storm, has been recently finished with the publication of the fourth volume. In theology merit to be named the Rev. E. F. B. Horn's book “On Atonement and Justification,” and the Rev. A. C. Bang's learned essay “On the Historical Reality of the Resurrection of Christ.” The first of these works has provoked several protests from the strictly orthodox party, as it in several respects clashes with the old Lutheran dogmas, but his views have been defended by the author himself, not without talent, and have also found approval in the eyes of several authorities. In law, Prof. Aschehoug continues his important work, “Norges offentlige Ret” (“On the Norwegian Constitution and Government”), and Prof. Ingstad has written an essay on the study of Roman law, in which he also treats of the present state of that study in England. Axel Blytt has produced a learned essay (in the English language) “On the Immigration of the Norwegian Flora,” which, as it deserves, has attracted much attention in foreign
countries; Dr. A. S. Guldberg, a work “On the Theory of Determinants; ” C. de Seue (in German), a treatise, “Windrosen des stidlichen Norwegens.” The last work is printed as a programme of the university. The renowned mathematician, Prof. O. J. Broch, has made a most important contribution to the knowledge of his native country in his new book, entitled “The Kingdom of Norway and the Norwegian People.” This work, which also appears in French translation, has been provoked by the Exhibition at Brussels. Portugal.—In ten months we have had ninety translations. The “Vida Infernal” of Gaboriau side by side with the “Cartas a um Sceptico” of Balmes; the “Historia e Milagres da Virgem de Lourdes" of Lasserre in front of the “Historia dos Coitadinhos Celebres" of H. Kock. Here are the two currents of the new literature, which are still the illustrations of our manners and customs. On one side the Ultramontane school publishes the “Syllabus Justificado" and the “Egreja Triumphante" of Maupier, multiplies the number of catechisms and prayer-books, issues new editions of the works of the old mystic authors; on the other side, a literary party, without name and without character, translates immoral romances, and makes detestable verses full of profanity and caricatures of the most sacred things. Of original works I cannot cite many. The “Douro Illustrado,” by the Wiscount de Villa Maior, is considered by competent authorities as up to the mark of the author's capacity: he is known by his studies and writings respecting viniculture; but the present is more a treatise on curiosities and statistics than a work of science. Prof. A. A. d’Aguiar, who was the Portuguese Commissioner to the Exhibition of Wines in London, has already published part of his lectures on agriculture. They created for him adversaries and heart-burnings. This was to be expected, for Senhor d’Aguiar is a man distinguished for science, conscientiousness, and honesty, and, moreover, speaks what he thfnks. His lectures, which made so great an impression when spoken, lose nothing of their expressiveness in a printed form. In the section of belles-lettres, the reaction against the extravagance of the French style begins to operate; the romances of Julio-Diniz serve for an example. Pedro Ivo, Bento Moreno, two noms de plume, figure on the titlepages of notable books. The first, who was already known by his “Contos,” has now published “O Sello da Roda,” and Bento Moreno has issued the “Comedia do Campo,” pictures of manners, scenes in the Minho, small unaffeeted stories, admirably, nay, adorably narrated. A. Sarmento has also published the “Contos do Soalheiro,” an estimable work, in which is found a rich collection of proverbs, adages, idiotisms, and popular Portuguese phrases, as well as a description of the customs and superstitions of our people. Dona Maria Amalia Vaz de Carvalho, the authoress of the “Vozes do Ermo,” is already known among us not only as a poetess of distinction, but also as a prose-writer of eminence. There is not one of the Portuguese ladies who aspire to literary honors able to compete with her. The “Vozes do Ermo " is the only book of verses which I consider I ought to particularize. I desist from mentioning some agreeable books of travels, as well as some pleasing poems of small importance. In dramatic literature, excepting the drama, “Os Lazaristas,” of A. Ennes, there has not appeared anything worthy of notice. This drama is not only a work of propaganda against the Jesuits, but must be rated, when we set aside a few slight blemishes, a true production of art. Theophilo Braga, a workman of untiring industry, has issued the “Anthologia Portugueza,” the “Manual da Litteratura Portugueza,” the “Grammatica Comparada da Lingua Portugueza,” and also published the “Cancioneiro do Vaticano.” All these works are commendable. SPAIN.—A tendency is to be observed in Spain to foster the study of science by establishing it on a more solid foundation, and one more in accordance with modern ideas. This has continued in the present year almost to a greater extent than informer ones. The establishment of new literary centres and scientific periodicals, the foreign books which are continually translated, and the excellent literary reviews which appear, show us that the Spanish public is becoming anxious to learn and favor studies of all kinds. For many years French books have been the only channel through which foreign ideas and scientific impulses have entered Spain. There is a great change at the present time. A large number of books are translated directly from German and English, most of them of a scientific kind; and they meet with a ready sale, which would not have been the case twenty years ago. Among them may be mentioned Mackeldy’s “Studies of Roman Law,” Mommsen’s “History of Rome,” Draper's “Science and Religion,” besides works of Hegel, Kant, and the Greek philosophers, which have been translated and greatly commented upon lately. One of the reasons which have contributed to make these studies popular in Spain is, that the best Spanish literary journals publish a . foreign correspondence direct from the uropean literary centres. These facts clearly prove that the Spanish public is becoming more alive to the advantages of private enterprise; there is, undoubtedly, progress, though, if compared with the modern life of other nations, the resultis poor. Literary writings are scanty, and the country is going through one of those periods which generally come before a renais
sance, as has been the case in Germany ard Italy; unfortunately, however, in Spain the southern character predominates in a great degree, and destroys most part of the other advantages. One instance of this is furnished by the debates held at the Ateneo of Madrid, a neutral ground on which celebrities of every school meet to discuss every kind of subject. The debates of this year have been held on important social problems, and also to discuss whether it would be advisable to have the protection of the Government for certain literary productions. The orators have enchanted their audiences by their eloquence, without, however, convincing them; for the ideas which they supportin religion, philosophy, and social science, possess so eclectic a tendency that it is not easy for half a dozen individuals to agree in a concrete solution. Such is the general aspect of the intellectual life of 1866. The books which have appeared during the year have been few, and none of any great importance. SwedEN.—The prosperity, which in a material point of view has been the result of abundant harvests and progress in all the departments of commerce and industry, has naturally exercised a beneficial influence on the bookmarket. The number of original works is, however, not very large; translations, on the other hand, are more numerous The latter, with a few exceptions, must here be omitted. To turn to philosophy, there has been published the first installment of a selection of S. Grubbe's works. Grubbe was Professor of Philosophy at the University of Upsala, and as a stylist he ranks among our greatest authors. This work is published by A. Nyblaeus, who, in “Den filosofiska Forskningen i Sverige från slutet af adertonde århundradet” (“Philosophical Researches in Sweden from the end of the Eighteenth Century”), and other books, has proved himself not only a learned inquirer, but a master of the art of writing in a clear and popular style. Another volume of great interest is G. Bring’s “Immanuel Kants Forhällande till den filosofiska Teologien” (“I. Kant's Relation to Philosophic Theology”). The researches in Swedish history have not produced any great results this year. The interest taken in fine arts and their history has been increasing, especially since the opening of the new National Museum, simultaneously with the great exhibition of productions of art and industry in Stockholm, 1866. In consequence, the time seems to have arrived for producing an art-journal—an idea that was realized two years ago. L. Dietrichson is the editor; contributions have been furnished by Prof. Nyblom, Ljunggren, and others, and the artistic part of the work has been provided for by engaging the services of distinguished etchers, Unger, Klaus, Lowenstan. Dr. Fr. Sander has this year completed a work relating to its valuable collection of pictures, under the title of “Nationalmuseum, bidrag till tafle galleriets historia” (“The National Museum, Contributions to the History of the Picture Gallery”), based on careful researches. The productions of the modern pictorial art of the North are represented by “Nordiska mälares taflor” (“Pictures by Northern Painters”), with an explanatory text; and the exhibition of the works of Egron Lundgren (the painter in water-colors so highly esteemed in England), which had the honor of numbering the Queen of England among its exhibitors, together with our present exhibition of industrial productions of art—proofs that the fine arts are cultivated in Sweden.
The Swedish literature has this year been enriched with a most valuable collection of poems, written by C.D. af Wirsén. These songs, pervaded as they are by a mournful tone, through which, however, glimmers forth a manly trust that is based on Christian principles, carry the reader into a poetical atmosphere, which reminds him of that which surrounds B. E. Malmström's best productions.
Russia.-The literature of Russia for the year seems barren. The continuation of what is so far a really great novel, still unfinished, Count Leo Tolstoi's “Anna Karenina,” is all Russia can boast of. What is, perhaps, the greatest production of the year has not yet suc. ceeded in satisfying the censorship, and is still retained in the printing-office, the important work of Prince Wasiltchikof, “Land Tenure and Agriculture.” Turgeneff appears in one short tale only, “The Watch,” in which he shows all his old pathos. Moved by the Bulgarian horrors, he sent to one of the Russian newspapers a short poem—a vision of a game of croquet at Windsor—which, in its halfdozen stanzas, gave a more impressive picture than any Russian poem which has appeared for years. Fortunately his pen has not been idle, and a new novel, longer than most of his former works, “Nov’,” is now in course of publication. Dostoiefsky has devoted all his force, not to works of art or to realistic novels, but to his serial, “The Journal of an Author,” half autobiographical and half critical, on society and politics. The poems and dramas of the late Count Alexis Tolstoi have been collected and published; Stehedrin (Soltykof) has given us some new satirical sketches, “Conservative Talk; ” and Pypin has begun a series of studies on the history of Russian literature, which are already good and promise to be better. Beyond this we find nothing but the productions of third-rate writers—a play or two, some slight though graceful verses, and a few novels, occasionally of merit. Such things are published and are read because the Russian reading public is growing larger, and must, somehow, be satisfied. To supplement the deficiency of native talent, now, as once before in Russian literary history, translations of the best contemporary authors are in vogue, and are becoming more and more the staple of some of the magazines.
In poetry the event of the year has been the republication of the poems and dramas of Count Alexis Tolstoi. This edition, while containing many things that were scattered through the pages of periodicals, is not complete, in the sense that it does not contain some poems which the censorship would forbid from their political satire, and some which were never intended for publication, but only for the amusement of friends, being caricatures of men of the time, or full of Rabelaisian huInor.
The strong point with the Russian literature of 1876, as for many years of late, is in history and historical material. Of the latter, three journals deserve a special mention for their general as well as their historical interest, the memoirs of Michael Garnofsky, of Madame Passek, and of Baron Rosen. Garnofsky was an artillery colonel, who was for many years the overseer of the houses, villas, and glassworks, of Prince Potemkin in St. Petersburg; and during the frequent absences of the prince from the capital had charge of all his affairs, not only those of property, but of various commissions, and business at the court and with people in near relations to the Empress Catherine, as also with various ministries and departments of the Government. Potemkin considered him as his right hand, all houses in St. Petersburg were open to him, and he was on intimate terms with many of the leading men of the epoch. They are written in a clear and business-like but lively style, and extend from 1786 to 1790. “The Recollections of Madame Passek,” of which a small portion had already been printed, begins with the accession of the Empress Catherine II., and extends to 1812. The recollections concern rather the writer herself and her immediate acquaintances than political affairs in general, although they are full of valuable references. The publication of the memoirs of Baron Rosen is a new proof of the great interest which the present generation takes in all that concerns the Decembrists, that band of noble and enthusiastic young men who endeavored to prevent Nicholas from ascending the throne in 1825, and to force upon Russia a free government. Another interesting contribution to historical literature, for it covers and attempts to decide many knotty points, is “The French in Moscow in 1812,” by D. N. Popof the writer has carefully studied the whole literature of the subject, and many diaries and papers which have never been published, and gives us full materials to judge for ourselves how and why Moscow was burned.
Among other historical publications should be noted the “Relations of Russia with the European Powers before the War of 1815,” by A. Popof; the second and third volumes of the new edition of the “Complete Collection of Russian Laws,” etc., which extend to 1723; the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth volumes of the “Collection of the Russian Historical Society;” the second and third volumes of the “Russian Historical Library ; ” the eighth and ninth volumes of the “Archives of Prince Vorontzof; ” the “History of Tver,” by Borzakofsky; the “Embassy to England in 1600 of Gregory Mikulin;" the “Historical Value of Russian Brigand Songs,” by N. Aristof; the fifth volume of F. Bienemann’s “Briefe und Urkunden zur Geschichte Livlands,” from 1558 to 1562; and Johann Renner’s “Livlāndische Historien.” From history to politics the transition is easy. The chief works in this division are, the third volume of Prof. Marten's “Collection of Russian Treaties and Conventions,” which includes the treaties with Austria from 1808 to 1815; the second volume of Prof. Gradovsky’s “German Constitution; ” “Sketch of the History and Dogmas of International Law,” by A. N. Stoyanof; and J. Keussler's “Communal Property and Emancipation.” In geographical and scientific literature there is not much to speak of. The profound work of J. R. Aspelin, on “Finnio-Ugric Archaeology,” deserves special mention, although published in Finnish. As it is profusely illustrated, it may be useful even to those ignorant of that language. LITERATURE, ENGLISH. The extent to which the best literature of England and America is interchanged has been referred to in the article LiterATURE AND LITERARY ProgREss, with a notice of some of the principal English works republished in the United States. In the present article, consequently, mention is chiefly made of books not yet reproduced in American editions. And among these, the mass of compiled and ephemeral publications call for no particular notice. It is true that there is some risk in this rather wholesale and summary judgment, and it may prove to have been presumptuous in respect of some authors thus passed by, but the purpose of these reviews is not so much criticism as the record of contemporary estimates of literature, to note what books did in fact make an impression on the public, rather than to express our judgment as to what books ought to have been honored with the public approval. PoETRY.-In the higher order of creative literary art, England had not much to show during the last year. The laureate put forth another tragedy. “Harold,” regarded as a poem, will not discredit Mr. Tennyson, though it can add nothing to his fame; as a drama, while free from some of the faults of his “Queen Mary,” it is equally deficient in dramatic vitality. Mr. Browning gave us a volume with the enigmatic title “Pacchiarotto, and how he worked in Distemper, and Other Poems.” The leading piece is meant as “a fable for critics,” but the critics for whom it is meant are less likely to wince under his satire than to point to the poem as a confirmatory instance of what they have alleged against the poet. Mr. Browning must be content to sing
for the initiated, and, if his “fit audience" proves to be also very “few,” to put up with it as “the best his circumstance allows.” The chief poetical sensation of the year was the discovery by Mr. Swinburne and the republication of “Joseph and his Brethren,” a drama by Charles Wells, published forty years ago, neglected and forgotten, but pronounced by Mr. Swinburne to be worthy of comparison with the plays of Shakespeare. What adds to the surprising features of the case is the fact that the author whose work thus failed to gain public attention is still living to enjoy his lateblossoming reputation, a reputation which will not come up to the height of Mr. Swinburne's praise, but will make some amends for his previous total failure. The usual quota of minor poetry has appeared, but nothing that will excite more than a limited and temporary interest. Perhaps next to the case of Mr. Wells and his drama in interest is the identification of what had been supposed to be genuine old ballads as the work of an eccentric clergyman lately deceased, the Rev. Robert Stephen Hawker. One of his ballads deceived so keensighted a judge as Lord Macaulay. The name of Mr. Hawker has been brought before the public in an unpleasant way by a biography in which his memory is by no means honored, but which the public have reason to consider as more discreditable to the author than to the subject. Novels.—In the department of prose fiction, the best is disappointing. Nobody but George Eliot could have written “Daniel Deronda,” but it has not raised nor even sustained her great reputation. Mr. William Black's “Madcap Violet” is scarcely inferior to his best. As in his previous novels, the plot is open to exception, and some of his characters seem to approach the extreme of human possibility, if they do not overstep the modesty of Nature. But with whatever drawbacks, the power of his genius is incontestable. Mr. R. D. Blackmore’s “Cripps the Carrier” is not a production that can add anything to the credit of the author of “Lorna Doone” and of “Alice Lorraine,” however superior to the average novel. “The Hand of Ethelberta,” by Mr. Thomas Hardy, comes nearer to doing justice to his recognized position among literary artists. Mr. Justin McCarthy's tale, “Dear Lady Disdain,” is well conceived and worked out with his usual firmness of hand. “The Dilemma,” by Colonel Chesney, author of “The Battle of Dorking,” besides its high merits as a fiction, presents striking pictures of the Sepoy mutiny in India. “The Atonement of Leam Dundas," by Mrs. Linn Linton, takes a very high place among sensational novels, in fact, almost rises into a higher realm of fiction. Mrs. Oliphant's last two novels, “The Curate in Charge,” and “Phoebe Junior, a Last Chronicle of Carlingford,” are in her best style, which is a very good style indeed. “Thomas Wingfold, Curate,” by Dr. George Macdonald, in a very different style, is an advance in respect to artistic power upon his previous productions. “Rose Turquand,” by Ellice Hopkins, and “The Master of Riverswood,” by Mrs. Arthur Lewis, are productions of much promise, assuming them to be by new writers. A considerable list might be made out of fictions that attain to a respectable mediocrity of merit, and to something more than that in single features, but to what end? History AND BIogRAPHY.-The completion of Mr. E. A. Freeman’s “History of the Norman Conquest of England" is a matter of congratulation. Mr. Freeman is not a master of narration or of description. He is not what is termed an eloquent historian. But for clear erposition, placing the reader in the points of view from which he can best see the subject in all its parts, he stands in the first rank, and his work, we believe, is a permanent addition to the masterpieces of English literature. Prof. George Rawlinson has published his “Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy: History of the Sassanians,” continuing, with undiminished grasp of learning and critical sagacity, to embody the results of recent Oriental investigations. The series is completed, bringing Oriental history down to the era from which modern history dates. Dean Stanley's third series of “Lectures on the History of the Jewish Church” expounds a portion of the Jewish annals, the dryness of which, as commonly treated, makes it by no means attractive to any but very inquisitive investigators. But nothing can resist the magic of Dean Stanley's enthusiasm. Whatever he touches turns up an interesting side, or is made to appear interesting by virtue of some association or suggestion caught by his fertile mind and brought into relation with it. His mild and conciliatory attitude of mind toward all forms of doctrine, and hospitality to new ideas, are also exhibited, if possible, more than in his previous productions. Part I. of a “History of the Moslems, from the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century,” by Henry H. Howorth, is the beginning of an important work. “Islam under the Arabs,” by Major R. D. Osborn, deals with an interesting topic that needed elucidation. “The Ecclesiastical History of Ireland,” by W. D. Killen, D. D., treats the subject from a Presbyterian point of view. Mr. Leslie Stephen’s “History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century" is a philosophical review rather than a history of events. It is the fruit of earnest study by one who is himself an advanced thinker. “The English Bible; an External and Critical History of the Various English Translations of the Scriptures,” etc., by the late Dr. John Eadie, can hardly be said to add to what has been before published on the subject. It is a convenient compilation of the known facts, with some considerations in favor of the revision of the authorized version. Several biographical works of historical value have appeared. The “Life of William Earl of
Shelburne,” in three volumes, has been completed. “Political and Military Episodes from the Life and Correspondence of the Rt. Hon. John Burgoyne,” by E. B. Fonblanque, will enlarge the ideas of those whose only knowledge of the subject is, that he surrendered at Saratoga. The “Memoir of Earl Spencer,” better known as Lord Althorp, the leader of the House of Commons by which the Reform Bill of 1832 was passed, is interesting as a biography, and valuable as a memorial of an important political epoch. The “Life of Lord Palmerston,” by the Hon. Evelyn Ashley, throws light on a more recent period of political history. “Syria and Egypt under the Last Five Sultans of Turkey" are exhibited in a striking light in the “Experiences during Fifty Years of Mr. Consul-General Barker,” by his son. Of works in Literary and General Biography the most important during the year was the “Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay,” by G. O. Trevelyan, which, if a cordial reception by the public can guarantee fame, promises to be a permanent addition to English literature. Of great and varied but painful interest is the “Memoirs of Robert William Haydon.” Mr. John Forster’s “Life of Swift,” of which great expectations were authorized by the first volume, is left a fragment by the lamented death of the author. “William Whewell: an Account of his Writings, with Selections from his Scientific and Literary Correspondence,” by I. Todhunter, commemorates a man who held a great place in the public view, and who in point of ability and acquirements was worthy of his position. Other works in this department of writing are: “Life and Opinions of Heinrich Heine,” by William Stigand; “Life of Michelangelo,” by Charles Heath Wilson; and “Forty Years' Recollections of Life, Literature, and Public Affairs,” by Charles Mackey. TRAVEL AND Exploration.—The number of valuable and entertaining books of travel, exploration, and description, issued during the year, was unusually large. Of Oriental travel, we have “Notes of an Indian Journey,” by M. E. Grant Duff, M. P.; “The Indian Alps, and how we crossed them,” by “A Lady Pioneer; ” “The Karens of the Golden Chersonese,” by Lieutenant-Colonel A. R. McMahon ; “Our Trip to Burmah, with Notes on that Country,” by Surgeon-General Charles Alexander Gordon; “From the Hebrides to the Himalayas,” by Miss Constance F. Gordon Cumming; “Mandelay to Momien: a Narrative of the two Expeditions to Western China in 1868 and 1875,” by John Anderson, M. D.; “The Journey of Augustus Raymond Margary, from Shanghai to Bhamo and back to Mayre,” with a biographical preface and concluding chapter by Sir Rutherford Alcock; “The Roof of the World: a Journey over the High Plateau of Tibet to the Russian Frontier, and the Oxus Sources on Panmir,” by Lieutenant-Colonel T. E. Gordon: “A Ride to Khiva: Travels and Adventures in Central Asia,” by Frederick