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Officers. Men, Horses.


No. Tons. No. Tons. Authorities.

850 10,000 1,850 Infantry. 6,424 250,244 2,044

Entered. 104 6,500 26 Prussia

82,728 3,242,768 4,898 1,400,787 Cavalry.. 828 22,968 25,880 Hamburg.

5,260 2,117,822 2,789 1.688,489 Artillery.

1,370 54.852


2,046 622,170 405 849,685 Pioneers.


1,928 247,546 712 188,436 Oldenburg..

2,778 159,617 56 12,845 Total garrison..

10,107 353,102 87.414 Mecklenburg.. 1,020 115,404 120 28,907 reserves

4,426 243,095 30,530
field army..
17,810 687,594 233,592


45,750 6,605,217 8,930 8,608,549 Grand total..... 31,843 1,283,791 801,536

Cleared. The military forces of the empire in time of


80,923 8,154,651 4,939 1,417,468 Hamburg.

5,209 2,084,745 2,780 | 1,669,118 peace are as follows:


2,286 688,218 888 824,980 Lübeck...

1,915 246,851 720 140,008 DIVISIONS.



22,680 Officers, Men.


998 116,572 97 12,909 1. Staff..

2 8,608

44,077 | 6,406,848 8,9498,887,203 Infantry of the line. 8,608 255,411 4,185 Chasseurs...

082 14,545 182 The commercial navy of Germany was, in Militia..

855 4,760


1875, composed as follows: 9. Infantry

9.490 274,716

4,369 & Cavalry. 2,357 64,669


69,826 Foot artillery..

STATES. 1,629 80,720 17,195

HorseField artillery.

No. Tons. No. Tons.
15,156 281

power. 4. Artillery.... 2,811 45,876 17,476 Prussia,

8,103 496,887 117 29,458 8,952 Hamburg

481 210,508 102 88,187 6. Pioneers...

20,268 400 10,824 252 Bremen..

289 186,582 49 65,070 17,430

Mecklenburg.... 426 118,656 2,827 508 6. Train

2,498 Oldenburg.
861 58,167 2

55 Lübeck..

42 8,058 4,409 1,209 1. Particular formations.... 51 1023


North Sea fleet.... 2,498 097,469 175 157,450 89,786 Total.......

17,011 401,659 97,547 Baltic fleet..... 2,109 470,914 124 82,648 8,680 By the Constitution of April 16, 1871, the Total, 1875.... 4,602 1,068,888 299 189,998 48,422 Prussian obligation to serve in the army is ex

1874. 4,495 1,033,725 258 167,638

41,765 1873,

4,527 999,158 216 129,521 tended to the whole empire, every German,

88,880 1872.. 4,529

988,690 | 175 97,080 27,164 according to Article 57, being liable to service, and no substitution being allowed. The move The total cost of construction of the railment of shipping in the German ports was, in roads of Germany (and Luxemburg) was as 1875, as follows:

follows (in marks) :

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Private Roads
under State Ad- Private Roads.




1,071,214,146 846, 669,318 2,842,149,034 4,260,032,498 Bavaria,

715,756,780 40,398,404 185,489,830 891,590,014 Baxony.

807,449,281 81,185,536 187,598,030 476,182,847 Würtemberg


2,287,764 828,998,645 Baden.

816,024,905 11,461,182

827,486,087 Hesse


167,905,967 205,688,149 Oldenburg.


5,400,000 29,284,290 Meeklenburg..

42,960,708 42,960,708 Brunswick

95,963,746 95,968,746 Thüringian states..

63,885,699 63,885,699 Alsace-Lorraine..


827,186,648 Total........

8,126,054,118 929,609,890 | 2,993,040,778 7,048,764,281 The extension of electric telegraphs is shown at Bern, embraced at the close of 1876 an area of by the following table (in kilometres, 1 kilo- 46,000,000 square kilometres (=17,760,000 sq. metre = 0.62 mile) :

m.), with 628,000,000 inhabitants. Among the

states belonging to the Union are all the states Imperial


of Europe; in America, the United States and

the French colonies; in Asia, Asiatic Russia, Liges 85,708

Asiatic Turkey, British India, and the French

2,419 Wires

182,009 24,251 5,956 163,216 colonies; in Africa, Egypt, Zanzibar, Tunis, No. of state stations..

Morocco, the French, Spanish, and Portuguese 1,945 No. of R. R. stations. 2,393

5,434 possessions; in Australia, the French colonies.

The postal statistics of the empire were, acThe "World's Postal Union,” founded by an cording to the latest official publications, as international treaty concluded October 9, 1874, follows:










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The German Reichstag, after its recess for terpellation of the Government by Herr Freithe holidays, resumed its labors on January tag, one of the leaders of the Catholic party, 19th. The first question of importance that who assumed that the Bavarian Government came before it was a consideration of the railroads were also to be bought by the emamendments to the penal code. The conflict pire. Against such a plan (the assumption of between the Liberal majority and Prince Bis- which was, however, entirely unwarranted by marck, which had begun in 1875, continued in the facts), Herr von Pfretzschner, the Presi1876. On January 27th a spirited debate en- dent of the Ministry, declared himself with sued on the amendment to section 130, directed great precision, making particular reference to against acts inciting hostility between different the reserved rights of Bavaria. In the beginclasses and attacking national institutions, in ning of March similar interpellations were the course of which Count Eulenburg, the Min- raised in Carlsruhe and Dresden, and were anister of the Interior, stated that the paragraph swered in both states with equal decision as in was directed against the Social Democrats, Bavaria. In Dresden a resolution was passed against whom the Government was in need of at the same time by a vote of 66 to 7, requestmore effectual weapons. He declared their ing of the Government to oppose every deaim to be the “Red Republic,” with com- mand for the sale of the Saxon railways, while munism and atheism. The paragraph was a resolution in favor of a strong railroad law finally rejected by a unanimous vote. On the for the empire was rejected by a vote of 53 28th the Reichstag rejected the addition pro- to 15. In Stuttgart the Chamber of Deputies hibiting the publication of political pastoral passed a resolution by a vote of 88 to 6 against letters and encyclicals, and on the 29th they the purchase of the railroads by the empire, adopted the so-called "Arnim paragraph," re- but also one demanding a stronger railroad law lating to offenses similar to that of Count Ar- for the empire. In Bavaria the conflict between nim. The second reading of the amendments the Catholic majority of two against the minwas finished on the 29th, the other paragraphs istry, and particularly against Herr Lutz, the besides those mentioned being of minor im- Minister of Religious Affairs, continued dur. portance. In the third reading the “pulpit ing 1876 with the same want of success as paragraph," which had been rejected in the during the previous year. The King effectusecond reading, was also passed, and on Feb- ally aided the ministry, while the more liberal ruary 10th Prince Bismarck read an imperial faction of the Catholic party, under Dr. Jörg, message, closing the session, and, in the name avoided extreme measures. The action of the of the Federal Council, thanked the House for Catholics in invalidating the election of Libtheir labors. Besides the amendment to the erals in several districts resulted in the repenal code, the House in the session passed, election of the Liberal candidates by increased among other laws, the law against the copy. majorities. In Saxony the Government brought ing of works of art, of models and patterns, in several bills, which had for their object the and of photographs.

restriction of the power of the Catholic clergy. Soon after the close of the Reichstag in Feb- On May 17th the Landesausschuss of Alsaceruary the Parliaments of the different German Lorraine met for the first time in Strasburg, its states began to assemble: in Weimar, on Feb- labors being approved both by the Govern'ruary 14th ; for Mecklenburg, in Sternberg, on ment and the people of these provinces. In the February 16th ; and in Munich and Dresden, Lower Chamber of Baden a very spirited debate on February 21st. The all-absorbing question ensued, when, in considering the budget, the in all of these states was the scheme of the Im- title “Catholic Church” was reached. As the perial Government for buying up all the Ger- archiepiscopal see of Freiburg remained vacant man railroads. In the Bavarian Chamber of during 1875, the Government had made no de. Deputies the matter was brought up by an in- mand for the 13,400 forins usually appropri

ated for the table of the archbishop, with the The reason for this step was stated by Herr reservation that if, in 1876 or 1877 an appoint- Delbrück to be his shattered health, although ment should be made, to pay the usual dota- it was rumored that differences of opinion with tion from the day of appointment. The Cler- Prince Bismarck, particularly on the railroad ical party made an amendment to this, that question, were the real causes. These rumors the usual dotation be again inserted. This were emphatically denied by Prince Bismarck was voted down after a lively debate.

in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies. As his The Imperial Government lost one of its successor the Emperor appointed Herr Hofoldest and most efficient members by the resig- mann, formerly Minister of Hesse-Darmstadt. nation of Herr Delbrück, the President of the The fourth and last session of the Reichstag Imperial Chancery. The resignation was ac- elected in 1873 was opened on October 30th. cepted in the middle of April by the Emperor. The speech from the throne was read by Herr

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Hofmann, the Emperor being absent on ac- for the renewal of commercial treaties. Gercount of indisposition. The imperial speech many's foreign relations, notwithstanding the mentioned the general depression of trade and difficulties of the present political situation, industry in Germany and throughout the were fully accordant with the Emperor's paworld, and stated that the object of the Gov- cific policy. His constant endeavor was to preernment's commercial policy would be the pro- serve friendly relations with all powers, estection of German industry from the preju- pecially those connected with Germany by ties dicial effects of one-sided customs regulations of neighborhood and history, and, as far as in other countries. This object would be kept peace might be endangered among such, to specially in view in impending negotiations preserve it by friendly mediation. Whatever

the future might have in store, Germany might Council; and, in order to give the commission rest assured that the blood of her sons would time for this work, the Reichstag took a recess be sacrificed or risked only for the protection of one week, from November 8th to Novemof her own honor and interests. But the most ber 15th. A number of these points were setimportant question for which the extraor- tled by compromises in the commission; but dinary session had been called were the three the most important points, as the position of great judicial bills (the law on the constitution the press (referring all press offenses before a of the courts, the civil process, and the crimi- jury, and the abolition of compulsory testinal process), to the consideration of which the mony of the persons employed in the office of Imperial Commission of Justice had devoted a journal against the responsible editor), and itself since February, with great diligence, the relation of the courts to the administration, Many differences of opinion which had shown were referred by the commission to the Reichsthemselves in the Federal Council had been tag. In the second reading of the bills, begun settled by the commission, but the proposi- on November 15th and finished December 3d, tions of the commission still differed materially the Reichstag in all cases decided, by large on many important points from the resolu- majorities, for the propositions of the commistions of the united governments. On this sion, and against the objections of the Federal point the speech expressly said: “If the unit- Council

. After the second reading was fined governments hold to the conviction that a ished Prince Bismarck declared that not less happy solution of the task imposed upon the than nineteen points could not be accepted by present session by the consideration of the ju- the united governments, and that the whole dicial laws is still possible, they do so in the work would be a failure if the Reichstag would firm belief that you, gentlemen, in consider- not relent. To avert this, the leaders of the ing these questions, will keep in view a safe National Liberal party, Von Bennigsen, Miquel, and unrestricted execution of justice." The and Lasker, declared themselves willing to organization of the Reichstag occupied two enter upon some compromise, which offer was days, because, instead of Prof. Hänel, a mem- accepted by the chancellor. A compromise ber of the Party of Progress," Herr von was finally agreed upon, satisfactory to both Benda, a National Liberal, was elected second parties, the National Liberals sacrificing the vice-president. After having rapidly disposed clause with regard to the press, while the gorof the budget for the first quarter of 1877, the ernments consented to relinquish the preponReichstag instructed the Imperial Commission derating influence of the administration over of Justice to consider and report on the differ- the courts. This compromise was not only bitences still existing between it and the Federal terly attacked by the Catholics and the Social

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Democrats, but also by the Party of Progress tag, on December 22d, by a vote of 194 to 100. (Fortschrittspartei), who thus hoped to drive After passing an appropriation of 10,186,000 the National Liberals from their position as the marks for the condensation of the telegraphic leading party of the Reichstag. The compro- system of Germany, and for the construction of wise was, however, sanctioned by the Reichs- several main lines by subterranean cables, the

session was closed on December 23d by the for the completion of the judicial law, by Emperor in person. In the speech from the wbich considerable progress had been made throne he reviewed the results of the legisla- toward the desired end of national legal unity. tive period just completed. He enumerated He continued: “A common legal developthe more important measures which had be- ment will strengthen the consciousness of solicome law, and expressed his sincere gratifica- darity in the whole German nation, and will tion at what had been accomplished by the give an interior support to the political unity House. The Emperor thanked the Parliament of Germany, such as no former period in the

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history of our country can show. It will be questions. He continued: “You know that the work of future sessions to effect legal unity the policy of the Emperor is a policy of peace, in the whole domain of the civil law.". The a policy which declines to interfere in foreign Emperor proceeded to thank the deputies in matters. Up to the present the development very cordial terms for their assiduous and suc- of affairs in Turkey has not touched us directcessful labors, and expressed himself firmly ly, nor will it easily affect us indirectly. In confident that on the reassembling of the the presence of the armistice we can look forReichstag it would be enabled to direct its ex- ward to the future with tranquillity. The polclusive attention to the peaceful task of devel- icy of Germany with all friendly powers is oping the national judicial system.” Advert- based upon amity, esteem, and confidence. ing in conclusion to foreign affairs, the Em- This is manifest from all the negotiations peror said: “The negotiations of the powers which have been hitherto carried on, and the upon the Eastern question, as far as they have Government intends to maintain this position hitherto proceeded, justify the hope that my in the future also, if the nation and its repreefforts and the mutually conciliatory and peace-sentatives place full confidence in the Governful intentions of the powers immediately con- ment. It is not the intention of the Governcerned will be successful in solving pending ment to withhold from the representative body questions without prejudice to the good rela- of the people any necessary communications tions now existing between them. Germany respecting the situation. The policy of Gerwill continue, by friendly and disinterested many will ever be pacific. Germany will almediation, to lend her coöperation for the at- ways remain a bulwark of peace, and this bultainment of this end."

wark will be so firm that we will claim the In the Eastern question the German Gov- confidence of the popular representatives, and, ernment occupied a quiet attitude. Besides the indeed, deserve it." statements made in the different speeches The foreign relations of the Government from the throne, the Government in Novem- were also in other respects of a very peaceful ber made an important declaration on this sub- and satisfactory nature. The difficulty with ject. Herr von Bülow, Secretary of State for Spain with regard to the seizure of the German Foreign Affairs, replying to a question of Dr. schooner Minna by the Governor of the PhiJõrg, a member of the Reichstag, said that it lippines in 1875 was settled by the release of was at the present moment impossible for the the vessel in January. The difficulty with Government to give information upon pending China with regard to the German bark Anna,

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