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Indians in Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. 26th. General Terry's command arrived on These, to the number of about 3,000, under the morning of the 27th, and the Indians withSitting Bull, Crazy Horse, and other chiefs, drew from the valley, taking with them their had made war on the friendly Indians, and had village. refused to settle upon a reservation. In March Of the movements of General Custer, and an unsatisfactory expedition was made by Gen- the five companies under his immediate comeral Crook toward Powder River. General mand, scarcely anything is known. He was Sheridan now ordered three columns to move killed, and his entire command was obliterated. simultaneously to a common centre, where the The remaining seven companies of the Seventh Indians were supposed to be, from Montana, Cavalry were saved by the brave and prudent from Dakota, and from the Platte. The two conduct of Major Reno, and the timely arrival former were under command of General Terry, of General Terry. The loss was 12 officers, and the latter under General Crook. General 247 enlisted men, five civilians, and three InCrook started from Fort Fetterman, May 29th, dian scouts killed, and two officers and 51 men with about 1,000 men. This expedition marched wounded. The Indian force was estimated at to a point on Goose Creek, which is the head from 2,500 to 3,000 warriors. of Tongue River, a tributary of the Yellow General Terry, after burying the dead and stone. On June 17th General Crook was caring for the wounded, regained his position attacked by the Indians on the Rosebud, also at the mouth of the Big Horn, and called for a tributary of the Yellowstone. The Indians reënforcements. General Crook also awaited left 13 dead warriors on the field ; General reënforcements at his camp on Goose Creek, Crook's loss was nine dead and 21 wounded. and the hostile Indians meantime remained beMeantime, Colonel John Gibbons, with about tween them, near the base of the Big Horn 450 men, had marched from Fort Ellis, in Mon- Mountains. These commands, having been retana, down the valley of the Yellowstone, to enforced, effected a junction, August 10th, on meet General Terry, who was ascending the the Rosebud, at a point 35 miles above its same valley. General Terry, with the Seventh mouth. The march was now begun in pursuit Cavalry, under its lieutenant-colonel, Custer, of the retreating Indians. The followers of containing about 600 men and horses, and about Sitting Bull seemed to have retreated north, 400 infantry, had started from Fort Abraham near or beyond the Yellowstone, and those of Lincoln on the 17th of May, and reached the Crazy Horse to the south, near Slim Butte Yellowstone, at the mouth of Powder River, and Owl Creek, in the direction of the Black June 9th, where he established a supply-camp. Hills. Resuming his march along the south bank, he In October Colonel Miles received hostages, reached the mouth of the Rosebud on the 21st. on the Yellowstone, opposite the mouth of Near this point he came in communication Cabin Creek, for the surrender of about 2,000 with Colonel Gibbons, whose command was Indians. left at the mouth of the Big Horn, and deter In bis annual report, Lieutenant - General mined in person to continue to the same place, Sheridan says: but to detach the Seventh Cavalry by a circuit
The surrender of the Indians from the Missouri to the Upper Rosebud (a tributary of the Big River agencies to Colonel Miles, on the 27th of OcHorn), where all his command, embracing that tober, numbering, in men, women, and children, at of Colonel Gibbons, was to meet on a day ap- small
band to the north, leave now out and hostile pointed. On the 22d General Custer started, with his Horse and his allies from the
Red Cloud agency,
only the northern Cheyennes and the band of Crazy whole regiment and a strong detachment of and it is against these Indians that General Crook is scouts and guides, from the mouth of the Rose- now operating; and when these are killed, captured, bud. Proceeding up that river about twenty I think all future trouble with them, as it is intended miles, he struck a heavy Indian trail, which he to put most of them on foot, and a Sioux on foot is a followed to the Little Big Horn River. Here Sioux warrior no longer. . I recommend that the be found a village of almost unlimited extent, whole Sioux nation be established on the Missouri and at once attacked it with that portion of River, between Standing Rock and Fort Randall. his command which was immediately at hand. They can be cheaply fed there, and can be sufficiently
isolated to be controlled. To take so many wild InMajor Reno, with three companies, was sent dians to the Indian Territory would be a difficult into the valley of the stream at the point where undertaking at this time, and would, in my opinion, the trail struck it. General Custer, with five be attended with the worst results to those now companies, attempted to enter about three there, as well as to the Sioux. They should go miles lower down. Reno forded the river, but gradually, from time to time, and when the Indians
there are ready to receive them. was completely overwhelmed by the Indians, and was forced to recross. In a short time he In April, 1876, the headquarters of the Army was joined on the bluffs by Captain Benteen were transferred from St. Louis to Washington. with three companies, and by Captain Mc- During the year the number of grand military Dougall with one company. Soon after, this divisions was reduced from four to three, viz., united force was nearly surrounded by Indians. Missouri, Atlantic, and Pacific. The aggregate The fighting continned from about half-past force of the army is 28,571, including 2,101 two o'clock of the 25th till six o'clock of the officers and 26,420 enlisted men.
ASIA. According to the latest accounts the In Japan considerable progress was again area of Asia was 17,300,000 square miles, and made in the work of civilization during the the population about 798,900,000.*
year. A permanent exhibition-building was esThe conquest of Khokan by the Russians, tablished in Tokio. The work on the railroads which had been begun in 1875, was completed on the principal islands was actively pushed in 1876 (see Kuokan). This added another forward. The difficulties with Corea were large tract of land to the Russian dominions, settled by a favorable treaty. The exercise and brought it another step nearer to British of torture was forever abolished (see Japan). India, its great rival in Asiatic politics. The In Persia several expeditions were underprogress of Russia made Afghanistan to a taken against the Kurds and against the Turkohigher degree than ever before the battle-field mans of Merv, the latter having committed between its own and British diplomacy. The large depredations on Persian territory (see results of the special embassies which both PERSIA). powers in the course of the year sent to Af In Siam the King introduced many innovaghanistan were not known in December (see tions destined to civilize the country (see Siam). AFGHANISTAN). In another country of Central In Acheen the war continued during the Asia, Beloochistan, the English Government, year, being generally favorable to the Dutch. by a successful intervention, greatly strength- The abolition of slavery on the west coast of ened its influence, and reopened the Bolan Sumatra completed the extinction of that inPass, one of the chief roads of communication stitution in the Asiatic colonies of European between British India and its western neigh- countries (see NETHERLANDS). bors (see BelooOHISTAN). Throughout Central The Spanish Government, in the early part Asia the excitement visibly increased, and the of the year, found itself compelled to fit out final result of the rival policies of Russia and an expedition against the pirates of the SooEngland is awaited with intense suspense. loo Islands, which was successful (see Sooloo). The aggressive attitude which Russia pursued The Turkish provinces in Asia, and parts of in regard to Turkey disposed the Moham- Persia, India, and Muscat, were visited by the medan population throughout Asia favorably cholera, which was particularly severe in the toward England.
neighborhood of Bagdad. The Prince of Wales continued his journey The eastern coast of Bengal was swept by a through India during the early part of the severe cyclone on October 31st, during which year, returning home in March. The Viceroy 125,000 persons were reported to have perished. of India, Lord Northbrook, resigned in the ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND early part of the year, and was succeeded by PROGRESS. Veiled Solar Spots.-A valuLord Lytton. The difficulty with the natives able memoir on " veiled solar spots," by Mr. on the Malay Peninsula continued during the L. Trouvelot, of Cambridge, Mass., was pubearly part of the year. Disturbances and na- lished in the American Journal of Science tive rebellions were also reported from various for March, 1876. The author adopts the parts of the country (see India).
view, now generally accepted, that the sun's The relations of England to China appeared visible surface-the chromosphere-is a gasat one time to assume threatening dimensions, eous envelope, composed chiefly of incandesas Chinese authorities in every possible way cent hydrogen. The depth of this stratum is endeavored to obstruct the investigation of the found to be ordinarily from 4,000 to 6,000 Margary murder; but, at last, the Government miles; the thickness varying, however, from agreed to the British demand, to pay Mrs. day to day. The minimum thickness hitherto Margary a sum of money, and to open three observed occurred in the summer of 1875. The new ports to foreign trade. The operations of principal results of Mr. Trouvelot's observaChina against the ruler of Kashgaria were re- tions are summed up as follows: newed, but, so far as is known, without success. The opening of the island of Hainan to the interval from June 10th to August 18th, and to a
1. During the year 1875, and especially during the foreign trade, promised in the treaty of 1862, less degree to September 14th, the chromosphere was finally brought about on April 1, 1876. was notably thinner than usual upon the entire sur The name of the new port is Kiungchow. face of the sun. An important step forward in the course of
2. The granulations were smaller and less nucivilization was made in China during the past
3. The light-gray colored background seen beyear, by the opening of the first railroad. A tween the granules was more conspicuous and occudifference arose between the Chinese and Ger- pied more space than usual. man Governments, on account of the mutiny
4. There are spots, which the author has named on board of the German vessel Anna, and the veiled spots," which are seen through the chromurder of the captain and mate by the muti- mosphere which is spread over them like a veil.
5. These veiled spots are true openings of the neers, with the consent of the Chinese authori- photosphere, like those of the ordinary spots, ties. The full demands of the German Gov 6. During this period these spots were larger, ernment were granted (see China).
darker, and more numorous, than the observer had
before seen them. For a detailed account of the area and population of the
7. The veiled spots are scattered throughout all political and geographical divisions of Asia, see ANNUAL CY- latitudes, though more complicated in the regions OLOP.DIA for 1975.
where the ordinary spots make their appearance.
8. Mr. Trouvelot has observed spots at least within maximum in 1870. The mean period, accord10% of the north-pole of the sun.
ing to Dr. Wolf, is 11.11 years. The last 9. The flocculent objects sometimes seen projected upon the umbra and penumbra of spots are the re- epoch of least disturbance took place, theremaining portion of the granulations composing the fore, nearly two years before the predicted chromosphere, more or less dissolved by the forces time. emanating from the interior of the photosphere. . Probable Existence of an Intra-Mercurial
Temperature of the Sun's Surface. It is well Planet.—It is well known that dark circular known that eminent authorities have differed spots have been seen at widely-distant intervery widely in their estimates of the intensity vals passing rapidly across the solar disk. of solar heat. The calculations of Sir John These phenomena have been regarded by some Herschel and Father Secchi give about 10,000,- astronomers as transits of an unknown interior 000° as the temperature at the surface; while planet. The fact, on the other hand, that no other physicists, by applying the law of Dulong such body has been seen during total eclipses and Pettit, obtain a degree of heat not great of the sun, is claimed by others as presumply superior to that of a blast-furnace. Prof. tive evidence that the so-called_transits have Langley, of the Allegheny Observatory, who been due to some other cause. But this negahas for several years been devoting special tive testimony is by no means conclusive. attention to solar physics, read a paper on this When it is remembered, moreover, that an unsubject at the October meeting of the National explained motion of Mercury's perihelion has Academy of Sciences. These recent researches been referred by Leverrier to the disturbing leave little room to doubt the approximate influence either of a planet or a zone of minute correctness of Herschel's estimate.
asteroids within Mercury's orbit, the question The Sun's Atmosphere.-A memoir on the is certainly still open to discussion. atmospheres of the sun and planets was re The theory that this outstanding disturbcently communicated to the American Philo- ance of Mercury's motion is due, at least in sophical Society, at Philadelphia, by Mr. Da- part, to an interior planet, has been recently vid Trowbridge, of Waterburg, N. Y. Assum- revived by the distinguished Director of the ing the temperature of the sun's surface to Paris Observatory. The attention of astronobe 9,800,000® Fabr., and that a given volume mers was called to the subject by the anof the solar atmosphere at 32° becomes doub- nouncement that on the afternoon of April 4, led at 522°, the analysis of Mr. Trowbridge 1876, Herr Weber, of Peckeloh, had seen a leads to the conclusion that at the height of small round sun-spot, which had disappeared about 2,500 miles above the sun's surface its before the following morning. It was found, atmosphere has decreased in density to one- however, that the observers at Madrid and half of what it is at the surface; at a little Greenwich had witnessed the same appearmore than 5,000 miles, to one-fourth, and so on ance, and that their observations proved it to for greater heights. Assuming further that have been a true sun-spot, not a planet. But the density of the solar atmosphere at the sur- Leverrier, who had thus beep led to undertake face is 855,000,000,000 times what it is at the a discussion of the subject, found sufficient outer limit, the height of the atmosphere is evidence in former observations to render the found to be 121,000 miles, or more than one- existence of the planet highly probable. The fourth of the sun's radius. This ratio is less spots seen at the five following dates are rethan that which actually exists in the earth's garded by the French astronomer as transits atmosphere. If we now suppose the masses of the same body: of the terrestrial and solar atmospheres to have the same ratio as the masses of the earth and
1802, October 10, observed by Fritsch..
? Decuppis. the sun, the density of the solar atmosphere 1849, March 12,
" Sidebotham. at the sun's surface will be only of the den
" Lescarbault. sity of the earth's atmosphere at the earth's
46 Lummis. surface. The resistance offered to motion in These dates are approximately satisfied by a such an atmosphere is much less than it would period of 334 Oh. 32m. 24", corresponding to be in one of low temperature. Were the heat à mean distance of 0.201. It is remarked, of the sun's surface reduced to 32°, the height however, by a writer in Nature (November 2, of the atmosphere under the conditions above 1876), that a period of 27 23h. gm. 104. not supposed would be only five miles, and at the only represents the observations selected by height of 665 feet the density would be re- Leverrier, but also that of Stark, October 9, duced one-half. The pressure on a square 1819, one of the most definite on record. The inch of surface would be 57 tons, and the den- question is one of much interest
, and as ansity at the surface would be 740 times as great other transit may not occur for several years, as at the surface of the earth—in other words, diligent search will be made for the body along about equal to the density of water.
its calculated path. If a planet of the size inThe Late Sun-spot Minimum.—The observa- dicated by the supposed transits really exist, tions of Prof. R. Wolf
, Director of the Zürich it ought certainly to be visible off the sun's Observatory, indicate a minimum of solar spots disk. about the end of the year 1875. The last pre New Minor Planets.-The number of known eeding minimum occurred in 1867, and the asteroids at the close of 1875 was 157. Eleven
2.9807 7° 80 2* 9 852 45 2.5841 5 44 7 52 215 57 3.1820 4 43 12 10 800 8.9504 9 28 7 51 | 254 42 8.2285 5 45 20 49 168 41 8.08 76 15 17 7 29 155 57 2.5857 12 42 11 50 109 12 2.9901 16 59 1 28 1 855 10 2.7834 8 28 8 51 56 49
more were detected in 1876, making the pres
Angle of ent number 168. Coronis, No. 158, was dis
Incl. Long. Pa. covered by Dr. Knorre, of the Berlin Observatory, on the 5th of January. Its distance from
Abundantia...... the sun is 2.99, and it shines with the light of 152 a star of the 11th or 12th magnitude. No. 153 159, Æmilia, was detected by Paul Henry, of 156 Xantippe. the Paris Observatory, January 26th. Una, 167 Dejanira the 160th of the group, was found by Dr. Peters, of Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., February 20th. It is of the 11th magnitude. Saturn and his Rings.-The American JourNo. 161 was first seen on the 19th of April, by nal of Science for June, 1876, contains an inProf. Watson, of Ann Arbor, Mich., The 162d teresting paper by L. Trouvelot on some physwas discovered on the 22d of April, by Prof. ical observations of the planet Saturn. The Henry, of Paris. M. Perrotin, of Toulouse, observations of Mr. Trouvelot were continued detected No. 163 on the 26th of April. Its through several years, and were made with the light is not greater than that of a star of the fifteen-inch refractor of the Harvard College 12th magnitude. The 164th of the cluster was Observatory, the twenty-six-inch refractor of discovered by M. Paul Henry, at Paris, July the Washington Observatory, and the six-inch 12th. It is of the 12th or 13th magnitude. refractor of his own observatory at Cambridge. Nos. 165, 166, and 167, which have received the ring exterior to the principal division has the names of Loreley, Rhodope, and Urda, been always seen under favorable circumstances were discovered on the 9th, 15th, and 28th to be divided into two sections by a narrow, of August, by Dr. Peters, of Clinton, N. Y. grayish line, called “the pencil-line." The The first two are of the 11th magnitude; the dusky ring, discovered by Bond, does not aplast, of the 12th. Urda is the 26th member pear to be separated from the old interior ring of the group first seen by the Director of the by any break or chasm. Designating the anClinton Observatory. No. 168 was discovered nulus exterior to the pencil line by A, that beby Prof. Watson, at Ann Arbor, Mich., on tween the pencil line and the principal division the 28th of September. This planet is of by B, and the outer portion of the interior ring the 11th magnitude, and is the 19th detected by C, Mr. Trouvelot's observations showby Prof. Watson. The supposed discovery of another member of the group on the 28th of the outer border of the
principal division, has shown
1. That the inner margin of the ring B, limiting September by Prof. Henry, of Paris, proved on the ansæ, some singular dark angular forms, which to be a rediscovery of Maia, No. 66, which may be attributed to an irregular and jagged conforhad been wholly lost sight of for several mation of the inner border of the ring B, either peryears.
manent or temporary. The name of No. 139, discovered by Prof. shown a mottled or clouded appearance on the ansæ
2. That the surface of the rings A, B, and C, has Watson while at Peking, was erroneously during the last four years. given in a former volume. The Chinese name 3. That the thickness of the system of rings is selected by the discoverer is Juewa. Most increasing from the inner margin of the dusky ring members of the group discovered in 1875 are to the outer border of the ring C, as proved by the of the 11th or 12th magnitude, and belong to rings.
form of the shadow of the planet' thrown upon the the exterior portion of the ring. No. 153, de 4. That the cloud-forms seen near the outer tected by Palisa, November 2, 1875, and which border of the ring C attain different heights, and was named Hilda by Dr. Oppolzer, has a much change their relative position, either by the rotation longer period than any other yet discovered. of the rings upon an axis, or by some local cause, as Its mean daily motion, according to Dr. the shadow of the planet.
indicated by the rapid changes in the indentation of Schmidt, is 452", which corresponds to a 5. That the inner portion of the dusky ring disperiod of 2,865 days, or seven years and ten appears in the light of the planet at that part which months. This is more than double the period is projected upon its disk. of many asteroids in the inner portion of the than in the more central parts, the light diminishing
6. That the planet is less luminous near its limb zone. The mean distance that of the earth gradually in approaching the border. being unity-is 3.95. The eccentricity of the 7. That the dusky ring is not transparent throughorbit being 0.1487, and the inclination 7° 45', out, contrary to all the observations made hitherto; the least distance between Jupiter and Hilda and that it grows more dense as it recedes from the will be less than one-fifth of Hilda's greatest the limb of the planet ceases entirely to be seen
planet, so that, at about the middle of its width, distance from the sun. At times, therefore, through it. the motion of the asteroid must be greatly dis 8. And, finally, that the matter composing the turbed.
dusky ring is agglomerated here and there into small The elements of several recently-discovered masses, which almost totally prevent the light of members
of the group have not yet been com- the planet from reaching the eye of the observer. pated. The mean distance, eccentricity, in Comets. It is remarkable that no ner telclination, and longitude of perihelion, of those escopic comet has been discovered since 1874. detected since October 1, 1875, are given, so This is the longest barren interval in the last far as known, in the following table : forty years. Some interesting researches, how
0.6278 1.8181 8.5415
ever, have been published during the past year, on the four nights were 18, 6, 9, 7. There was, in regard to the periodic comets of D'Arrest therefore, a regular decrease from the 10th, and De Vico, both of which will return to the apparent exception on the 11th being dué perihelion in 1877. The observations on the to the haze. Making all allowance for unfavorformer, together with the perturbations pro- able circumstances, Prof. Herschel thinks the duced by Venus, the earth, Mars, Jupiter, and shower of 1876 indicates a minimum. Saturn, have been discussed by M. Leveau, of On the evening of October 18, 1876, from the Paris Observatory. Leverrier's Bulletin about half-past seven to nine o'clock, meteInternational, of March 18, 1876, gives the ors were seen in greater numbers than usual elements obtained by M. Leveau for the next at Bloomington, Ind. The maximum numreturn of the comet, as follows:
ber for one observer was eleven per hour. Time of perihelion passage..
They all diverged from the vicinity of a point
..May 10, 1877. Longitude of perihelion....
between Taurus and Auriga. Most of the Longitude of ascending node.
meteors were small, though two were seen of Inclination..
15 43 Eccentricity.
extraordinary magnitude. At Newburyport, Peribelion distance..
Mass., on the same night, at two o'clock A. M., Semi-axis major. Sidereal period.
a bolide was observed to start from the same
part of the heavens. De Vico's comet of short period has not
It was half the apparent size of the moon, which been seen since 1844. This body is regarded it rivaled in brightness, the smallest objects being by Leverrier as identical with the comet dis- visible in the intense white light of about two covered by Lahire in 1678. It is situated most seconds' duration. It left a train 10° long and favorably for observation when the perihelion visible over a quarter of an hour. While the train
one-fourth of a degree wide, which remained passage occurs about September 4th, and it is was being observed a large number of smaller remarkable that those of 1678 and 1844 took meteors passed, as often as one a minute, over the place within a few days of the most favorable same field, one or two of them leaving a slight date. A possible reason for the non-recovery
train. of the comet at any recent return was given in The meteors of November 14th move in the Nature for July 27, 1876. The orbit of De orbit of Tempel's comet (1866), and are the Vico's comet approaches very near to the orbit débris resulting from its disintegration. The of Mars at two points falling near 42° and 287° comet, together with the principal swarm of heliocentric longitude. At the former point meteors which immediately follow it, is now the distance between the two orbits is about approaching its aphelion near the orbit of 2,000,000 miles, and at the latter somewhat Uranus. As the existence, however, of more less than 1,000,000; "and it is to be borne in than one cluster in the same orbit has been mind that these distances, small as they are, clearly indicated, a yearly watch will be nemay have been diminished very sensibly by the cessary, while passing the node, in order to effect of accumulated perturbation since 1855, discover the law of meteoric distribution. “On beyond which we have no calculation of the the morning of November 14th” (according effects of planetary attraction. If the mean to Prof. Newton), “ between twelve and one diurnal motion in 1855 were as large as 652.05”, o'clock, the sky at New Haven was partly a value considerably within Brünnow's sug- clear. Out of about twelve meteors seen, three gested limits, the comet might have come into might be called conformable to the radiant in extremely close proximity to Mars at the end Leo. Shortly after one o'clock the sky became of August, 1866, in about 42.3° heliocentric wholly overcast." longitude.
Aërolites and Meteoric Fire-balls.--In the Meteors.-Between ten and twelve o'clock American Journal of Science for June, 1876, on the night of April 18, 1876, meteors were Prof. J. Lawrence Smith, of Louisville, Ky., seen in unusual numbers near Ellettsville, describes a fire-ball seen by himself and Ind. A large majority of those whose tracks many other observers to pass Louisville on were well observed were conformable to the evening of January 31st, at half-past the radiant in Lyra. Several were remark- five o'clock. The meteor was first seen about ably brilliant, apparently equal to stars of the 60° above the horizon: its direction was from first or second magnitude. The meteors of northwest to southeast ; duration of flight, this epoch are supposed to be derived from two or three seconds; apparent size, one-sixthe first comet of 1861, and to move in the teenth that of the moon's disk. The bolide same orbit.
exploded about 10° above the horizon, when Watch was kept for meteors at York, Eng- all the fragments disappeared, except the land, on the nights of August 10th, 11th, 12th, largest, which continued its course very nearly and 14th. Several nights preceding the 10th to the horizon. Frere cloudy, and the 11th was very hazy. A fall of aërolites took place near Ställdalen, The brightness of the moonlight also inter- in Sweden, June 28, 1876, between the hours fered with the observations, except on the of eleven and twelve A. M. The fall of the 14th, which may be regarded as the close of stones was accompanied by a brilliant light, the Angust epoch. The hourly numbers radi- though the day was cloudless. Two or three ating from Perseus, seen by a single observer, loud detonations were heard, after which the