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1861. 1863. 1964. 1875.





post-office for $50,000. We are also going to build which we pay him £120 per mile. Mr. James Anpost-offices at l'ucuman and Córdoba; but the Laz- derson is making a line from Córdoba to Salto, zaretto at Martin García must for the present lie over, and Señor A. Santamaría one from Concepcion to

Immigration we regard as the key to national Paysandú. progress, and the forerunner of trade. The number It is desirable to plant trees throughout the Pamof French immigrants, and the amount of our im- pas, from Buenos Ayres to San Luis, but this will be port-trade from France, were as follows in the years a work of years. Mr. Oldendorff 'distributed last below expressed:

year 32,300 collections of seeds among 1,826 persons.

In future we propose to sell the seeds and plants, Immigrants. Imports. instead of giving them gratis. The Botanical Gar

den has $20,000 worth. We have given $1,440 for 1,000 $4,800,000 certain colonists at Tortugas, who bave planted 4,000 6,600,000 18,000 mulberry-trees; also $724 to colonists in 5,000 10,400,000 7,000 12,200,000

Concepcion, for rearing silk-worms.

A subsidy of $250,000 has been paid to the BerThe decline of immigration to Buenos Ayres is mejo Navigation Company. due to causes in Europe which have determined a ARIZONA. The Governor in his message like result in the United States, as, for instance:

to the biennial session of the Legislature, com

mencing January 4, 1875, states that the amount New York.....

866,818 84,650

on hand and in the general fund, December Last year we forwarded to the various provinces 31, 1872, was $16,466.33 ; receipts to Decemcolony is thriving, having a population of 700. ber 31, 1874, $19,721.53 ; making a total of Some families, too much hampered at Chubut, have $36,187.86. The disbursements from the genbeen sent up to the Chaco,

where three new colonies eral fund were $27,827.33; balance, $8,360.53. bave been founded. The East Argentine colony At no period had the Indian affairs been so satcounts 330 settlers, from the Tyrol, brought here isfactory; comparative peace reigned throughat a cost of $50 each from Havre.

Stupendous has been the growth of the Santa Fé out the Territory. The subject of obtaining colonies in one year :

water by means of artesian wells was engaging attention, and it was recommended that a re

ward of $5,000 be offered for the first flowing Number of colonists.

15,510 24,852 water obtained by means of an artesian well Tillage (acres)..

162,000 243,000 Crop (bushels).

215,230 300,000

in the Territory. “The advantages that would Cattle (head).

81,901 111,912 be derived from developing flowing water by

artesian wells can hardly be estimated. We The Government sends up passage-free all new have millions of acres of grazing and agricultcomers who wish to try their fortune at these colo- ural lands, and many valuable mines, unser: nies.

Congress voted last year $80,000 for free passages viceable unless water be developed upon them." to immigrants and supplies for food, etc. We only With reference to mining, agriculture, and grazspent $16,022, namely, in bringing out Tyrolese ing, the Governor says: settlers for Entre-Rios, and sending supplies to the Chubut colony.

There has been a marked increase in mining enThe homestead law is imperatively called for, as terprises during the past year. Many

new and valevery dollar we spend on immigration gives 150 per gold, silver, copper, and lead, is being extracted,

uable discoveries have been made, and considerable cent. per annum in increase of revenue. Last year There is but little capital among us to develop and our Immigration Department cost altogether $207,- work

mines; but in a small way, and with rude ma447, which, in relation to 42,000 new-comers,

repre- chinery, our hardy miners have started and are succomers, is equal to an increase of $352,000 in import cultural interests are not prosperous, in conseqnence revenue. Moreover, it is impossible to estimate the of the low price of grain. Farmers have supplied increase of products to be obtained by the introduc: the citizens, military, and Indians, with produce, and tion of 100,000 agricultural settlers, which would have had a surplus left. No greater encomium could cost the republic only a million dollars.*

Señor Olivera's report upon the Post-Office De- be paid the productiveness of the Territory. The partment shows a saving of $95,797 on the sum ap: embarrassed the farmers, but, with the development

market being limited, the low prices have seriously propriated by Congress, and an improvement of of the mines, a more extended market will be opened $52,000 in favor of the Treasury, as compared with for produce. Our unequaled grazing facilities are 1974. Some of the provinces want to tax the coaches we

beginning to be appreciated. Large numbers of employ to carry the mails, and Congress must pass here from the adjoining States and Territories, and

horses, cattle, and sheep, have already been brought a law exempting the lines from local taxation. By many thousands are now en route. The time is not abolishing Government mail-cars, and subsidizing far distant when Arizona will be one of the first private ones, we have effected a saving of $50,000.

The Galles contract, for carrying mails to Patago- wool-producing Territories of the Union. nia, has been rescinded. As the European mail The condition of the public schools for the steamers complained of the number of free passages year ending December 31, 1875, was as follows: granted, we have agreed to reduce them to one first Total receipts from all sources, $28,759.92, an and two steerage passages.

The number of telegraphic dispatches increased increase over the previous year of $16,986.77; from 262,376 in 1874 to 277,254 in 1875.

total disbursements, $24,151.96, an increase The department is now annexed to the Post-Office. Mr. Rogers is making the telegraph-line from Rio $4,607.96. Says the report :

over the previous year of $14,999.82; balance, Cuarto to Rio Quinto. Señor Carranza has received materials for the line from Jujuy to Bolivia, for

A tax of 15 cents on each $100 worth of taxable

property is levied and collected annually for a Ter* This law has since been passed.

ritorial school-fund, and is divided between the ser

483 598 314 119 88

eral counties in proportion to the average daily at Resolved, That we favor an efficient system of free tendance at the various public schools. A tax of schools, wherein the youth of the State may re$5 cents on each $100 worth of taxable property is ceive such education as will fit them for all the levied and collected by each county in its own con- duties of citizenship; and we hold the Democratic fines, for a county school-fund, and is divided be- party responsible for robbing the State of its schooltween the public schools of the county on the

same funds to pay the per diem and salaries of officials, basis as is the Territorial school-fund. This makes whereby the public schools were closed by reason a total tax of 50 cents on each $100 worth of taxable of the theft. property in the Territory, for the maintenance of Resolved, That to the soldiers and sailors, who public schools, and I believe is the largest direct fought to preserve the Union, the nation owes a debt public school tax paid by any State or Territory in of gratitude, and they, as well as the widows and the Union.

orphans of those who

have fallen, are justly entitled The total number of children in the Terri- to a liberal provision for their support.

Resolved, That we hereby declare Hon. Oliver P. tory, between the ages of six and twenty-one Morton to be the choice of the Republicans of the years, reported up to December 31, 1875, was State for President. as follows, by counties :

With regard to the nomination of a State Yavapai County...

ticket, the following was adopted on motion Yuma County Maricopa County.

of Judge McClure: Pinal County

Whereas, The Democratic party at the election held Mohave County.

in September of 1874, for the adoption of the present Pima County..

1,006 constitution, and the election of State and county Total number.......


officers in twenty-nine counties, cast nine thousand

and more votes than there were male persons over Of these 2,508 children, 1,265 were boys and the age of twenty-one years resident therein, ac1,243 girls, and 908 could read and write, leav- cording to the census; anding 1,600 who could not read and write. There session, changed the time of holding all State and

Whereas, The Democratic Legislature, at its last were eleven public schools in operation during county elections from the first Monday in September the year, with 560 pupils enrolled, and an aver to the first Tuesday after the first Monday in Noage daily attendance of 412. A schoolhouse was vember, but refused to make any change as to the erected in Tucson during the

year, at a cost of next election for State and county officers; and

Whereas, The refusal aforesaid could not have $9,781.96, and paid by donations from the been based upon any other theory or idea than to people. In this school three teachers are em- repeat the frauds which were perpetrated in 1874, ployed. There are three rooms in the build- which could not be done, if held where a United ing, one occupied by girls, one by boys of higher States supervisor was present; and grade in studies, and the third by boys in pri- publican party to put a State ticket in nomination,

Whereas, It would be worse than folly for the Remary studies. The boys in the primary room with hope of electing the same, at an election held are taught Spanish and English. In the other by Democratic judges and clerks of election, at rooms English only is tanght.

which a Republican would not be allowed to be ARKANSAS. There was a very quiet state present: therefore-of affairs in Arkansas during the year, gen- in view of our personal but bitter experience, we

Be it resolved, That in view of the facts stated, and eral acquiescence in the supremacy of the con deem it advisable not to put a State ticket in nomistitution of 1874, and the administration estab- nation. lished under it. Peace was preserved and the A State Central Committee was appointed, laws executed throughout the State, and a fair to whom was left the duty of nominating candegree of progress made toward a condition of didates for presidential electors. prosperity. The political canvass of the year The Democratic State Convention was held was remarkably free from excitement.

at Little Rock on the 14th of June. PresidenThe Republicans met in convention at Little tial electors were nominated, together with the Rock on the 27th of April. After the organic following State ticket: For Governor, William zation had been effected and delegates ap- R. Miller, of Independence ; for Seeretary of pointed to the National Convention of the State, Benton B. Beavers, of Saline; for Audiparty at Cincinnati, the following resolutions tor of State, John Crawford, of Howard; for were adopted :

Treasurer of State, Thomas Churchill, of Resolved, That the Republicans of Arkansas renew Pulaski ; for Attorney-General, William F. their allegiance to the Republican party of the nation, Henderson, of Randolph; for Commissioner

of proclaimed and defended by the Father of the Re- State Lands, James N. Smithee, of Pulaski; for public one hundred years ago.

Superintendent of Public Instruction, George Rezolved, That the citizens of the several States w. Hill, of Calhoun. The following resolutions are also citizens of the nation, equal under the Constitution and the law, without regard to place of

were unanimously adopted : birth, color, race, or previous condition, and it is Resolved, That the present State administration the duty of the General Government to enforce free has realized the hopes and expectations of the Deand equal protection in their enjoyment and exer- mocracy of the State, and its course is most cordially eise.

and fully indorsed. Hesolved. That we favor an honest and economical Resolved, That the present Executive of this State administration of the State and national Govern- having been recommended almost unanimously for ments; that integrity and fidelity should be re- the position of United States Senator by the different quired of all officials, and, if found dishonest or county conventions recently held, he is most heartily korrupt, slinuld be promptly prosecuted and pun- indorsed for such position by this convention as the isbed.

reflection of the will of the people.

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Delegates to the National Convention at the creditors of the State as could result in St. Louis were appointed who were instructed any definite offer. The creditors have delayed to “cast the vote of the State of Arkansas as á any such step, saying that, on account of the unit upon all questions which might arise in embarrassments growing out of the outstandaccordance with the will of the majority of all ing floating debt of the State, they did not find the delegates present.” A resolution favoring that the State could at present assume the pay

ment of the interest on any new bonds which

might be issued on the basis of such a settleSTATE

ment. They therefore express themselves as preferring to let the matter stand until the ability and resources of the State can be more clearly ascertained.

The present amount of the outstanding Treasurer's warrants is about $1,400,000. The amount of such warrants paid into the State Treasury from other sources than that of direct taxation is $154,321.47. This sum includes all payments made into the Treasury from the first quarter in 1874 up to the close of the

third quarter in 1876. STATE SEAL OF ARKANSAS.

Two hundred and forty thousand dollars of

Treasurer's warrants bave been funded in the S. J. Tilden as the candidate for President was six per cent. bonds of the State. defeated by the adoption of a substitute de From the estimates that have been made, it claring the choice of the St. Louis Convention will appear that it will require the taxes of to be the choice of this convention. The State between two and three more years to retire election occurred on the 4th of September, and all the outstanding Treasurer's warrants, proresulted in the choice of the Democratic can- vided that the present rate of taxation is condidates. The vote was as follows:

tinued, and that no further issue of said warAt the presidential election in November, rants is made. It is the deliberate opinion of 97,029 votes were cast, of which 58,071 were the members of the board that it will be for the Democratic electors, and 38,669 for the better for the State to continue the policy that Republican; majority for the former, 19,402. has been pursued since its organization, of bor

The total vote for Governor was 108,007, of rowing money to pay current expenses until which the Democratic candidate, Miller, re- all the outstanding Treasurer's warrants are oeived 71,298, and the Republican candidate, taken up and canceled, rather than to renew Bishop, 37,306; Democratic majority, 33,992. the system of issuing more warrants, and thus The Legislature consists of 29 Democrats and bringing about a further and constantly-intwo Republicans in the Senate, and 76 Demo- creasing depreciation of such paper. The recrats and 17 Republicans in the House. Foar sult of that depreciation would be, that the Democrats were elected to Congress.

public institutions of charity would perish for An act of the Legislature approved Novem- want of support; official salaries would be reber 16, 1875, created a Board of Finance, and duced so low that good men of fair abilities authorized it to borrow money for State ex- would be compelled to decline the public serpenses, etc. Two loans were contracted by vice, and the State would have to pay enhanced the board, one of $250,000, at ten per cent. prices for everything purchased by it. In the interest, which has been repaid. The other end the State would have to adopt, under was of the same amount, at eight per cent. in- augmented difficulties, the same policy which terest, and payable in July, 1877.

is now being successfully acted upon; or otherThe Board of Finance has caused a state- wise the State government would become so ment to be made of the State debt, from which clogged with irredeemable and uncurrent paper it appears that it amounts, with interest to as to render all its operations difficult if not September 30, 1876, to $17,620,362. This in- hopelessly impracticable. The board say that cludes the whole nominal debt.

they have every reason to believe that the six The board has had an extensive correspond per cent. bonds of the State could be disposed ence with persons holding evidences of the of at as much as seventy-five cents on the State's indebtedness, with a view to ascertain dollar ; but it may easily be shown that such a what could be done toward making such a method of raising money is far less economical settlement of it as would be fair and just, and to the State than that of yearly loans at a rate within the ability of the State to meet. While of interest even much higher than that paid in a general way the holders of the paper of for the loan negotiated in 1875. There will the State have expressed a desire to settle the be no necessity for continuing these loans bedebt on such terms as might be equitable, and yond the term of the next two years; and at within the probable resources of the State, the end of that time it will certainly be a satisthere has not been, as far as the board has faction to the people of the State to reflect been advised, any such concert of action among that, amid all the difficulties of the situation


caused by a reckless issue of bonds and Treas The Blind Institute is established on a solid ury warrants, the permanent debt of the State foundation, and in successful operation. The has not been increased.

appropriation required is $7,000. A Deaf-Mute With regard to the payment of the State Institute is also in operation, with every promdebt the board say:

ise of future permanency. An appropriation In regard to the settlement of the mass of the debt of $50,000 was made for the erection of an of the state, the board, after the most thorough con- asylum for the insane; the ground has been sideration that they have been competent to give to obtained, and plans of the building proposed. the subject, are of the opinion that no final action There are about two hundred insane persons should be taken at this time. It admits of a mathe- in the State. A new building has been erected dition to pay the

interest on the nominal outstanding for the State penitentiary, which with the old debt; and no creditor, as far as the board is advised, one furnishes 406 cells for prisoners. The entertains any opinion different from that which is number of prisoners is about 385. An act of here expressed. As to what offer they will finally the Legislature allows to every convict two make is unknown even to themselves, from the days

for every month that he has, during his could result in any concerted and definite offer. It confinement, conducted himself in an exenis known that the legality of many of the bonds plary manner. of the State admits of grave question; and bonds The total number of enlisted men enrolled of the classes affected by this consideration have in the militia is 13,057, and the estimated total fallen on the market, and are now selling at prices of effective militia in the State is estimated at far below the other 'bonds which labur under no such imputation.

93,000 men. The board has felt itself precluded from express On the subject of immigration, the recentlying any decided opinion on the subject of the valid- inaugurated Governor Miller says: ity of these bonds. The constitution contemplates the payment of the just debts of the State, but fails Perhaps our one greatest need is that of capital to provide any tribunal to decide what debts are just and labor, to bring out the great and undeveloped and what are not; nor has it prescribed any criterion resources of the state. With a mild and healthy by, which these two classes of debts may be distin- climate, a soil of fertility unsurpassed, and capable guished.

of producing grains, grasses, fruits, vegetables, and Cases may be conceived in which bonds would textile growths in alınost' endless variety; 'with be so wholly destitute of all legality and merit as forests of timber, adapted

to purposes of marufactto amount to no more than waste-paper. Other ure, such as have no parallel in any other State on cases may be conceived where bonds might be tech- the Atlantic slope; with ample mines of coal, lead, nically invalid, and where the State would still be iron, and other valuable metals; with a greater bound in justice and fair dealing to pay to the length of navigable streams than any other state in holders of such bonds the equivalent of any benefit the Union; with railroads traversing her territory actually purchased by the State with them. In any from east to west and from north to south; with event, the State must always be the final arbiter in water-power in great abundance, and with absolute the matter and as no inferior tribunal can decide peace and trarfquillity within her' borders, Arkansus in the premises, the duty of making any final adju- offers to the immigrant inducements such as are dication must devolve on the Legislature as the afforded by no other portion of the West. Every supreme power of the State.

means within the resources of the State should be As the subject must then come before a body that employed to set before the world our true condition. cannot claim to be wholly impartial, we would recom- Let the country know, as we know, that the immimend such an investigation as should fitly stand in grant, from whatever realm of Europe, from whatthe place of a judicial inquiry, so that no one

could ever section of our own land, he may come, will say that he had been condemned unheard, in de- meet, here, a cordial welcome, and will be protected fiance of the principles of natural justice. 'We are in every right of person, of opinion, and of property. convinced that by proceeding with circumspection, The diffusion of reliable information upon these and giving to the holders of the bonds of the State subjects by our highest official authorities cannot an opportunity of perceiving the whole situation, in fail to be one of the very best methods of bringing all its details of calamity and hardship; by evincing our State into notice, and demands the patronage a frank, fair, and manly purpose in every step, the and support of the representatives of the people. public debt can be more satisfactorily settled for the people of the State, and the honor of the State more ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. The perfectly sustained, than by any hasty expedient subject of the reform and reorganization of quiry because it might be productive of unfavorable the Army was referred by the act of July 24, results in some moral point of view.

1876, to a commission consisting of two mem

bers from each House of Congress, the SecreAn efficient law for common schools has tary of War, and two officers of the Army. been in force in the State for a short time; its This commission met on the 11th of August, operation is such as to give the friends of the and subsequently collected for transmission to system strong hopes of its success. The only Congress a large mass of valuable statistics and embarrassment met with arises from the finan- opinions bearing upon the questions before it. cial condition of the State. Full reports have been received from all the counties but fifteen. gineers submitted estimates as follows:

At the close of the year the Chief of EnThere is an Industrial University supported by the State, and intended for the direct benefit Fortifications and other works of defense....... $2,228,000 of the colored population, which promises to Buildings and grounds in and around Washington


229,050 accomplish its object. A proposition is also Washington Aqueduct... made to connect with St. John's College a Surveys.

882,000 Normal School and a Geological Department.




“I submit this,” said Secretary Cameron, year at a cost of $146,960. The number of in“ without further comment than to remark that terments June 30, 1876, was 310,356, of which this is not an estimate ' in the sense of the esti- 164,655 were of unknown persons. The work mates asked for other purposes; it is not ap- of erecting head-stones over the graves has proved nor disapproved, but it is forwarded Leen completed at fifty-seven of the cemeteries, in response to various acts of Congress calling and 92,046 known and 87,242 unknown graves for surveys and estimates for improvement at have been marked. There are about 17,000 various localities."

graves of Union soldiers who fell during the For all purposes except those above named, war and were buried by the War Department the estimates for 1877–178 amount to $37,583,- in various public and private incorporated 555. The appropriations for 1876–77 were cemeteries not known as national military $30,610,351; for 1875–76, $31,325,822 ; and cemeteries. 1874–75, $30,915,265. The increase in the The health of the Army during the year has present estimates over the appropriations for been good, and the mortality from disease (8 the current year is made up as follows: per 1,000 of mean strength) unusually small.

The number of deaths froin wounds has been Civil establishment..

$18.437 36 Military establishment..

4,073,655 40

exceptionally large (15 per 1,000). Pablic works

2,201,902 70 The Signal-Service organization comprises Miscellaneous

614,203 81

145 stations, from which telegraphic reports of Total.....

-$6,978,203 77 observations are received in addition to the

reports from the Dominion of Canada. From The public works are the new building for these reports tri-daily forecasts or "probabilithe War, State, and Navy Departments, the ties” are made in the Central Office, and furRock Island Hospital, and the hospital and nished to the press throughout the country. other works at West Point, all of which are in Of these probabilities 88 per cent. are verified. course of construction. The increase in mis- Cautionary signals, of which 77 per cent. have cellaneous estimates is made up of $350,000 been justified, are displayed when necessary for refunding to States the expenses incurred by day and night at forty-eight of the principal in raising volunteers; $98,000 for furnishing ports of the sea and lake coasts. Farmers' artificial limbs under existing laws; $50,000 bulletins, containing much information valufor the Signal Service; $77,850 for printing able to agriculturists, are posted daily in severand binding; and the remainder, $88,358, for al thousand post-offices. "River reports, giving various minor objects. The increase asked the depth of certain rivers at certain points, for the military service is made up of $1,385,- are published daily. 000 for armament of fortifications, manufact The small force of effective troops in the ure of small-arms, and the purchase of a site Army has been actively employed during the for a powder-depot, and nearly $3,000,000 for past year. Their employment has been mainly quartermasters' and subsistence supplies. “The directed to two objects: First, to compel the appropriations for the current year,” says the Sioux Indians to acknowledge the authority Secretary, "furnish no criterion of what is re- of the Government; and, second, to preserve quired for the support of the Department. It order at the South. To be prepared for any is probable that a deficiency will be necessary disturbance that might arise during the excitein order to meet the expenses during the ment of the presidential election, Lieutenant. latter months of the year, although no efforts General Sheridan was instructed to concenwill be spared to avoid it.”

trate a sufficient number of troops in New The report of the Inspector-General shows Orleans under Brigadier-General Augur, comthat the desertions have decreased from about manding the Department of the Gulf; and 30 per cent. of the entire force in 1871 to Major-General Hancock was directed to detach about 7 per cent. in 1876. That officer recom- a sufficient number of companies from the garmends that Congress pass a law making deser- risons on the sea-coast and send them to South tion a felony cognizable by the ordinary courts Carolina for duty, under the orders of Colonel of the country invested with jurisdiction over Ruger, who had lately been assigned to the criminal cases.

command of the Department of the South, and Nearly 30,000 claims of loyal citizens, amount- ordered to make his headquarters temporarily ing to $8,000,000, are pending in the Quarter- at Columbia. master-General's office, under the act of July In the early part of the year W. W. Belknap 4, 1864. It is stated that the only difference was charged with official corruption, and rebetween this class of claims and those before signed his position as Secretary of War. He the Southern Claims Commission is in the was succeeded by Judge Alonzo B. Taft, of residence of the claimants, the Quartermaster- Ohio, who after a short term of service in the General investigating those in Northern States War Department was made Attorney-General; and the Southern Claims Commission those in and in May J. Donald Cameron, of PennsylStates proclaimed as in insurrection against vania, son of Senator Simon Cameron, became the United States.

Secretary of War. There are now seventy-eight national ceme In the early part of the year military operteries, which were maintained during the past ations were begun against the hostile Sioux

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