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in Southern Hungary on a charge of exciting price of gold, and partly because the estimates agitations and being an agent of the Servian of the proceeds of various sources of revenue Omladina. The minister-president authorized had been reduced, which had been set at too a prosecution to be instituted against him. On high a figure in former estimates. The probathe reopening of the Parliament, September ble receipts from these sources of revenue had 28th, the case was referred to the Committee now been calculated on the actual proceeds of on Privileges. They made a report, October the last few years, and the minister thought 2d, justifying the arrest, and their report was the calculation would prove a correct one. approved by the Chamber. About this time He pointed out that there must always be an Tisza declared in the House of Deputies that uncertainty about the revenues of a country the Government was in entire accord with the depending mainly on agriculture. In spite of policy of Count Andrassy. On the 17th of the floods which had devastated the land in November the minister declared, in answer to the spring, and the frosts which had come interpellations by Simonyi and Helfy, that the afterward, the returns of revenue had been administration must and would treat the East- beyond all expectation favorable, there having ern question by consideration neither of Rus- been a large increase in the nine months past sian nor of Turkish, but of Austro-Hungarian over the receipts for the corresponding period interests. The principles announced by Tisza of the previous year. were afterward strongly supported by Si The first session of the Hungarian Diet was monyi, leader of the Conservative Opposition, dissolved by a royal decree, March 27th. A who defended the policy of peace, and said that second session was called to meet the next the interests of the Magyars and the German day (the 28th), which after completing a few Austrians were to be regarded as well as those formalities, adjourned to meet again April 20th. of the Slavs. There “should be no talk of a On the 20th of June the Diet again adjourned Magyar-Turkish policy. Austria will, in case till September 28th. Aside from the discusRussia oversteps her bounds, know how to de- sions concerning the compact with Austria, fend the interests of the whole state with the relations of the kingdom to the Eastern arms, but till then she must observe a friendly question, and the adjustment of financial afneutrality toward the southern Slavs. This fairs, its proceedings were not of marked imwas the true Austro-Hungarian policy in for- portance. On the 20th of January the House eign affairs." A few days after this, in reply to of Deputies approved a proposition of the an interpellation in reference to some proceed- Government for the redemption of from 20,ings of the Austrian Government against the 000,000 to 22,000,000 florins out of the proceeds Statthalter of Dalmatia, the minister-presi- of the second half of the rent-loans, to make dent stated that while the Hungarian Govern- the beginning of a sinking-fund. On the 16th ment was in accord with that of Austria with of February the House of Deputies adopted a respect to its foreign policy, it had nothing to measure recommended by the ministry to have do with Austrian internal affairs. A demon- a register of the services which had been renstration of students at Pesth, in the shape of a dered to the country by Francis Deak enrolled torch-light procession to the Turkish minister, among the statutes, and approved of a plan was arranged to take place late in October, for the erection of a monument to Deak by a but it was forbidden by the police. Some of national subscription. the adherents of the extreme Left attempted The floods at the end of February and beto take advantage of this occasion to make ginning of March were very destructive. The a demonstration against the ministry and its villages along the banks of the Danube and the position on the Eastern question, but the au- Theiss were submerged, hundreds of houses thorities had anticipated such an event, and were carried away or ruined, and immense had made ample preparations to repress any quantities of property and crops were de disorder that might arise. Patrols were sta- stroyed. The Ofen and Alt-Ofen quarters of tioned throughout the city, the streets were Buda-Pesth were overflowed; a hundred manpromptly cleared of disorderly persons, and a ufactories of Neu-Pesth, and numerous fine wholesome impression was made upon the pop- buildings in the river quarters of the city, ulace.
were undermined; and 12,000 out of the 18,000 The estimates for 1877 were submitted to inbabitants of Alt - Ofen were reported to the House of Deputies by the Minister of Fi- have been rendered homeless. On the 28th nance in October. The total expenditure for of February the Emperor devoted 15,000 the coming year was calculated at 233,000,000 gulden to the relief of the sufferers by the florins, and the revenues were estimated at food in Pesth and its vicinity, and the Em218,000,000 florins, leaving a deficit of about press added a gift of 10,000 gulden. The Em15,000,000 forins, or about the same as the peror and Empress also bestowed 40,000 florins deficit of the preceding year. That the deficit for the relief of the people throughout Hunwas not reduced, was not because the expen- gary who had been visited by the inundations. ditures had not been lessened, for there was A remarkable speech was made in Febrnary an actual reduction in the year's estimates by Bishop Herwarth to his electors in Pesth. of administrative expenditures of 4,000,000 in which among other things he declared himforins; but was partly because of the high self in favor of the introduction of a law mak
ing civil marriage obligatory, and referred to held for two years. His renown rapidly inFrance and Belgium as conntries in instance creased, and he particularly succeeded in gainto show that the existence of such a law need ing the confidence of the two most prominent not involve a breach with the Church.
statesmen at that time, Fuad Pasha and Aali The ninth International Statistical Congress Pasha. When Fuad Pasha was appointed met at Pesth, September 1st, and was opened Grand-Vizier, with the portfolio of War, he inby the Archduke Joseph.
duced the Sultan to appoint Hussein-Avni HUNT, CHARLES SEDGWICK, died in New Pasha to the position of commanding general York, October 15th. He was born at Litch- of the army corps comprising the Guards, and field, Conn., April 7, 1842. In 1855 he entered at the same time his representative in the minthe Naval Academy at Annapolis, where he istry of war. This position he held up to the remained for two years, and then became & fall of Fuad Pasha and Aali Pasha in 1866, student at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. when he was also compelled to retire. In the At the outbreak of the war he entered the early part of 1867 he again came into favor, navy, and became acting master on the war- being appointed Governor-General of Bosnia, sloop Juniata, but resigned his commission which position, however, he never assumed. toward the close of the war, and entered Har- The reason for this was that he was, immeFard College, where he graduated in 1868. He diately after receiving this appointment, inthen became a 'reporter on the New York trusted with the chief cominand of the forces Tribune. For a time he was financial editor in Candia; and, as he was unable to produce of the New York Standard, and from 1871 to any favorable results in that island, he was 1873 was Albany correspondent of the Trib- recalled in April, 1867, and was placed in comune, in which capacity he rendered valuable mand of an army corps on the frontier of service in exposing fraud. In 1873 he became Greece. But owing to dissensions between an editorial writer on the Tribune, writing Omer Pasha, his successor, and Aali Pasha, chiefly upon topics of finance and political the Grand-Vízier, who was his personal friend, economy. He was also associated with Mr. the former resigned, and Hussein-Avni Pasha John F. Cleveland in the preparation of the was again appointed to the chief command of " Tribune Almanac.” Early in 1876 he joined the troops in Candia. With the aid of Aali the editorial staff of the New York Times, Pasha he succeeded in quelling the rebellion, where he continued until his death. Mr. Hunt and in 1869 was rewarded for his services by was a thorough and enthusiastic student of the position of Minister of War. This position political economy, and many of his articles he held until the death of Aali Pasha in 1871, in the Tribune and in the Times attracted when he was removed by Mahmud-Nedim wide attention.
Pasha, the new Grand-Vizier, and was sent HUSSEIN-AVNI PASHA, a Turkish states- into exile, on a charge of misappropriation of man and general, born in 1819 ; assassinated public moneys. With the accession of Midhat in Constantinople, June 16, 1876. In 1850 Pasha on July 31, 1872, he was permitted to he went to Constantinople, where he studied return, and when Eessad Pasha was Grandlaw for some time; but, meeting by chance Vizier he was first Minister of the Navy, and one of his townsmen, who was in the military afterward of War. In February, 1874, he finalschool of Harbije-Mekteb, and as the military ly reached the goal of his ambition, and was career at that time seemed to offer greater appointed Grand-Vizier. His administration inducements to young Turks than that of was not a saccessful one, and when in April, the law, he was easily indaced to change his 1875, he was dismissed, it was with the discareer. He graduated from the military school pleasure of the Sultan; and, in order to have in 1842, with the rank of captain on the gen- him out of the way, he was shortly after aperał staff, and in 1850 became major. He dis- pointed Governor-General of Smyrna. This tinguished himself in the war in the Crimea, position he, however, resigned in May, and in 1856 was the Turkish delegate to the com- then made a tour of England and France. In mission to regulate the Persian frontier, and August, 1875, he, together with Midhat Pasha was soon after appointed Director of the Mil- and Mahmud-Nedim Pasha, all three bitter itary School of Harbije-Mekteb, and at the enemies of each other, was called upon to form same time chief of the general staff of the a new cabiet, receiving the department of War, army. He took part in the war with Monte- which position he retained up to his death. negro as commander of a division, and after He was one of the principal actors in the his return was appointed President of the Gen- eventful scenes that led to and accompanied eral War Department, a position ranking next the overthrow of Abdul-Aziz, whom he did to that of Minister of War, which position he not long survive.
Total Amount of
IDAHO. The assessment-rolls of the differ The whole number of children in the Terri. ent counties for 1876 were as follows: tory, between the ages of five and eighteen
years, so far as reported for 1875, was 3,852 ; Cash Value of Real and Personal
for 1876 it is 2,777; some of the more popuProperty.
lous counties not having reported.
In the former year, the number attending
$1,275,608 00 $28,701 18
school was 2,093; receipts, including balances, 165,021 00 8,800 42 $23,734; expenditures, $18,478.63. In 1876
, 641,342 66 Idaho.
345,920 80 7,956 16 2,724 were reported as attending school; reLemhi. 195,855 00 4,407 68
ceipts, including balances, $36,215.42; expenNez-Percé.
ditures, $16,590.55. Says the superintendent Owyhee
692,824 50 22,500 54
497,131 00 9,942 62 in his report: The reports of the county suShoshone..
perintendents show, "for the most part, but a Territory...... $4,881,277 46 $114,198 45
meagre array of figures, which by no means
represent the flourishing condition of many The receipts into the Territorial Treasury, schools in the Territory, and the deep interest from December 1, 1874, to October 31, 1876, taken in education by the people. This is not were $61,674.28; amount on hand, $9,676.77; the fault of the county superintendents, but that total resources, $71,351.05 ; disbursements,
of the system under which they are compelled $55,496.30; balance, $15,854.75. The bonded to act. The law makes the county superintenddebt (coin) amounted to $71,386.45; the unfund- encies ex-officio appendages to other important ed debt (currency), consisting of unredeemed and responsible county offices, which confine warrants and accrned interest, was $56,606.82, the incumbent to his place of business and to a after deducting cash in the Treasury. The Gové routine of duties; thus rendering the personal ernor, in his message to the biennial session of supervision of schools impossible. The county the Legislature, December 4, 1876, says: superintendent can only collate and report Being unable to meet our obligations at this time,
such information as he may recive from reit is due to our creditors, as well as to the people ports made to lim by the trustees of the difthemselves, whose honor 'is involved, that at this ferent school-districts in his county. The law session measures be taken which will afford suffi
gives to the trustees of the various school-discient time; and, what is more important still, provide the means of payment according to the new
tricts the entire control and supervision of promises we make.
schools within their respective districts, as reIt is recommended that an act be passed, supple gards the qualifications of teachers and all lomental to that of January 8, 1875, providing for a cal matters pertaining to education. The same new series of ten per cent. gold bonds, running reflections and remarks will apply with equal fifteen years from December 1, 1876, with interest force to the Territorial Superintendent of Pubsemi-annually, both payable at the Territorial Treasury. Let the principal of the coin debt, yet unpro- lic Instruction. He cannot go beyond the vided for, be merged in these bonds. "Allow to source of information thus furnished, howcreditors ten per cent. difference upon the principal ever much good-will he may bring to the of their old bonds, but none on accrued interest. It is also worthy of consideration whether it is
task." not sound economy to put the warrant debt into cur
A large share of the wealth of Idaho lies rency bonds having sufficient time to run to give us beneath the soil. The surface has only been the advantage of growth in population and resources. sufficiently worked to indicate the rich deposits Let this be done, and a sure income provided to pay yet awaiting development. Capital, skill, and This
will justify the repeal of the law under which machinery, are wanted. Owing to the great we now pay ten per cent. interest on warrants which distance from railroads and navigable streams, we sell at thirty per cent. discount.
the most enterprising have found almost unThe estimated revenue for the years 1877 conquerable discouragement. and 1878 is as follows:
It was proposed to the Legislature to meFrom property tax...
morialize Congress to cause a thorough geologFrom license and poll tax.
ical survey to be made, as has already been Total.....
$85,750 done in other Territories and States; and, as The estimated expenditures are:
soon as resources will permit, to organize 8
Geological and Mining Bureau, for the purpose Territorial prisoners.. $10,000 of developing the mines
, forming a cabinet of Interest on bonds..
13,000 ores, and of publishing useful knowledge in Salary of Controller.
8.000 Salary of Treasurer..
this most important department of industry. Printing blanks...
2,000 Provision was made at the last session of Interest on prison-fund warrants..
0.000 Interest on general-fund warrants.
the Legislature for a revision and publication
3,000 Salary of three district attorneys..
of the Territorial laws under the supervision Total....
$47,000 of commissioners.
IGLESIAS, José María, a Mexican states- jority of 4,410 votes. Señor Iglesias has ever man, born in Mexico, on January 5, 1822. Be- been a faithful and close student; he has atfore completing his twentieth year he was ap- tained much eminence among the men of letters pointed professor in the Colleges of San Grego- and journalists of his country, and his unaffectrio and San Ildefonso, both in his native city. ed and forcible eloquence places him in the In the first he occupied the chair of Arts, and front rank of Mexican parliamentary speakers. in the second that of Modern Languages— His whole political career has been an almost French and English. At the age of twenty- uninterrupted series of succesşes. two he received his diploma as lawyer, and at ILLINOIS. The State of Illinois is one of twenty-four he became Professor of Law. His the most flourishing and progressive in the first official position was that of chairman of Union. In the last two years there have been the Board of Aldermen (1846). On the occu- incorporated under the general law 513 compation of the capital of the republic by the panies for purposes of pecuniary profit, and American troops, in 1847, young Iglesias hast- 150 for educational, religious, literary, and beened to rejoin the Government, for the time be- nevolent purposes. There have also been 34 ing established at Querétaro, for which proof of new railroad organizations formed under the loyalty he was rewarded with the position of railroad act; eleven cities and sixty-one vilMinister of the Supreme Military Court, and lages have organized under the general law for shortly afterward with that of Auditor of the that purpose. The name of the town of MilArmy of the East. After the celebrated peace ton in Coles County has been changed to Humtreaties he returned to the capital, and was chief boldt, New Rutland in La Salle County to of a section of the Board of Public Credit, from Rutland, and Clinton ville in Kane County to 1850 till 1852, in which latter year he was elect- South Elgin. The financial condition of the ed deputy to Congress, where he won his first State is especially gratifying. On October 1st laurels as an orator of distinction. The year the bonded debt was $1,480,600.27, and there 1855 saw him at the head of the second section had been a reduction of $250,371.88 during of the Ministry of Finance, where his superior the year. The last of the State bonds become intelligence, brilliant qualities, and fidelity, payable after 1879. On December 1, 1874, elicited the admiration and secured for Iglesias there was a balance of $2,126,532.06 in the the friendship of Don Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, Treasury, and the receipts from that time to elder brother of the late President of Mexico, September 30, 1876, amounted to $9,262,169.Don Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, and then minig- 99, making a total of $11,388,702.05.' The dister of the department (1856). Under the Co- bursements for the same period were $8,979,monfort Administration Iglesias was intrusted 747.71, leaving a balance on hand of $2,408,with the portfolio of Justice (1857), and im- 954.34. The receipts from the canals for two mediately after the termination of the War of years were $267,828.32 ; disbursements, $171,Reform he was appointed administrator of the 189.74: net receipts, $96,638.58. The lock and public fund. When on May 31, 1863, Juarez was dam across the Illinois River near Copperas constrained to quit the capital, Señor Iglesias Creek are nearly completed. The total cost is followed the fortunes of his chieftain, and dur- $410,532 29, of which $62,329.80 has been exing the eventful peregrinations of the national pended by the United States Government. Government he was successively Minister of The amount of money raised for school purFinance, of Justice, and of Public Works. In poses was $9,605,623.90 in 1875, and $9,948,spite of unusually arduous official duties, he 769.64 in 1876, making a total of $19,554,393.found time to devote to writing his monthly 54 for two years, of which $13,977,901.85 was reviews published under the unassuming title raised by direct taxation. The expenditures of " The Foreign Intervention.” On the return for school purposes were $8,066,949.97 in 1875, of the legitimate Government to Mexico, Igle- and $8,268,539.58 in 1876, or $16,335,489.55 sias was still a member of the cabinet, having for the two years. The number of children of been, for the third time, appointed to the port- school age in the State is 973,589, of whom folio of Finance, which he now retained until 687,446, or about 75 per cent., were enrolled in his election to the general Congress in 1868. the schools during the past year. There are In September of that year President Juarez twelve charitable and reformatory institutions made him Minister of the Interior, intrusting which receive aid from the State, and all are him provisionally with the portfolio of Justice, reported to be in a satisfactory condition. The which last post he resigned in October, 1870. new asylum for feeble-minded children at LinIn 1872 he once more became administrator of coln is nearly finished, as is also the new wing public funds, and held that office until May 16th of the Southern Insane Asylum at Anna. The of the following year, on which day he took penitentiary at Joliet contained over 1,600 conthe accustomed oath preparatory to entering victs at the end of the year. The institution upon the high functions of President of the is overcrowded, and a new prison is in contemSapreme Court of Justice--a post equivalent plation. The cost of maintenance for each to that of Vice-President of the Republic. convict at Joliet in 1876 was 407 cents per Among the candidates proposed simultaneously day. with Señor Iglesias for the office was General The new Capitol at Springfield, though not Porfirio Diaz, over whom he obtained a ma- fully completed, has been occupied by the va
rious departments of the government. The by the Independent or Greenback party, which total amount expended upon it is $3,432,216.- held a convention at Decatur in February, and 68, and a new appropriation will be required nominated Lewis Stewart, of Kendall County, to finish it.
for Governor. It also appointed delegates to The militia of the State has been greatly in the National Convention of the party, and put creased during the year, and now consists of in nomination candidates for presidential elec5,145 men, constituting one brigade of seven tors. regiments, three battalions, and eight detached The Republican State Convention was held companies, or 85 companies in all. These or- at Springfield, on May 24th. It appointed delganizations are altogether voluntary and inde- egates to the National Convention at Cincinpendent.
nati, nominated candidates for presidential The crop reports of the year show that there electors, adopted a platform, and put a State were 8,935,686 acres of corn, with a prospec- ticket into the field. The following were the tive yield of 251,066,311 bushels. The es- nominations for State officers: For Governor, timated area of hay-meadow was 2,518,750 Shelby M. Cullom, of Sangamon County; for acres, yielding 3,895, 974 tons, of an aggregate Lieutenant-Governor, Andrew Shuman, of value of $24,449,057. The total value of bogs, Cook; for Secretary of State, George H. Haron May 1st, was $8,934,647.
low, of Tazewell; for Auditor of Public AcThe political canvass of the year was opened counts, Thomas B. Needles, of Washington;
for State Treasurer, Edward Rutz, of St. Clair; violence of at least 5,000 Unionists, white and black, for Attorney-General, James K. Edsall, of Lee. since the commencement of the present policy of The platform adopted was as follows:
reconstruction; also, in placing in power in the
Lower House of Congress a political party domiThe Republican party of the State of Illinois, nated by ex-Confederates; and finally in relegating through its delegated representatives assembled in back into the control of disloyal whites nearly every this, the one hundreth year of the existence of the State reconquered to Federal authority by Federal republic, proclaims the following as the foundation arms—it is the duty of the Executive branch of the principles of its faith and practice :
Government to extend especial care over Union men 1. That the doctrine of the inherent sovereignty throughout all the South, so that American citizenof man leads to a republican form of government, ship there shall be in name, at least, what it is not as that form furnishing the surest guarantee of im now in fact—as secure as it is in foreign lands and partial protection to property, liberty, and life; that upon foreign seas. our fathers having affirmed the equality of rights of 3. That as the three amendments to the Constiall men, regardless of condition or nationality, and tution of the United States—which may be accepted that affirmation having been, after the lapse of nearly as the crystallization of the blood of brave mena century, embodied as a part of the Constitution of require Federal statutes for their enforcement, so, the United States, it should be enforced by what- too, in their turn, Federal statutes require a Chief ever statutory or executive instrumentality may be Executive whose public life is a guarantee of the necessary to insure its vitality.
alacrity and fidelity with which he will discharge 2. That the policy of leniency by the Republican these great public trusts. party toward the people recently in rebellion against 4. That the credit of the General Government, Federal authority having resulted in the death by under Republican administration, having appreció