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dricks electors received 130,088, and the Hayes of our noble State furnishes the safe guide for our and Wheeler electors 50,446; majority for the own action in this solemn emergency; "Wisdom, former, 79,642. All the nine members of Con- justice, moderation.” It is not for us to lead, or even

to suggest, but to follow. It is the plain duty of gress chosen on the same day were Democrats. Congress, by adhering to law and established preThe Legislature of 1877 consists of 43 Demo cedent, to give effect to the clearly and legally excrats and 1 Republican in the Senate, and 168 pressed will of the people. But if Congress should Democrats and 7 Republicans in the House ; unhappily fail to do this, then it is believed that the Democratic majority, 42 in the Senate, 161 in confronting us can, in the last resort, be safely left the House, and 203 on joint ballot.

to the sober judgment of the right-minded people in In his message to the Legislature in January, the Northern States. If it cannot, then we are pow1877, Governor Sunith used the following lan- erless, and they as well as ourselves will have lost guage regarding the political affairs of the the inestimable

right of freemen-the right of self

government. When they shall have decided what country:

is proper to be done for the preservation of this Before closing this, my last annual communication right, it is assuming but little to say that the people to the General Assembly, I cannot forbear a brief of Georgia will be found ready to cooperate with reference to the grave circumstances which now sur- them, and to do their whole duty under any and all round us, and seem to threaten the existence of the circumstances. liberties of the people.

On a given day, over eight millions of freemen, GERLACH, Franz, a German scholar, born representing nearly forty-five millions of people, July 18, 1793; died in November, 1876. He came forth from

their abiding-places and quietly pro studied theology and philology in Göttingen, ceeded to the ballot-box for the purpose of choosing received a position in the gymnasium in that their rulers for the next four years. This grave pro- town upon graduating, became professor in notwithstanding the presence, in many places, of the the cantonal school in Aarau in 1817 and in military forces of the Government, sent thither to the University of Basel in 1820, was appointed overawe the weak and ignorant, and to secure the member of the Educational Council in 1835, election of particular

candidates. The law pointed and was pensioned in 1875. Among his philoPresident of the United States. The question as to logical works are the editions of Sallust with who should fill these high offices had been referred a commentary (1823–31, 3 vols. ; 1852, 2 vols.; to the ballot-box. The true result of that reference 1870, 1 vol.), of the “Germania" of Tacitus no candid man can doubt. The election was held in (1836), which was followed by a translation pursuance of the laws of the United States and of with a commentary (1837), and the critical the several States. It was peaceable and orderly, and free from intimidation and violence. And yet im- edition of Nonius Marcellus (1842), which he mediately after the election we find a few adventur- published together with Roth. He also pubers, acting under the direction of ambitious leaders lished the "Schweizerische Museum für hisat the Federal capital, and backed by the military torische Wissenschaften" (3 vols., 1837–39), forces of the Government, attempting, by fraud and chicane, to set aside the eminent statesman chosen with Hottinger and Wackernagel; "Historische by the people, and to force into places persons whom Studien" (vol. i., 1841; vols. ii. and iii., 1847the people, after a fair trial, had refused to elect. '63), and "Die Geschichte der Römer" (vol. i.,

The question arises here: Shall the candidates 1851), with Bachofen.
fairly and legally elected by the people be placed in
office, or shall persons rejected at the ballot-box be

GERMANY, an empire in Europe, reëstabelevated to power! Shall law and order prevail, or lished January 18, 1871. The Emperor, Wilshall fraud and violence have the mastery! Shall liam I., was born March 22, 1797, and was the people of the United States choose their own married June 11, 1829, to Augusta, daughter rulers, or shall political cheats and swindlers be per- of the Grand-duke Charles Frederick of Saxemitted to perform that vital office for them! We Weimar. The heir-apparent, Frederick Wil

; this appeal stand, or shall it be set aside by force liam, born October 18, 1831, has the oficial and fraud? If the latter, then our free institutions title of Crown-prince of the German Empire, are already at an end, and constitutional liberty and Crown-prince of Prussia. He was maron the American continent has received its final ried January 25, 1858, to Victoria, Princess blow.

The right of the people to choose their own rulers Royal of Great Britain and Ireland, born Nois the corner-stone of a free, democratic republic; vember 21, 1840. Offspring of the union areand when they voluntarily abdicate this invaluable three sons: Frederick William, born 1859; privilege, or allow it to be wrenched from them, they Henry, born 1862; Waldemar, born 1868; and have already obtained their own consent to become four daughters: Charlotte, born 1860; Victoria

, slaves. No more

sacred cause can engage the patri- born 1866; Sophia, born 1870; Margaretta, the fundamental right in all free governments to say born 1872. Imperial Chancellor

(Reichskanzwho shall rule over it. This right the people of ler), Otto, Prince von Bismarck-Schönhausen. Georgia, and, I trust, of every other State in our Fed- President of the Imperial Chancery (Reichseral Union, will never willingly abandon. No divis- kanzler-Amt), Hofmann, Minister of State, apsonal advancement, no engagement to withhold 'the pointed in 1876. iron hand of power, can ever compensate the people The following table exhibits all the states for the surrender of a right at once so dear to them- of the German Empire, the area, the populaselves, and so vital to the very existence of consti- tion, the number of representatives of every tutional liberty. The people of the United States are thus brought German state in the Federal Council

, and the face to face with a most momentous responsibility. number of deputies who represent each state What shall be done? What shall we do? The motto in the Reichstag:

STATES.

Square Miles.

Population in

1876.

Votes in
Federal
Council.

Deputies

to the Reichstag.

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Duebles. Grand-duchle, Kingdoms.

23 17 14 9 6 8 8

1. Prussia (including Lauenburg).
2. Bavaria
3. Saxony..
4. Würtemberg..
5. Baden.
6. Hesse
1. Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
8. Saxe-Weimar....

9. Oldenburg
10. Mecklenburg-Strelitz..
11. Brunswick,
12. Saxe-Meiningen.
18. Saxe-Altenburg.
14. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha........
18. Anhalt.
16. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
17. Sehwarzburg-Sondershausen...
18. Waldeck.
19. Reuss-Greitz, older line.
20. Reuss-Schleitz younger line..
21. Schaumburg-Lippe..
22. Lippe-Detmold.
28. Lúbeck..
94. Bremen.
25. Hamburg
26. Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland).

Total....

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1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Principalilles.

1

Free
Cities.

1 1 1 1 1

1 8 15

203,739

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In the following table will be found a full sovereign princes, their years of birth and acexhibit of the governments of the particular cession to the throne, and the name of the states, including the names and titles of all the heir-apparent:

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Prossis

King...

William I... Bavaria.

King.

Louis II.. Baxony..

King..

Albert.. Wirtemberg.

King.

Charles..
Baden..

Grand-duke.. Frederick.
Mecklenburg-Schwerin... Grand-duke.. Frederick Francis II..
Hesse

Grand-duke.. Louis III.
Oldenburg

Grand-duke.. Peter..
Saxe-Weimer-Eisenach. Grand-duke.. Charles Alexander.
Mecklenburg-Strelitz.. Grand-duke.. Frederick William.
Brunswick

Duke..

William Anhalt...

Duke....

Frederick Saxe-Altenburg.

Duke.

Ernest. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

Duke,

Ernest II.. Eure-Meiningen.

Duke...

George Lippe-Detmold.

Prince..

Waldemar Reass, elder line.

Prince..

Henry XXII. Renes, younger line..

Prince..

Henry XIV. Behanmbarg-Lippe..

Prince,

Adolf.. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.. Prince.

George bebwarzburg-Sondershausen. Prince... Günther.. Waldeck..

Prince.... George.

F. L. Grave.. Bremen

Burgomaster.

1 F. M. C. Pfeiffer...

K. F. Petersen.. Hamburg ..

Burgomaster.

(H. A. O. Weber.. Libeck..

Burgomaster. Theodor Bebn

Born 1797, succ. 1861.. Frederick William, son. 1845,

1864.. Otto, brother. 1828, 1873.. George, brother. 1828, 1864.. William, cousin. 1826,

1856.. Frederick William, son. 1828, 1842.. Frederick Francis, son. 1806, 1848.. Charles, brother, 1827, 1853.. August, son. 1818,

1853.. Charles August, son.
1819, 1860.. Adolf Frederick, son.
1806, 1881.. Disputed.
1881, 1871.. Leopold, son.
1826, 1868.. Maurice, brother.
1818, 1844.. Prince Alfred, cousin.
1826, 1866.. Bernhard, son.
1824, 1865.. Hermann, brother.
1846, 1889..
1882, 1867.. Henry XXVII., son.
1817, 1860.. George, Bon.
1888, 1859.. Günther, second-cousin.
1801

1885.. Charles, son.
1881, 1852.. Frederick, son.
From 1873 to 1877.
From 1876 to 1879.
For 1876.
For 1876.

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It will be seen from the above table that the Bundesrath represents the individual states of dacal line of Brunswick is likely to become Germany, and the Emperor must have its conextinct by the death of the reigning duke. sent to declare war not inerely defensive. The The succession is disputed by the ex-King of members of the Bundestag are appointed by Hanover and the Emperor of Germany. It is the governments of the individual states for also interesting to notice that in only twelve each session. On January 1, 1876, the Ger. of the twenty-two sovereign houses which be- man Bundesrath was composed of the followlong to the German Empire the heir-apparent ing members : is the son of the reigning sovereign.

Prussia.-Prince Bismarck, President and The legislative functions of the empire are Imperial Chancellor; Hofmann, President of vested in the Bundestag, or Federal Council

, the Imperial Chancery; the ministers Campand the Reichstag, or Diet of the Empire. The hansen, Count Eulenburg, Leonhardt, Kameke, * The figures marked # give the deskaite, the others only Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign

and Achenbach ; Bülow, State Minister and .

CITIES.

CITIES.

Breslau.

46.432

14,984

Bremen

87,970

Barmen
Altona..

34.173 88.573 81.943 81,491 81,41 81.437

80.228

Posen.........

Halle

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Tetsl.

Affairs; Stosch, Chief of the Admiralty; Von ulation of the largest cities, according to the
Philipsborn, Director in the Foreign Office; census of 1875:
Bitter; Dr. Friedberg, Under-Secretary of

Population in 1875.

Population fa 18TE State in the Ministry of Justice; Postmaster- Berlin..

968,634 Cassel

58,045 General Stephan; Hasselbach, Director-Gen- Hamburg

264,675 Erfurt.. eral of Indirect Taxes; Meinecke, Ministerial

289,050 Frankfort on the Oder 47,176 Dresden...

197,295 Mannheim Director in the Imperial Ministry of Finance; Munich.

193,024 Metz.

45,613 Nathusius, Geh. Oberregierungsrath; Maybach, Cologne..

185,518 Görlitz.

45,843 President of the Imperial Railroad Office; Königsberg

127,887 Potsdam.

43,041

122,445 Würzburg... Möller, Oberpräsident of Elsass-Lothringen; Stuttgart... 107,278 Lübeck and Burghart, Director - General of Direct Frankfort on the Main 103,815 Wiesbaden.

106,684 Darmstadt

43.70s Taxes.

102,177 Carlsruhe.

42,768 Bavaria.--The ministers Adolf von Pfretz- Dantzic.

98,181 Duisburg

87,811

94,846 Kiel. schner, Dr. von Fäustle, and Georg Berr; Frei- Nuremberg

91,017 Münster herr Gergler von Perglas, embassador in Ber- Magdeburg. 88,012 Rostock. lin; Ministerial Councilor von Riedel; and

86,580 Elbing..

84,218 Gladbach. Colonel Fries.

Stettin.

81,052 Zwickau.. Saxony.—The ministers Richard von Friesen Düsseldorf

80,750 Liegnitz..

80,599 | Ratisbon and Chr. W. L. Abeken; Oswald von Nostiz- Aix-la-Chapelle.. 79,765 Bromberg.

81,846 Wallwitz, embassador in Berlin; and Major Chemnitz

78,209 Freiburg

80,331 Planitz.

.

65,988 Ulm Krefeld.

62,849 Osnabrück. Würtemberg.-Minister von Mittnacht; Hu

61,168 Coblentz

60,681 Plauen... go von Spitzenberg, embassador in Berlin;

98,756 Mühlhausen

58,518 Bochum. Colonel von Faber du Faur; and Councilor Mayence

67,847 Bonn. Hess.

Dortmund

57,763 Schwerin. Baden.—Dr. Julius Jolly, President of the Essen...

Augsburg.
57,210 Halberstadt..

27,0

54,862 Stralsund.. Ministry; Rudolf von Freydorf, State Minister; and Moritz Elstätter, President of the The movement of emigration from the ports Ministry of Finance.

of Bremen and Hamburg was as follows: Hesse. -Councilor Dr. Neidhardt, und Councilor Göring.

FROM

Bremen. Hamburg. Mecklenburg-Schwerin.-Von Prollius, char. Germany.

12,620 15.826 28.446 d'affaires in Berlin, and Director Olden- Other states.....

11,888 15,984 27,867 burg.

Total, 1875..

24,503 81,810 56,818 Saxe - Weimar - Eisenach. - Councilor Dr.

1874.

80,638 43,443 Stichling.

63,241 69,176 Mecklenburg-Strelitz.—Councilor von Prol

1872.

80,418 74,406 1871.

60,516 42,224 102.749 lius.

1870.

46,781 82,056 79,837 Oldenburg.–Councilor Mutzenbecher.

( 1870-1874... 56,818 52,361 Brunswick.--Councilor Schulz.

1865-1869.. 62,098 45,579 Saxe-Meiningen. — Minister Albrecht Otto

1860-1864. Average

20,085 Giseke.

1855–1859.. number.

82,841

54.433

21,892

1850–1854, 61,861 25,804 77.165 Saxe-Altenburg.--Minister von Gerstenberg

1845–1849.... 81,290 6,416

86,705 Zech.

(1836-1844.. 12,949 1,704 14.653 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.-- Minister Freiherr von Seebach.

The following tables show the composition Anhalt.-Minister Freiherr von Krosigk. of the different classes of the Diets of the

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.-Dr. Hermann von particular states: Bertrab, State Minister.

STATISTICS OF THE DIETS OF THE PARTICULAR Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.-Councilor Ru

STATES. dolf von Wolffersdorf.

I. STATES WITH TWO CHAMBERS. Waldeck.-Director von Sommerfeld.

Reuss, older line.–Faber, President of the Government.

RESENTATIV's
Reuss, younger line.—Dr. Adolf von Har-
bou, State Minister.

Schaumburg-Lippe.-Councilor Höcker.
Lippe Detmold.-Councilor Liebe.
Lübeck.-Dr. Krüger, minister resident.
Bremen.-Otto Gildermeister, burgomaster.
Hamburg.Dr. Kirchenpauer, burgomaster. Prussia.
A comparison of the population of the large Saxony.

22
German cities 1875 with their population in Würtembog 36
1871 (see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1872, p.

Hesse.. 350) shows almost throughout considerable gains. The following table contains the pop Total.... I 192

180

17

1878

182.417 154.14

108.679 107.67% 41.685

21.580

a. FIRST CHAMBEE.

CHOSEN REP

MEMBERS
ENTITLED

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Appointed for Life.

::: : Representatives of Cities.

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38

64 58 7

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al ROND SA

1

9

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1. SECOND CHAMBER.

REPRESENTATIVES

STATES.

Fourteen German states have a Diet consisting of one chamber only, and one of these, the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, has, besides the common Diet for the entire duchy, two particular Diets, one for the former duchy of Coburg, and one for the former duchy of Gotha. In the majority of these states the

members of the Diets are chosen partly by 1: 59,400 the owners of Rittergüter, or noble estates, 1: 84,500 partly by the cities, and partly by the rural 1: 20,000 districts. In several, the sovereign has the 1:24,000 1:17,600

right of appointing a few members. The fol

lowing table exhibits the composition of all 1: 43,000 these Diets :

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In all, twenty universities, of which nine are German universities. It had, in 1876, 29 proin Prussia, three in Bavaria, two in Baden, one fessors and 436 students. At the following each in Würtemberg, Hesse, Saxony, Saxe- universities, outside of the German Empire, Weimar, Mecklenburg, and Alsace-Lorraine. the German language is exclusively or preSometimes the Academy of Münster, which dominantly used, and in the province of litcontains the two faculties of Catholic theol- erature they may therefore be counted as Ger. ogy and philosophy, is also counted among the man universities:

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The budget of the German Empire for 1876,

Marks as declared by law of December 25, 1875,

1. Chancery of the empire.....

4,053,666 2. Imperial Diet..

818.150 estimates revenue and expenditure each at 8. Foreign Office..

5,566,255 474,256,998 marks (1 mark = 23.8 cents).

4. Administration of the Imperial Army.... 216,205,788 5. Administration of the Navy.

21,065,481 The revenue was derived from the following 6. Interest of the debt of the empire.

2,742,700 sources:

7. Chamber of Accounts.

898,466 8. Imperial Supreme Court of Trade. Marks.

859,870 9. Railroad Office of the Empire..

276,490 1. Customs and excises of consumption........ 242,629,170 2. Stamp-duty for bills of exchange..

10. General Pension Funds. 6,990,450

23,403,141 8. Administration of postal affairs and telegraphs. 10,562,286

11. Empire Invalid Funds...

28,828,611 4. Administration of railroads...

9,478,000 5. Imperial Bank, and other receipts..

1,810,000
Total.....

403,245,062 6. Receipts of various descriptions.

1,865,114 7. From the imperial funds for invalids

23,828,611

The 'extraordinary expenditures are thus es8. Surplus of the years 1874 and 1875.

84,363,366 timated : 9. Profits from the coining of imperial money.. 10,200,000

Marks. 10. Interest of invested capitals..

10,658,000
1. Chancery of the empire......

2,040,230 11. Extraordinary receipts....

45,495,836
2. Imperial Diet...

80,000 12. Matricular contributions..

71,876,215
8. Foreign Office..

1,865,500 Total.........

474,256,998 4. Postal administration, and administration of
telegraphs..

1,462,900 The matricular contributions were divided

5. Army of the empire..

35,898,612 6. Administration of the Navy.

4,700,300 among the particular states as follows:

7. Chamber of Accounts

40,000) STATES,

8. Railroads of the empire... Marks.

17,010,894 Prussia.

9. Mint reform.. 81,780,696

7,800,000 Lauenburg.

72,798
10. Manufacture of Empire Bank notes.

600,000 Bavaria

16,078,924 Saxony..

Total........

71,011,936 8,676,779 Würtemberg..

6,987,108 Baden,

4,647,435

The following table gives the military forces Hesse.

1,162, 781 of the empire in time of war: Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

758, 196 Saxe-Weimar.

401,382

I. FIELD ARMY. Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

132,364 Oldenburg

438,256 Brunswick.

DIVISIONS.

Oficers. Men. Horses. 485,145 Saxe-Meiningen..

266,846 Saxe-Altenburg

204,711
Higher staff.

869 5,170

5.070 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

245,896
Infantry..

10,190 455.620 17.909 Anhalt

805,854
Jägers.

572 26,676

1,046 Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.

104,744
Cavalry.

2,144 59,814 Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.

95,904
Artillery.

2,286

75120 Waldeck..

Pioneers.

555 74,077

20,917 9,647 Reuss, older branch.

65.169
Train..

484 38,451 46,017 Reuss, younger branch.

136,145
Administration..

216
2,826

10.-64 Schaumburg-Lippe....

46,725 Lippe.

141,819
Total......

17,310 687,594

233,592 Lübeck

93,059 Bremen.

239,035

II, RESERVES. Hamburg

711,815 Alsace-Lorraine.

8,074,109

DIVISIONS.

Officers, Men. Homes.
Total.....

474,256,998
Substitutes of the staff.

875 1,836 The common expenditure of the empire is de- Infantry..

2,812 179,524 1,036 frayed, according to Article 70 of the Constitu- Cavalry.

104

8,008

465 23,994 19,716 tion, from the revenues arising from customs, Artillery..

840 18,261 3.507 certain branches of excise, and the profits of

Pioneers.

20 Train..

240 the posts and telegraphs. The regular expendi

11,522 8,908 tures of the empire were estimated as follows:

Total..

4,426 243,095 30,580

65,608

823

26

90

4,950

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