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1200, and 809 B. 0. Another seal has the effigy silver gilt, with engraved and repoussé patof the Egyptian divinity Anubis, and an in- terns-the guilloche, fillets, and conventional scription in Phænician. Most of the seals still Egyptian designs of trees, animals, deities, and remain pierced by the bar on which they cartouche patterns. A calyx, five inches in turned; those of gold are nearly perfect and diameter, retains traces of a vine pattern. highly ornamented, while the silver ones are Another patera has a gold boss in the centre, black and much corroded; the majority are in and a circling band of honeysuckle and lotus the latter metal, which was probably in that ornament. Several others have repoussé flutage more precious than gold. Among the first ing and engraved geometrical ornaments; and objects brought to light in the gold-room were one finely-preserved specimen has a circle with two massive gold rings, bands with overlap- star-points in the centre, and lines radiating ping ends, probably armlets, with the inscrip- from the points. The action of oxygen has tion in the ancient Cypriote dialect, "Ereavopos caused a pile of pateras to cohere in one solid Tov llaçov Baothews, " Eteander, King of Paphos, mass, so that they cannot be separated. upon each of them. This king lived, it is sup The most beautiful, interesting, and valuable posed, in the sixth or seventh century before portion of the treasure is the collection of enChrist, and as these were probably an offering graved stones, some of which are perhaps made by him to the deity of the temple, they superior to any specimens of the glyptic art in assist in fixing the date of the deposit.' A large existence. The materials are carnelian, calnumber of coiled rings were found, some of cedony, sard, onyx, agate, and jasper, the usual them with the asp's head at the ends, in gold, stones employed by ancient engravers. The silver, and bronze, some of which were too finest of these are: a sard, seven-eighths of an small to fit on any finger; and hence Gener- inch in its longest diameter, representing al di Cesnola conjectures they were a kind of Boreas abducting Zephyr, a masterpiece of ring-money. Many richly-ornamented finger- bold artistic treatment and fine moulding of rings display designs of exceeding beauty ; the nude figure; & specimen of the archaic some of them still retain their gems of stone manner representing the rape of Proserpine, or antique paste; remains of enamel are seen rendered with strikingly forcible naturalistić on others, both in the ancient method, with effect; a bathing Venus with streaming hair, imposed bands, which is called cloisonné, and and a Mercury, boldly-drawn figures of exin the champ-levé method, with incised field. quisite finish, in the most perfect Greek style. Numbers of the gold clasps and pendants are several intaglii in hard stones represent Egypbeautifully incrusted by the granulated pro- tian deities and priests adoring the winged cess, familiar in Etruscan jewelry. Several orb and serpent-head of the Egyptian triad. necklaces are exceedingly elaborate and beau- It would seem from the style, designs, and intifully designed; one of them has clasps repre- scriptions, on many of the objects, that they senting lion's-heads, of masterly execution. were of Egyptian and Assyrian or Phænician Thin diadems of gold, such as were found in work, although it has always been supposed some of the tombs clasped about the foreheads that those peoples, except the Babylonians, of skulls, were found in the first vault. were ignorant of the art of cutting hard stones
A calyx of thin gold, five and a half inches in intaglio. Alabastra in rock-crystal and in diameter, is engraved within with circular alabaster very finely cut were also discovered; bands, on which are traced in wavy lines one in crystal, of handsome form, six and a half figures of stags and huntsmen, with palm-trees inches long, has finely-curved handles and a and water, designed in the conventional Egyp- neck fitted with a gold cap and stopper, contian manner; it is a design of singular beauty nected with a fine chain, and is finished inside and rare interest, and is in a perfect state of with a high degree of polish. Some in alapreservation. Many of the large rings and baster bear Phænician inscriptions. There are other articles were produced by overlaying others in terra-cotta with inscriptions in the silver or copper plates with coats of gold; but same language painted upon them. A fine in the case of such specimens the oxidation and sceptre head is carved out of onyx, as are also consequent distention of the inclosed metal numbers of small amulets, representing the have burst the outer coat and destroyed the tortoise, an emblem of Venus, the patron godornament. This class of articles is still worse dess of the island. Of the bronze objects there preserved than those made of solid silver, were five hundred objects, consisting for the which, though blackened and wasted, are some most part of lamps, lamp-stands, mirrors, and of them still quite strong and heavy. A cor- various other utensils. A magnificent vase, nucopia, about fifteen inches in length, is made four feet in height and six in circumference, a of thin silver overlaid in spots with gold plate. wonderfully fine example of the archaic Greek In the silver collection the most perfect speci- style, was discovered in fragments, but has men is a large bulb-shaped lecythus or unguent- been very perfectly restored. A bronze sceptreflask, with the lip and handle preserved, seven head is formed of three bull's-heads, with eyes and five-eighths inches in height, with parts of of glass, and stones inserted in the foreheads. its surface still bright and smooth, but with A finely-worked mirror-case is ornamented most of its ornamentation gone. Very im- with concentric circles. Bronze mace-heads portant and interesting is a large patera in are ornamented with the lotus design. Among
VOL. XVI.-8 A
the various articles of this large collection is a ty leagues north of Puntarenas, and the whole twisted snaffle-bit of bronze. There are four of the remainder to the Argentine Republic. lion's-heads of powerful design and fine work (For detailed statistics concerning area, popmanship, which probably formed part of a ulation, etc., see previous volumes of the ANfountain.
NUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, and especially that for the General di Cesnola has retired from the pur- year 1872.) suit which he has followed so energetically and The President of the Republic is Dr. Don Niwith such distinguished success. The results of colás Avellaneda (succeeded Señor Sarmiento the last three years' investigations have been in 1874); the Vice-President, Dr. Don Yamuch more fruitful than those of his first seven riano Acosta (elected in the same year); Minyears. The field cannot be supposed to be yet ister of the Interior, Dr. Don Simon de Iriondo; entirely exhausted. His later investigations of Foreign Affairs, Dr. Don Bernardo de Irigóhave been prosecuted with the proceeds of the yen; of Finance, Señor Victorino de la Plaza; sale of his first great find. Many of the sur- of Justice, Public Worship, and Public Instrucface diggings were purely experimental, on tion, Señor Don O. Leguizamon; of War and spots where there were no signs of human Marine, Señor Don Adolfo Alsina. Argentine art above-ground. The city of New York has minister to the United States, Señor Don Masecured this most valuable collection. The ob- nuel R. García; secretary of legation, Señor jects represent a wide range of time, from the Don G. Videla Dorna. earliest beginnings of art to a period of late The following is the list of the governors antiquity. The greater part of them may prob- of the fourteen provinces: ably be referred to the transition period in Buenos Ayres..... Cárlos Casares (May, 1876). which took place the birth of the true Greek Minister of the Interior. . Dr. A. del Valle.
Minister of Finance..... Rufino Varela, art, the first departure from the conventional Catamarca ...
M. Molina. types of the Egyptians and Assyrians.
Dr. E. Rodriguez. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC (República AR
Dr. J. L. Madariaga
Dr. R. Febre.
.C. Aparicio. ica, lying between latitude 22° and 41° south,
R. Ocampo. and longitude 53° and 71° 17' west. It is bounded north by Bolivia; east by Paraguay,
R. Doncel Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean; south
.8. Bayo. by Patagonia, the dividing line with which is Santiago..
.G. Santillan. the Rio Negro; and west by. Chili, from which
.T. Padilla, country it is separated by the Andes.
The provincial governors are elected by the The territory of the republic is divided into people, and their period of office is three years. fourteen provinces, which, with their capitals, The amount and various branches of the and their estimated population for 1875, are national revenue and expenditure for 1875 are as follows:
expressed in the subjoined tables:
$12,898,582 68 Export duties..
2,616,610 29 Public warehouse fees...
527,984 04 Buenos Ayres 400,000 Buenos Ayres. Stamped paper
892,529 19 Santa Fé 95,000 Santa Fé. Post-Office
214,807 70 Entre Rios 120,000 Concepcion del Uruguay Telegraphs.
79,558 40 Corrientes.. 151,500 Corrientes. Lighthouses.
85,878 98 La Rioja.
Dividend of Central Argentine Railway Co... 188,280 00 Catamarca. 79,551 Catamarca. Sundries ..
828,100 56 San Juan.
60,530 Mendoza.. 75,550 Mendoza Total.....
$17,206,746 84 Córdoba
248,800 Córdoba San Luis..
61,500 San Luis. Santiago del Estero. 153,400 Santiago del Estero. Tucuman.
Ministry of the Interior..
$7,240,207 13 128,000 Salta.
Ministry of Foreign Relations
175,218 98 Jujuy
9,418,024 82 46,600 Jujuy.
Ministry of Finance...
1,560,498 76 Total. 1,768,681 Ministry of War and Marine.
10,181,116 46 Total.......
$28,570,566 90 The population of the capital, Buenos Ayres, set down in the official census of 1869 at 177,
The Minister of Finance, in his report to 787, is calculated by Dr. G. Rawson to have Congress, in August, 1876, states: been not less than 230,000 in 1875.
The Government, under the most extreme pressure The question of boundaries with Chili, in and surrounded by difficulties that almost threatened regard to the disputed territory of Patagonia, its existence, was compelled to employ funds
of the still remains unsettled. Chili is reported as ized, but I must also state that the Government has likely to propose a compromise, based upon met, and will continue punctually to meet, the serthe assigning to that republic the whole of vice of said loan with the ordinary national revenue, Tierra del Fuego, and that portion of the Pata- and the national creditors need have no alarm; not
withstanding the crisis, the Government will meet gonian territory comprised between either all its obligations. I recommend
Congress to order ocean and a line drawn from east to west thir- all the surplus and unplaced public-works bonds to
be destroyed, as a measure calculated to diminish The following is the text of the contract of the service of the loan, and to improve our credit in the national loan referred to by the writer the London market.
just quoted: The total amount of the public-works loan
FINANCE DEPARTMENT, October 3, 1876. was $24,000,000, of which some six millions Dr. Victorino de la Plaza, Finance Minister, on the were still in the hands of the London bankers one part, and Don Rufino Varela, Provincial Finance as late as September last.
Minister, on the other part, being duly authorized,
have agreed on the following terms: The foregoing tables show the existence of
ARTICLE 1. The national Government authorizes an ever-growing, deficit in the Argentine the Provincial Bank of Buenos Ayres to emit for finances, as may be observed by comparing national account ten million hard dollars in the exthe amount of the deficit of 1875 with that of isting form of emission. 1874, and previous years. Nevertheless, the already emitted by the Provincial Bank, shall re
ART. 2. Said new notes, as well as twelve millions aggregate revenue for the year 1875 is about ceive a special stamp from the national Treasury to one million in excess of that for 1874. On guarantee the payment of said notes according to the other hand, the single department of War the law of September 23, 1876. and Marine consumed in 1875 no less
ART. 3. One of the national accountants shall regthan $10,181,116, against $8,006,801 in the ister the number
and amount of the various notes,
as the officer of the Treasury stamps them. year immediately preceding, or an increase of ART. 4. All notes must be so stamped before issue, nearly two and one-fourth millions. It should including those required by the bank to exchange for also be noticed that the expenses of that de- old torn notes partment, even in 1874, were far above the
Art. 5. Holders of present currency of specie-notes normal standard, save in the case of such a change same for new issue.
may apply at the bank within a certain period to war as that which was terminated at Aquida ART. 6. If, at the expiration of said term, the numban in 1870.
ber of notes does not reach twenty-two million hard The general state of the Argentine finances dollars, the bank will proceed to emit up to that has been exceedingly discouraging for the last amount, to supply any lost or destroyed. three years; but there is a decided tendency be taken charge of by the bank.
ART. 7. Any specie-notes presented afterward shall to improvement. There is, however, reason ART. 8. The above notes for twenty-two million to apprehend that the true condition of affairs hard dollars shall be legal tender throughout the will be found in the subjoined lines, under republic, and be received in full payment of taxes, date of Buenos Ayres, August, 1876 :
except in the custom-house, where they shall be re
ceivable for half any amount of duties. Baid notes The crisis in Buenos Ayres continues; trade is so the province of Buenos Ayres previous to Septem
shall not be legal tender for any contracts outside depressed that we believe twenty years ago there ber 35th. was more business done in this market than at present. Stocks and real estate show no signs of million hard dollars to the
national Government, as
Art. 9. The Provincial Bank will hand over ten recovery. Gold is at a high premium, notwith
follows: standing that it is hardly required for trade. We see no failures in this market caused by the pre
$2,000,000 in October, 1876. mium on gold. Paper-money is dearer, scarcer, and
2,000,000 “ November, "
600,000 “ December,“ tighter, than before the promulgation of the legal
600,000 " January, 1877. tender act. Many think that the proposed loan to
600,000 " February," the national Government will cause a new emission
600,000 “ March, and flood the market with paper, but they err; the
600.000 “ April, Provincial Bank, which is admirably managed, has
600,000 “ June, withdrawn from circulation close on five million
600,000 " July, hard dollars' worth of its specie notes, and thus is
600,000 August, prepared, if the Chambers so order, to advance to
600,000 “ September, ** the national Government without making a fresh emission. When the wool season begins, gold must In case of necessity the minister may arrange with be imported, owing to the few takers of exchange, the directors to draw two months in one. For all and the probabilities are that paper-money will rap- advances on this loan the Government will pay 4 per idly rise in value. Our produce is steadily increas- cent. per annum. ing; our wool-clip last year shows fully 24,000 bales ART. 10. From November 1, 1876, the national over the clip of 1874, and this year we look for a Government will begin to pay the Provincial Bank similar increase.
The great depression in River one-twelfth of the custom-house receipts, or more, Plate trade is entirely restricted to the branch of if convenient, until the complete payment of this our imports, and our exchange and money transac- loan with interest, as also of the balance due by tions are reduced to legitimate business operations. Government to the bank, viz., $75,294,103, with inWe confess we see much to induce the greatest con terest till paid. At the end of every quarter after fidence in the country, and believe that the worst November 1, 1876, the Provincial Bank will burn, of the crisis is over; a crisis the like of which was in presence of the national accountant and treasurer, never before witnessed in these countries, and the a sum of the new notes equal to the amount received effects of which can be read in the four thousand from the custom-house, until all the ten millions tenantless houses in this city, and the almost innu- be destroyed by fire. merable evidences of badly-employed capital; we Art. 11. As soon as the national Government have splendid and costly stores in the city lying shall have paid off the present loan and the
balance idle, strong rooms with nothing to lock up in them, due the bank, this contract shall be at an end. barracas, custom-house stores, hotels, breweries, ART. 12. The sums received from the customtramways, even railways, all lying idle, the flotsam house each quarter shall be applied in the following and jetsam of the great crisis-wave that has swept order: 1. To redeem the ten-million loan now adover the Plate; but the waters are at last subsiding, vanced; 2. To pay off the balance and interest sad business will be sounder and better than before. already due to the bank; 3. To meet the agreed
interest of 4 per cent. per annum on the present rived from this new source of locomotion. Some loan.
V. DE LA PLAZA, lines, constructed under Government guarantee, and
only just completed, are for a time à charge upon The above contract is hereby approved in every the national revenue, but this will not long conparticular.
AVELLANEDA. tinue, while the lines successfully in operation are
yielding large returns, even under the present de(For the amount of the national debt refer- pression of trade. The very depth of the financial ence may be made to the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA and commercial crisis, which has so long existed in for 1876, to which amount is to be added the the Plate, is certain to produce a great reaction when
once people are satisfied that the worst is over. $10,000,000 of the new loan.)
The total value and the destination of the ex A postal treaty with England, and an extraports for 1875 are given in the following table: dition treaty with Belgium, were among the
more important events in the foreign policy of EXPORTS.
the Argentine Government in 1876. Germany
$1,227,891 The following summary of the report of the West Indies...
675, 264 Belgium....
Minister of the Interior will serve as a rapid Bolivia.
367,299 'review of the state of the various interests de770,727
pendent upon that department:
1,912,399 Owing to the crisis, there has been such a decline Uruguay
1,016,989 of revenue as to oblige us to cut down the public United States..
3,055,205 expenditure in a remarkable manner. France
As the Government railways now approach comHolland
pletion, we intend next to occupy the engineers in 7,619,049
studies of the Upper Paraná and Uruguay, to imItaly.
1,746,698 prove navigation; also to examine the project of Paraguay.
498,066 making a port for Buenos Ayres, and to draw a map Portugal.
51,806 of all the new railways we shall require when a Peru.
healthy financial condition shall once more return. Other nations.
Three new railways were opened to traffic last Total...
$47,981,000 year (1875), the Mercedes, East Argentine, and In transitu....
2,850,400 Campana lines. The Tucuman line will be com
pleted in 1876, and then we shall have 2,260 kiloGrand total......
metres, or 1,412 miles English, as follows: This table shows an increase of nearly eight
Central Argentine...... millions as compared with 1874.
Tucuman....... The total value of the imports for 1875 was Andine.... $55,765,627, against $49,377,129 (according to
Great Southern. the Memoria of the Minister of Finance, $55, Western.... 961,177); from which it is apparent that the Ensenada.
Northern balance of trade is still largely and progressive
Campana.. ly in favor of foreign countries and against the Port Ruiz.. Argentine Republio.
2,260 Encouraging views are entertained that the existing state of adversity must ere long be As regards the Tucuman line, we have to recog. modified, and we quote a recent writer on the nize the perseverance, energy, and good-will of subject, a resident of Buenos Ayres :
Messrs. Télfener, who have aided us in every man.
ner, accepting whatever delays or postponements For the last two or three years the value of Argen- when the Treasury was unable to pay for the works tine exports has been seriously depressed, and this executed; and carrying on the works in spite of war, has, of course, reacted on the general resources; crisis, and the adverse elements. The contractors but the quantity, far from diminishing, is rapidly have already opened to traffic 416 kilometres, and increasing. Any improvement in prices of wool, Mr. Telfener notifies us of another section now hides, and tallow, in European markets, would soon ready. The prompt completion of this great work be felt in renewed activity of trade at Buenos Ayres, is a matter of national honor. The rails are already and a larger national revenue. Another source of within ten or twelve leagues of Tucuman, but the wealth, which has lately come into operation, con traveler finds more difficulty in this short interval sists of wheat and Indian-corn, both being now ex than in the hundred leagues of the railway. We ported to Brazil and other countries, besides sup- propose a saving of $300,000 in the works not yet plying food which formerly had to be imported. completed, especially in the stations. The certifiFrom Chili alone the supply of wheat amounted to cate of the Department of Engineers shows the tive million dollars, which are now saved. There value of works already done by Messrs. Telfener to are other sources of traffic opening up for the ex- reach $7,518,869, equal to £1,505,000. We have port of Argentine products: a steamer, called the made a contract with Telfener to work the line
for Frigorifique, built and fitted out at Rouen, sailed in 80 per cent. of gross receipts, but he has sent in a October for the Plate, to bring back a cargo of meat request to cancel the agreement. preserved on a new principle, which promises to be The Andine Railway was opened last October, a success. A large number of horses have recently and Mr. Rogers works it for four years at 80 per been exported to France, and are likely to be fol- cent. of the gross receipts during three years, and lowed by still larger droves, for the French caval- 75 per cent. of those of the fourth year. ry. They were sold at very remunerative prices. The Central Argentine line (which was opened in
Railway enterprise, in which a very considerable May, 1870) earned last year à surplus of £32,200 amount of capital has already been embarked, is sterling over the guarantee of 7 per cent. Mr. W. one of the means by which Argentine resources are Thompson, who succeeds Mr. Armstrong as direcbecoming largely developed, and the result of their tor, has paid in the above surplus to the Government. working traffic proves incontestably the profits do Last year we paid Messrs. Wanklyn and Lezies
897 549 255 155 435 296
80 76 10
So S. Miguel Rusof Concepclon
£23,500 on guarantee for the first section of the East The Port Ruiz line is in a ruinous condition, and
The new Campana line is 47 miles long. The en Projected Lines. -Mr. Clarke's project is still begineers wished to open it with the Governor's per- fore Congress. The San Roman opposition scheme mission; but we insisted that, as the line was a na was again prolonged in July, 1875, to the close of tional one, our certificate was indispensable. the year, and the period of extension has now ex
Comprised bet, the 22 nde Par.
Se 8. Pedro
of S.Lat. & the Rivers
Paraguay & Bermejo ASUNCION
Villa Rica Ourutibg
Native Iron Fernando
& Geronimo Santa Lucia.
NTIAGO F1.3 Cruces
S. Pedro 8.Dieyo o
UR U-GLU AY
& Jone F1.S.Josep
Fi Blanco o
Ab R E
Fl. Independencia EGIP Blanca
pired. The Corrientes and Mercedes line is in abey We propose to improve the Gualeguaychú River ance, owing to the crisis. We ought to make this for sea-going vessels. We have devoted $10,000 to line five feet gauge, instead of forty-eight inches. turn the course of the Dulce at Santiago, and made In the matter of highways, our chief
attention is a loan to Rioja for a similar work. given to the northern road to Jujuy, and the western We have accepted proposals of Messrs. Ferrari & to Mendoza and San Juan.
Co., and Bustori and Sackimann, to finish the new