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Timoffski, the pioneer of Russian explorers confine its attention chiefly to the geography in China, and author of a work on Mongolia of the Peninsula and the Spanish maritime (1820-21; editor, Klaproth), which has been possessions. translated into English, died this year, at the The Appalachian Mountain Club, of Boston, age of eighty-five.
are planning a systematic series of explorations Three other eminent Russian geographers, of the mountains of the Atlantic coast. They all distinguished members of the Caucasus have also started a new magazine, published in branch of the Imperial Geographical Society, Boston, under the name Appalachia, which have passed away during the year. These will contain contributions on botanical, zoologiwere, General Alexander Petrovitch Kartseff, cal, and physical geography, hydrography, and president from 1861–69, and his colleague Di- geology, as well as upon the special objects of mitry Elaitch Kovalensky, secretary, who ac- the club. tively forwarded the surveys and explorations of the Caucasus; and Baron Uslar, author of Surveys and other Geographical Operations in In.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-- Abstract of the Reports of the "Four Months in the Khirgiz Steppe,” who dia for 1873–74. Published by the Geographical devoted himself to the ethnology and languages Department of the Indian Office. Editor, Clements of the peoples of the Caucasus, and collected R. Markham. (London, 1876.) materials for a great work on these subjects, a Narrative of Two Expeditions to Western China, of
Anderson, John, M. D.: Mandalay to Momien; which unfortunately was never completed. 1868 and 1875, under Colonel Edward B. Sladen and
Dr. Reinhold Buchholz, the well-known arc- Colonel Horace Brown. (London, Macmillan, 1876.) tic and African traveler, died April 17th, at Baedeker, K.: Palestine and Syria. Handbook Greifswald, in Germany, after a short illness. for Travelers. (Leipsic, 1876.)
Bancroft, Hubert Howe: The Native Races of the He had but recently returned from a three Pacific States of North America. (New York, D. Apyears' journey in Africa, and was engaged in pleton & Co., and London, Longmans, 1876.) This classifying the large scientific collections he important work, of which the first volumes appeared had brought back, which he designed for the last year, is now completed in five volumes. It conMuseum of the University of Greifswald, which aboriginal peoples of North America, laboriously and had just invited him to accept a chair of Zo- critically collected and summarized. ology specially created on his account.
Barkley, Henry C., C. E.: Between the Danube Dr. Richard King, who accompanied Admi- and the Black Sea, or Two Years in Bulgaria. (Lonral Sir
George Back'in his arctic expedition of don, Murray, 1876.) 1833–35, died on the 4th of February. He (London, Trúbner, 1876.) This is an historical and
Beveredye, H.: The District of the Bákarganj. was the founder of the British Ethnological geographical account of the district commonly Society, and a working member of the Statisti- spelled Backergunge, which was overwhelmed in the cal Society; he was also the author of "Frank- recent cyclone; written by a resident magistrate. lin Expedition from First to Last," “ Narra- Popular Description of the Characteristics, Manners, tive of a Journey to the shores of the Arctic and Customs, of the Principal Varieties of the HuOcean,” “ History of the Esquimaux,” and man Family. (London, Cassell, Petter & Galpin, works on medical and other subjects, and also 1876.) edited for some time the statistical Journal Adventures in Central Asia.
(London, Cassell, 1876.)
Burnaby, Frederick: A Ride to Khiva; Travels and and the Ethnological Journal.
Compiègne, Marquis de : L'Afrique Équatoriale: SOCIETIES.-A Danish Geographical Society, Okanda-Bangouens-Osyéba. (Paris, Plon, 1875.) with the King of Denmark as protector, and The second volume of the Marquis de Compiègne's the crown-prince as acting president, held its descriptions of travels. first public meeting in the palace at Copenha- dom and Islamieh. (London, Tinsley, 1876.)
Creagh, James: Over the Borders of Christengen, on the 22d of December of this year.
Curlez, E. A. : Nebraska ; its Advantages, ReAn international conference upon the means sources, and Drawbacks. of exploring equatorial Africa was held in David, Abbé Armand: Journal de mon troisième Brussels
, in September, under the presidency of Voyage d'Exploration dans l'Empire Chinois. (Paris, the King of the Belgians. The different nations
Die Mongolei und das Land der Tanguten. Oberstwere requested to form local organizations for Lieutenant Przewalsky's Reisen, 1870-173. this purpose. A German national committee Dunraven, Earl of: The Great Divide. Travels was constituted in December under the presi- in the Upper Yellowstone in the Summer of 1874. dency of the Prince of Reuss, and arrange (London, Chatto & Windus, 1876.) ments for a permanent association are in prep. of Africa, as seen from the Deck of a Man-of-War.
Dyer, Commander Hugh, 'R. N. The West Coast aration. It is to be under the patronage of (London, Griffin, 1876.). the crown-prince, and will be called the Ger Eastern Persia: an Account of the Journeys of man Society for African Exploration. It is the the Persian Boundary Commission, 1870, 1871, 1872. intention to follow up vigorously, systemati. Vol. I. The Geography, By Majors St. John, Lovcally, and persistently, the German explora- General F. J. Goldsmid. Vol. Il. The Zoology tions in Central Africa.
and Geology. By W. T. Blandford. (London, MacA geographical publication society similar to millan, 1876.) the Hackluyt has been formed in Portugal, Evans, Arthur J.: Through Bosnia and the Herunder the style of Commissão Central da Geo- zegovina on Foot during the Insurrection. (London, graphia de Lisboa. A geographical society Forsyth, William, Q. C.: The Slavonic Provinces bas been formed also at Madrid, which will south of the Danube. (London, Murray, 1876.)
Franzos, K. E.: Aus Halb-Asien; Culturbilder The Dutch in the Arctic Seas. By Samuel Richard aus Galizien, der. Bokowina, Süd-Russland und Van Campen. (London, Trübner, 1876.) Rumänien. (Leipsic, Duncker & Humblot, 1876.) The Queen of the Colonies; or, Queensland as I
Gill, Rev. William Wyatt: Life in the Southern knew it. (London, Low, 1876.) Isles; or, Scenes and Incidents in the South Pacific Thielmann, Baron Max von: Journey in the Cauand New Guinea. (London, Religious Tract Society, casus, Persia, and Turkey. Translated by Charles 1876.)
Heneage. (London, Murray, 1876.) Journal of Commodore Goodenough, R. N. Ed Thomson, Gaston: L'Herzégovine. (Paris, 1876.) ited, with a Memoir, by his Widow. (London, Hen Wood, Major Herbert: The shores of the Aral. ry S. King & Co., 1876.)
(London, Smith, Elder & Co., 1876.) Gordon, Lieutenant - Colonel T. E., lately attached to the Special Mission to Kashgar: The Roof
CARTOGRAPHY.—The new edition of Stieof the World ; being a Narrative of a Journey over ler’s “ Hand-Atlas," commenced in 1871, was the High Plateau of Thibet to the Russian Frontier completed with the appearance of the thirtieth and the Oxus Sources on Pamir. (Edinburgh, Ed- part in November, 1875. This work is the monston & Douglas, 1876.).
Leared, Arthur, M.D.: "Morocco and the Mocrs; product of the united labors of the best carbeing an Account of Travels, with a General De- tographers of Germany, and is published by the scription of the Country and its People. (Loudon, famous establishment at Gotha. The engrayLow, 1876.)
Long, Colonel C. Chaillé : Naked Truths of Naked ing is as fine as it could be, and an effect showPeople: an Account of Expeditions to the Lake Vich ing the contour of the territory, which has toria Nyanza and the Makraka Niam-Niam, west never before been attempted in the same deof Bahr-el-Abiad (White Nile). (London, Low, gree of minuteness, is admirably produced. 1876.)
Each geographer has worked in his own espeGrant-Duff, M. E. : Notes of an Indian Journey. cial field — Berghaus, for instance, contributing (London, Macmillan, 1876.)
Grove, F. C.: The Frosty Caucasus. (London, the charts of physical geography, Petermann Longmans, 1875.)
delineating the results of the latest exploraMacGahan, J. A.: Under the Northern Lights. tions, in which department he has no rival for (London, Low, 1876.)
judgment and information, Vogel reducing the Margary, Augustus Raymond, the Journey of, from largest and fullest maps, such as the great GovSir Rutherford Alcock. (London, Macmillan, 1876. ernment maps of France, Spain, and Switzer
Meinicke, Prof. Dr. Carl: Die Inseln des Stillen land, with marvelous accuracy and detail. The Oceans.
“Hand-Atlas" embodies the results of all the (Michell, Thomas :) Handbook for Travelers in late surveys in all parts of the world—the Russia, Poland, and Finland ; including the Crimea, American survey of the Territories and the Caucasus, Siberia, and Central Asia. Third edition, revised. (London, Murray, 1876.).
British survey of India, for example, and also Mohr, E.: To the Victorian Falls of the Zambesi. trustworthy travelers' charts and notes in Translated by W. D'Anvers. (London, Low, 1876.) South Australia, Central Africa, or any of the
Montiero, Joachim John: Angola and the River newly-visited regions.
HYDROGRAPHY. - The Norwegian hydroand of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa graphical expedition, under Captain Wille, Edited by Clements R. Markham. (London, Trüb- spent several months this year in interesting ner, 1876.)
Orton, Prof. James: The Andes and the Amazon. explorations south of Iceland and about the (New York, Harpers, 1876.) This is a revised edition coasts of Norway, although they were much of the work published before under the same title, disturbed in the study of deep-sea phenomena containing an account, before unpublished, of'a sec- by the incessant storms. The vessel in which ond journey made in 1873.
the expedition sailed was the steamer VorinPalgrave, W. G.: Dutch Guiana. (London, Mac- gen, of 400 tons' burden. The expedition was millan, 1876.)
Prejevalsky, Lieutenant-Colonel N., of the Russian equipped for a three years' cruise, and proStaff "Corps : Mongolia, the Tangut Country, and vided with all the apparatus used in the most the Solitudes of Northern Thibet : a Narrative of thorough deep-sea investigations. The scienThree Years' Travel in Eastern High Asia. Trans- tific staff consisted of Prof. Sars, Dr. Daniellated from the Russian
by E. Delmar Morgan, and sen, and M. Fride, for biology ; M. Svendsen, annotated by Colonel Yale. (London, Low, 1876.). Recent Polar Voyages. (London, Nelson, 1876.)
for chemistry; and Prof. Mohn, for physics, Schuyler, Eugene : Turkistan: Notes of a Journey sea-temperature, meteorology, and magnetism. in Russian Turkistan, Khokand, Bukhara, and the region of the ocean to be explored is that Kuldja. (London, Low, 1876.) Sketches of Australian Life and Scenery. (Lon- Islands, Iceland, East Greenland, Jan Mayen,
lying between Norway, the Shetland and Faroe don, Low, 1876.)
(Socin, Prof. Dr. Albrecht :) Palästina und Syria: and Spitzbergen. A careful study of the surHandbuch für Reisende. (Leipsic, Baedeker, 1876.) face-currents, obstructions, and best routes of Published also in English. Soleillet, Paul: Avenir de la France en Afrique. dition started from Bergen June 1st, and com
navigation, is a part of their task. The expe(Paris, 1876.)
South Australia: its History, Resources, and Pro- menced sounding and dredging in the Sogneductions. Edited by Wm. Harcus. (London, Low, fiord. The depth was 600 fathoms, with a 1876.)
bottom - temperature of 47.7° Fahr. The Telfer, Commander J. Buchan, R. N.: The Crimea fauna was a mixture of Atlantic and arctic and Transcaucasia ; being the Narrative of a Jour forms, and many interesting
specimens were Ossety, Imeritia, Swannety, and Mingrelia, and in raised. After taking magnetical observations the Tauric Range. (London, Henry S. King, 1876.) of the island of Husö, they sailed along the
coast of Southern Norway up to Cape Stadt. Storeggen, an Atlantic fauna was brought up; The bottom was of even depth, about 200 while immediately outside, in depths of 300 fathoms, but the temperature began to fall to 500 fathoms, the water was icy cold, and about 150 miles northwest of Cape Stadt. contained arctic types of life. Sounding off
After leaving Christiansund it encountered the northeastern corner of the Faroe bank as many as five storms, so that little deep-sea showed a rapid increase of depth; in latitude 63° work could be accomplished in this voyage. 22' north, longitude 5° 30' west, it was sounded Dredging in the bank off Christiansund, called in 1,180 fathoms. The temperatures here were
32.4° Fahr. in 400 fathoms, 31.8o in 500 fath- ican expedition. The Alert and Discovery oms, and 29.8° at the bottom. Thermometri. reached Cape Sabine, where they were first cal observations, at a station west of 10° 15' impeded by the ice, on the 30th of July, 1875. west, showed a bottom-temperature of 46.2° From this point, latitude 79° north, their progFahr. A visit to the Westman Islands, off the ress was a ceaseless struggle. It took twenty south coast of Iceland, revealed there an an- days to ply through the ice which covered cient crater, and another, more recent, 770 Kane Basin. In Kennedy Channel, which was feet above the sea, formed of loose stones, only partly frozen over, a swifter advance was with a base of lava. These islands are en- possible. The vessels left Bessel's Bay, on the tirely volcanic. Off the south coast of Ice- coast of Greenland, latitude 81° north, on the land there is a strong flow to the eastward, 24th of August, and reached the northern and between Cape Skagi and Reikiavik the shore of Lady Franklin Bay, which is on the force of the current is terrific. The storiny west side of Robeson Channel, where, between weather allowed the opportunity to take in- Bellot Island and Grant Land, latitude 81° 44' teresting meteorological observations, but in- north, the Discovery lay in for the winter. terfered with all others. A stop was made a- The Alert proceeded on her lonely northward Reikiavik. After several days spent in magt course, taking Lieutenant Rawson and seven netic base observations, they sailed, taking the men from the Discovery's crew, on the 26th. course south from Iceland, and then northeast Along the western coast of Robeson Channel off the coasts of Norway. The difference be- she had to bore her way through a thick crust tween the warm Atlantic water at the bottom of ice, until a strong south wind opened a pasand the icy arctic waters east of Iceland was sage from one to three miles broad. She had very marked. On the course to Namsen Fiord, passed around Cape Union, having therefore a depth was found of 1,800 fathoms in latitude entered the basin of the central Polar Sea, 64° 5', midway between Iceland and Norway. when an impenetrable ice-pack forbade further The temperature at the bottom was always navigation. Captain Nares then let the anchor under 32° in these waters. The nearer they be cast on the 3d of September, in latitude 82° approached the Norwegian coast, the warmer 27' north. A belt of high icebergs prevented was the surface-water. The fauna of the deep the ice from packing closer around the vessel, sea here was not rich, but was very evenly and made their winter-quarters secure. Upon distributed. The bottom was mud, filled with the shore hard by they constructed a comforttiny round shells. The weather was too rough able building ont of chests and barrels, and to study the captured specimens alive. Sev- sent out several sledge-parties before winter to eral stations were well explored on this line. supply depots with provisions for the benefit From Namsos they took a course due west, of the expedition-parties which were to start and sounded for 100 nautical miles before on their explorations in the spring. One of reaching the depth of 300 fathoms. The line these expeditions, under Commander Markof the ice-cold water only commences beyond ham, with Lieutenants Parr and May and this point; it is the extent of these banks twenty-one men, lasted from September 25th which explains the mild climate of Northern to October 15th. They ascended to latitude Norway, Off Romsdal the line between the 82° 41' north, or 3' higher than the point cold and warm water approaches nearer the reached by Parry in 1827. On the 11th of coast. Soon the depth began to increase up to November the sun went down, to rise again 400 fathoms final depth, and 30° bottom-tem- only after a polar night of 142 days on the perature. The fauna had been in the lesser 29th of February of this year. During this depth mostly Atlantic, but was here entirely time the officers and men amused themselves arctic.
as best they could with theatrical and scienAROTIO EXPLORATION.—The English Polar tific entertainments; and, meanwhile, the obExpedition, in the naval steamers Alert and servations were prosecuted in a systematic Discovery, Captain Nares commanding, re- manner. When the spring came, the excurturned safely, sailing into Queenstown har- sions commenced with a fruitless attempt by bor on the 30th of October, after a voyage of Lieutenants Egerton and Rawson to establish seventeen months. Although the results of communication with the Discovery. They the expedition fell far short of the expectations started out March 12th, the thermometer of the more sanguine geographical students, standing at 40° C., but had to return unsatisand cannot be said to have solved in any satis- fied in the severest cold, not turning about factory way the question of the open Polar soon enough, however, to save the life of their Sea, yet they have furnished important infor- dog-driver, the veteran Nils Christian Petermation upon the natural conditions of the son, who was prostrated by the frost, and died arctic regions. The explorers have convinced soon after they rejoined their comrades. On themselves and the majority of geographers the 3d of April
, in the harshest weather, three that the inner arctic basin is filled with peren- expeditions started out simultaneously to exnial ice; still, many believe that the ice block- plore the northern regions. One of these, unade which filled the entrance to the Polar Sea der Markham and Parr, composed of fifteen of was only an exceptional phenomenon, trusting the strongest and toughest men in the crew, in the more auspicious promises of the Amer took the course due north, with provisions for
seventy days. Leaving the coast at Cape Jo- the thinner portions of which are melted in seph Henry, latitude 82° 40' north, they struck the summer. In that season the separated out across the ice-pack, in hopes of reaching floes are swayed backward and forward by the northern shore, which the Polaris people the winds and currents, which tend mainly reported that they sighted in 1871. The way toward the outlets, and small portions are led through a labyrinth of icebergs, and across driven out through the channels. About the broad plains of snow; the best part of every end of September the lanes and pools between day was spent in making a path for the sledges the huge bulks of ice, which have been jostling with axes and picks, so that with ten or twelve hours of labor they could only make one or two miles a day. This severe toil soon exhausted the strength of the men, and, to add to their difficulties, the scurvy broke out among them unexpectedly, and to their great consternation. Nevertheless, they continued to penetrate onward, while the thermometer was standing at 45° C. often, until finally, at the distance of 600 miles from the ship, in latitude 83° 20' 26", there being no sign of land yet visible, Commander Markham gave the word to turn about, and they retraced their weary road terribly oppressed by the frost. The second party, under Lieutenant Aldrich, explored the northern shore of Grant Land, passing around Cape Columbia, latitude 83° 7'
POLAR BEAR. north, and surveying 120 miles of unexplored coast-line. The third sledge-party, command- and crushing against each other all the summer, ed by Lieutenant Beaumont, crossed Robeson begin to be closed up by the young ice, which Channel, and explored the northern shore of forms during the winter to the thickness of Greenland for seventy miles. The officers left about seven feet, cementing the moving mounin charge of the depots explored the surround- tains together into a stationary pack. Sir ing regions, keeping up communication with George Nares calculates that only an insignifithe sledge-parties. Three men died of scurvy. cant portion of the polar ice can escape through On September 9th, the vessel being clear of the outlet channels, while the great masses of ice, Sir G. Nares pulled up anchor and sailed ice locked in may have an age of centuries. Dr. southward again, rejoining the Discovery on Petermann, in commenting on the expedition, the 20th. The return-passage of the vessels thinks that Nares has established the impossiwas much less impeded by ice than their up- bility of navigating the Smith Sound approach ward course, and they soon regained the Dan- beyond controversy, but believes that an open ish settlement.
sea surrounds the pole, which can be entered Sir George Nares is firm in the belief that by the Franz Josef Land route, or, better still, it is impossible to navigate the Atlantic en- by the East Greenland route. Throughout trance higher than he has done, and that the the summer the coast of East Greenland is alpole is surrounded by a palæocrystic or ever. most free from ice, and even in winter there frozen sea, at least on this side. At a meeting is a strong outward flow. The immense masses' of the Royal Geographical Society he gave of ice which escape through the broad opening his views substantially as follows: We may between East Greenland and Spitzbergen, and consider the polar basin as a locked-up bay by the other channel, must leave, he thinks, continuing out of the North Atlantic channel, an open space behind. Many others, among with two streams of water pouring into it—à them Dr. Hayes, of the Polaris Expedition, are warm current between Spitzbergen and Nor- still confident that the inner Arctic Sea can be way, and icy-cold currents from both sides of entered in favorable seasons through Smith Greenland. On the side where the warm wa- Sound. ter flows in is found little ice and an early sea PALESTINE.—Lieutenant Conder thinks he son. Near the outlets from Behring Straits, has found the site of Emmaus in a place called eastward to Banks Land, and thence to Ire- Khamasa, a name which might be a corruption land's Eye, is found the heaviest ice; but, as of the Hebrew Hammath: it is an ancient place, light ice has been observed along the coast of containing remains of Jewish rock-sepulchres. the Parry Islands, it must be inferred that pro- The natives attach a certain sanctity to the tecting land exists to the northward. He does place; it is also situated at the right distance not express any decided opinion as to whether from Jerusalem; there are here the ruins of an an open sea extends up to or across the pole, ancient Christian church, and an old Roman although he inclines to the belief that a broad road runs through the place. He locates opening north of Cape Columbia extends as Gomorrah at a spot near Hin Feshkah, called far as the pole. In winter the polar basin 'Amriyeh, not far from Kumran, De Sauley's seems to be filled with compact masses of ice, conjectured site; the name belongs both to a