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English Feet IJ.FILMER. 1. Erechtheum. 2. Propylæa. 3. Temple of Nike Aptero8. 4. Temple of Ares. 5. Sanctuary of Semnce. 6. Odcon of Herodos. 7. Theatre of Dionysus. 8. Stoa Eumenea. 9. Monument of Lysicrates.
PLAN OF ANCIENT ATHENS.
viz. : that of the Greco-Turkish Railroad ; that expressed by Prince Milan in his manifesto of of naturalization, which had been pending for a participation of Greece in the struggle was several years; that of the ratification of the pronounced to be without foundation. In Greco-Roumanian trade convention; and that July, five cannon belonging to Montenegro of the adjustment of boundaries. In a short were found at Corfu. The Turkish Governtime the question as to the rights of nativement wished to seize them, but the Greek Gov. Greeks residing in Turkey was settled by the ernment declined to permit it. The general concession by the Turkish Government of its secretary of the Minister of the Interior, who, position. The Government adhered steadily on an official visit to Corfu about this time, to the policy which was outlined in the circu- had put himself in communication with Boslar of the minister-president. Nevertheless, nian insurgents, was subjected to an examias the difficulties in the way of the settlement nation on this account. of the questions between Turkey and the great The Chambers were opened in extra session powers seemed to increase, it did not neglect on the 2d of October, but without a speech to care for the provision of the country for from the throne, the King not having yet redefense in case of emergencies which should turned from his visit abroad. It was signifireqnire the exhibition of force. The Cretan cantly remarked that his presence was not Assembly had refused to accept the reforms needed, and on the contrary might have been which had been imposed upon that province made use of to the disadvantage of the counby Ali Pasha. The Porte having refused to try by the party of action, who would have grant the demands of the Cretans, advice was made it an occasion for turbulent demon. sought from the Greek Government. It coun- strations. The address of the minister-presi seled them to appeal to the great powers, and dent at the opening of the Chambers made no await the result. The recruiting-officers of the mention of the Turkish question. M. Zaimis, Servians were ordered to be arrested if they the ministerial candidate, was elected Presiwere found within the Greek territory. No re- dent of the Chamber of Deputies, by. 75 against lations or unions were acknowledged between 54 votes. On the 1st of October a public Greece and Servia, and the hope which was meeting, attended by about 8,000 persons, was
held at Athens. It was addressed by Profess- asmuch as there exists a probability that we may be ors Pappunigopulon, Cocino, and Damala, who embarrassed by the events of a war, we propose dwelt upon the intolerable position of the military preparations, not as significant of warlike
designs, but as a measure of precaution. We expect Greek provinces of Turkey, and expressed that Europe, guided by a sense of justice and seek regret that the powers, in their proposals for ing a permanent peace, will undertake efficient
and the pacification of the East, had ignored the suitable steps in the East to secure the rights of the interests and just claims of these provinces, Christian people and preserve tranquillity, and will thus creating an inequality between them
and we have marked out and held to, but for the further the provinces inhabited by the Slavs. They observance of which we need a moral support. Inmaintained that the Greeks had been treated deed, I would be wanting
in sincerity if I sought to with neglect, as the reward for the services conceal the fact that continued inactivity when the they had rendered at the wish of the powers cerned would be scarcely conceivable, nay, would
future of the Greeks subjects of the Porte is conto the cause of peace, and they urged the be impossible, for the kingdom of Greece. What Greek nation to complete its preparations and binds the free Greeks and the others is not only hold itself in readiness for every eventuality. community of race, language, thought, and national To a deputation visiting him from this meet- traditions; it is in a higher degree the consciousing, Minister Kumunduros replied, on the 3d, Greeks. For the freedom of the Greek kingdom
ness of the obligation that free Greece owes to all that Greece would act very unwisely if it was obtained only by the common struggles of all should now plunge itself into the inevitable Greeks, and no power on earth could bind Greece to dangers attending a participation in the Turk- quiet and inactivity in the face of the perpetration ish controversy. When it came to a settle- of injustice against the subject Greeks. ment, Europe would not ignore the rights of The defensive bill passed its first reading in the Greece. An armament would cost money, and Chamber of Deputies on November 23d. SubWhoever sought it must apply to the Cham- sequently the clause providing for an increase bers. On the 20th of October the minister- of one-half per cent. in the taxes on articles of president laid before the Chambers the pro- consumption, for the purpose of securing the gramme of the Government. Without believing interest and payment of the loan of 10,000,000 that war would come immediately, he would drachmas contemplated in the bill, was lost on have Greece ready for any event, so far as a second division--82 to 81. Upon this vote concerned necessary preparations. He had a Kumunduros and his fellow-ministers resigned. bill to lay before the Chambers to perfect a The formation of a new cabinet was undermilitary organization, so that Greece would taken by Deligeorgis. Upon the appearance soon be in a position to demand and defend of the new ministry in the Chamber the deputhe rights it claimed. The bill contemplated ties, by a vote of 88 to 59, made it understood the imposition of an obligatory military ser- that it was not acceptable to them. The King vice, and an increase of the regular forces. seemed to have no resource but to call KumunThe military exercises which the youth in the duros again to the head of the ministry. Beschools had gone through during the year sides the office of minister-president, KumunFould facilitate this work. Besides, all men duros also took charge of the Department of between twenty and thirty years of age should Justice. Bubulis was appointed Minister of be drilled, and if necessary incorporated into the Marine, and the other ministers of the old the army. By such measares, the Government cabinet were retained in the posts they had would soon have a considerable force on a war previously held. A proposition made by the footing. In regard to internal policy, the newly-organized ministry to refer the bill for minister advised the leaders of the different defensive preparations to a special committee groups in the Assembly to select a ministry was adopted by the Chamber, 101 to 57--Zaiwhich knew the wants of the country, and gomis, Trikupis, and Bulgaris, with their folhand-in-hand with it. The bill introduced by lowers, voting for it, while only the party of Minister Kumunduros provided for a land- Deligeorgis stood out against it. After that force of 200,000 men, of which 120,000 should the Chamber approved of the obtaining of a consist of active troops, and 80,000 should be loan of 10,000,000 drachmas for the reorganenrolled as reserves or Landwehr, and for ization of the army and for other especial milithe raising by loan of the sum of 10,000,000 tary measures drachmas, to be secured by an increase of Judicial processes were begun, February 7th, taxes. The deputies, shortly afterward, 88 to against M. Valassapulos, ex-Minister of Wor77, passed a vote of confidence in the Gov. ship; M. Nikolapulos, ex-Minister of Justice; ernment, approving its precautionary policy. and the Archbishops of Cephalonia, Patras, Nineteen deputies, however, did not vote. and Messene, for simony. The case was one
On the 17th of November the Minister of that attracted great popular interest. The court Foreign Affairs, M. Contostavlos, made to was held in the new court-room, in which the the Chamber an address, in which, after ex- Chamber of Deputies had sat for three months, pressing his agreement with the views pre- and which was capable of holding one thouviously expressed by M. Kumunduros, he sand men. The President of the Court of Casmade substantially the following declarations : sation, Balbis, presided over a court of twelve We have followed a peaceful policy, and shall ad- judges. The Chamber of Deputies was repwere to it, unless events compel us to another. In- resented by five prosecutors chosen from the
VOL. XVI.—24 A
body; thirty-five advocates were retained by was one set up by the inculpated bishops that the defense; one hundred and six witnesses they were amenable only to a spiritual court. had been summoned for the prosecution, and on this it was ruled that the crime for which one hundred and seventeen witnesses for the they were arraigned was a civil crime, of defense. Special places were assigned for which the civil tribunals could take cognizance. stenographers and journalists, as well as for Finally, all of the objections were overruled, the diplomatic body and the advocates, while and the court asserted its full jurisdiction over the public occupied the galleries. The first the whole body of the offense and over all five days were consumed in the bearing of the the accused. The first witness called was technical objections of the defense to the com- Kastorches, Archbishop of Phthiatis, a man of petency of the court to try the case. Among more than ninety years of age. His evidence the objections to the jurisdiction of the court went to show that bribery with regard to the
nomination of bishops had become so cus- fairs that they were, to nse his own language, tomary as to be now looked upon as quite a “quite intoxicated” on the subject. matter of course; it was indeed, he said, con Autonopulos, Abbot of Egina, testified that sidered impossible at the present time that a before the appointment of his friend Averkios
to the see of Patras, Averkios being at the time a candidate for the see, he had gone to see him, and found him very gloomy. He inquired what was the matter, and Averkios confessed to him at length that he had been asked for money in order to get the nomination, and saw no hope of obtaining the see by any other means. The abbot refused to believe this; but finally arranged to go and see the minister, and find out for himself, taking with him the sum demanded. He went accordingly to
Valassapulos, and spoke to him about the apPARTHENON
pointment of his friend. After some conversation, the minister made use of the words, “I must be satisfied.” The abbot asked him whether he required money, and, being answered affirmatively, put down a sum and departed. Averkios was consequently nominated to the see of Patras. On the part of the
accused, Valassapulos repelled every charge. bishop should succeed to his appointment by The Archbishop of Patras, Averkios Lampiris, any other means, and the minds of the clergy stated that, during his long residence in Athens, had become so familiar with this state of af- he had had friendly intercourse with the most
GROUND-PLAN OF THE ACROPOLIS
NO. OF INHABITANTS FOR
prominent men in Greece, especially with monks and nuns, to the total population, is as Messrs. Bulgaris, Deljannis, and Grivas. After follows: he had been nominated by the synod to the archbishopric he suddenly encountered obstacles, which he was advised to overcome by means of a sum of money. He declared to his friend Anthimus that he would rather lose his appointment than obtain it by such means.
10,900 Anthimus, however, would not agree to this, Russia...
8,700 and, without consulting him further, and Greece..
10,000 against his expressed refusal to pay any money, Servia...
1,900 11,000 had paid to the minister Valassapulos 10,000
Total.. drachmas, which had been borrowed for the
4,614 28,657 14,708 expenses of his installation. After his nomi
In Russia, according to the report for 1874 nation he desired to make a present to Bul. of the President of the Holy Synod, there garis, but the latter refused it. Kompothekras, were 55 dioceses; in the exarchate of Georgia Archbishop of Cephalonia, refused to say any- connected with it since, 3 dioceses; in Amerthing in his defense. The defendants, Chari- ica there is a mission under the Bishop of takis and Oekonomopulos, denied absolutely “the Aleutian Islands and Alaska." . On the that they had had any part in the corrupt 31st of December, 1873, there were 40,364 transactions. The two ministers and the three churches and 13,386 chapels. During the year archbishops were all found guilty of the 1874, there were built 419 churches and 140 offenses charged against them, and sentenced, chapels, at a cost of 699,591 rubles (about April 13th, as follows: Valassapulos, former $600,000), a third part of which was given by Minister of Worship, to one year's imprison- the Government, about two-thirds from the ment, deprivation of political rights for three funds devoted to religious instruction, some years, and to pay over the sum he had received little being added from the local revenues of as a bribe to the poorhouses; Nikolopulos, ex- the bishops. The Orthodox inhabitants of the Minister of Justice, to an imprisonment of ten empire at the close of 1873 were reported as months; the Archbishop of Cephalonia to a 55,777,152. (There were no returns received fine of 10,000, the Archbishop of Patras to a up to that date from the dioceses of Kamfine of 4,400, and the Archbishop of Mes- tchatka and Tomsk, or from the army and sene to a fine of 4,000 drachmas, these be- navy.) The births, marriages, and deaths, in ing double the several amounts they had the Orthodox Church (except in the diocese paid as bribes. The Synod of the Church also of Kamtchatka and the eparchy of Georgia, imposed an interdiction of three years upon concerning which the reports were not in) each of the bishops, during which time their were: Births, 3,272,414, of which 1,667,949 dioceses should be managed by commissioners. were males; marriages, 602,427 ; deaths, The deputy of the King at the synod declined to 1,223,209 males, 1,156,986 females - in all, sign this judgment, regarding it as too severe. 2,379,195. The ecclesiastical educational es
Early in January a new convention with the tablishments were 242; 186 being ecclesiastiLaurion Mining Company was approved by the cal schools, 52 seminaries, and 4 ecclesiastical Chamber of Deputies, under which the taxation academies, these latter being at St. Petersburg, on the clear proceeds of the silver-bearing ores Moscow, Kiev, and Kazan. One hundred and was reduced from fifty-three per cent. to ten twenty-eight professors and teachers were emper cent.
ployed in the academies, 850 in the seminaries, GREEK CHURCH. The following table and 1,560 in the schools. The scholars numgives a statistical account of the clergy of the bered respectively 562, 12,396, and 26,227; Greek Church for 1876.:
503 in the academies, 6,201 in the seminaries, and 9,430 in the schools receiving aid. The parochial schools numbered 7,722, with 165,839
male scholars, and 27,874 females. During COUNTRIES.
1874 there were 9,033 converts to Orthodoxy, 1,707 of these from Romanism; 11 had been Armenians, 732 Protestants, 2,890 schismat
ics from the Orthodox Church, 427 Jews, 747 Austria proper
Mohammedans, and 2,519 idolaters. In 1876 Hungary..
8,100 Russia (inclusive of
Bishop Bugnion, of the Greek Church, made Asiatic provinces)... 16
10,862 14,707 arrangements with the Government of South Greece..
Australia for the introduction of 40,000 adults Roumania.
of the same religious faith as himself into the
Northern Territory, who were then residing Montenegro..
in South Russia, Mauritius, America, and InTotal....
dia. The immigrants were to receive grants
of land at a small rental, and at the end of ten The proportion of the secular clergy, and years have the fee simple.
The following particulars concerning the are called vicar-bishops, others archbishops, me missions of the Russian Church in Japan and tropolitans, and, among the Greeks, patriarchs. China are from the last report of the Presi- of the episcopate, and only differ among themselves dent of the Holy Synod, Count de Tolstoy. in dignity and precedence. Vicar-bishops (the term The Russian mission in Japan took its rise vicar denotes their position and duty) do not have from the diocese of Kamtchatka in 1870. Last independent sees or dioceses, but assist other bisbyear its personnel consisted of the archiman- ops, under whom they are placed. On account of drite Nicholas, the head of the mission, the with a very large population, or covering a great ex
the greatness of some dioceses, for we have some monk Anatolius, twelve catechists and thirty tent of country (there are dioceses five or six huncatechetical scholars preparing for missionary dred miles long, e. g., Novgorod), it would be very work under the immediate direction of the difficult for one bishop to acquaint himself with all missionaries. Two of the catechists, Peter Sa- the churches; clergy, and Orthodox population of saloff and Paul Savabe, zealously engaged in as an assistant to the diocesan. "An archbishop is a proclaiming the gospel at Sendae, were pre- chief bishop. The word metropolitan is not Ruspared for holy orders. By decree of the Holy sian: it designates a bishop who presides over one Synod, in accord with the Minister of Foreign of the chief cities of the empire ; " mother cities" Affairs, Paul, Bishop of Kamtchatka, visited and Kiev. The titles of archbishop and metropolitan
they may be called, such as St. Petersburg, Moscow, Japan.' The great importance of the Japan are, however, given to a bishop for special services mission, and the work which had been carried and merits. The metropolitans wear not a black on there year after year, demanded an increase mitre (clobuk), like the other bishops, but a white of the number of laborers. Wherefore, by a one, ornamented in front with a cross of precious decree of the Holy Synod, Enthymius and formed not by one bishop, but by several. When
Consecrations to the episcopate are perMoses, two monks of the Petchersky Lavra at there occurs a vacancy in the episcopate, the Holy Kiev, were appointed to inissionary duty in Synod nominates to the see several worthy archiJapan. With the increased number of mis- mandrites, and presents their names to the Ëmperor sionaries, the need of increased support became for confirmation. On his designation, one of these evident. The Holy Synod felt it necessary to
The second, the most numerous order of the minask for a grant for the Japan mission of the istry, is that of presbyters or priests. These are balance of the Government appropriation for ordained by the bishops, and receive through them, its support. It also permitted the head of the from the Lord God, authority to instruct the people mission to use, for its necessary expenses, what teries except that of orders. Priests lay hands on remained of a sum granted for
its support from priests, but they cannot ordain. As a bishop with the special funds of the Holy Synod. It was us is always celibate, so, on the contrary, the priests, determined also that subscription-books should like their people, living in the world, and with lay: be sent, by the head of the mission, to St. Pe- men, themselves also lead a family life. It is only tersburg, to individuals, for subscriptions in Very ligh and holy is the priest's office, and he who
conceded to a priest to marry before ordination. both the capitals, for the needs of this mission. is hallowed by it, and joined to the Saviour, ought The work of the Peking mission was tem- not afterward to be affianced to any human
being. porarily checked in 1873 by the death of two
As bishops, on account of special services and of its members. At present the mission is in worth, are given the honorary titles of archbishop charge of the archimandrite Palladius. A
and metropolitan, so worthy and honored priests are distinguished by the titles protierie and protopres
. monk in this mission, Flavian by name, who vyter. The name presbyter, signifying an elder, is was assigned to it in 1874, is very busily en- given to them. gaged in superintending the schools, and in
The senior priests who are set over the army editing new translations for the mission. The them is the “Superior Priest of the Guards and
chaplains are called glavnie svaistchennikie. One of organization of the Russian Church is de- Grenadiers," and the other the “Superior of the scribed as follows in “ A Brief Explanation of Army and Navy." These appoint the clergy in their the Seven Holy Mysteries," by Alexander Jelo- departments, watch over their zealous and faithful boffsky, archpriest of the Church :
service, guide and instruct them in their various diffi
culties; in a word, their duties in regard to the army Those persons who, by the will of God, are ap- chaplains closely resemble those of the bishops with pointed to serve in the Church, and to teach men their clergy. To their high positions these honored the Holy Faith and a good Christian life, are divided priests are appointed by the Holy Synod, subject to into three orders: 1. Bishops (in Russian episcop, the Emperor's confirmation. The third, the largest archierie); 2. Presbyters (presvyter, svaistchénnike, order of the ministry, consists of the deacons. ierie); 3. Deacons (diacon). The bishops are thé The name signifies one who serves. Such a name is principal, the chief, pastors and teachers of the given to the deacon because he does not and cannot Christian Church. The word bishop (episcop) sig. celebrate any mystery, but only serves (assists the nifies an inspector, a superintendent;, archierie priest) in the celebration of the mysteries. Every means a chief priest. (It may be considered but divine service can be celebrated by the priest with another form of the word hierarch, which is of like out a deacon, none by the deacon without a priest. derivation.] The bishops can celebrate all the seven Ordinations to the diaconate, as well as to the Christian mysteries. It appertains to them to or- priesthood, are performed by the bishops. Some dain men to the ministry. Without bishops there deacons, serving bishops, or connected with an imcould not be priests. On account of their great perial chapel, on account of their special dignity, episcopal dignity, they bless the people with both are called by the name of protodiacon. hands; during the service they wear special robes These three orders, bishops, priests, and deacons, indicating their office, and, in token of their high make up the Christian hierarchy-the pastors, the authority, they either hold in the hand, or there is teachers, the stewards of things spiritual. Ordinacarried before them, a pastoral staff. Some bishops nation to each of these is a mystery, and is solemnly