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nitely agreed to elect successively Legitimist, satisfaction among the Republicans, and, to Orleanist, and Bonapartist candidates to the solve the difficulty, the Government introduced vacancies occurring upon the death of the pres- a bill providing that in future no civil legionent life-senators. But, in spite of this coa- aries should receive military honors, which lition, the Republicans succeeded in electing was, however, rejected by a decisive majority. M. Dufaure, in place of Casimir Périer, who Defeated in the Chamber of Deputies on the died July 6th, against M. Chesnelong, Legiti- question of funeral honors, and again in the mist, who was supported by the united Right, Senate by a majority of 20 on the bill for the with the exception of the Right Centre. cessation of prosecutions for participation in
On July 15th Gambetta, as chairman of the the Commune, known as the Gatineau propobudget committee, reported that the discussion sition, M. Dufaure, on December 3d, decided on the budget would be begun in the Chamber to resign his seat in the cabinet, and his colof Deputies on the following Monday, and that leagues, approving his decision, resolved to then the budgets for the ministries of War, follow his example, and to leave office with of the Navy, of Justice, and of Instruction, him. The President of the Republic received and for Algeria, and the direct taxes, would and accepted the collective resignation of the be taken up, while the budgets of the other cabinet, and through the medium of the Keeper ministries, and the indirect taxes, should be of the Seals and the President of the Council reserved for an extra session. The Minister of begged the different ministers to remain in Finance, however, desired the entire budget office till he would be provided with their suc- . to be settled before adjournment. On August cessors. The deliberations on the formation 12th the Chambers were prorogued by a decree of a new ministry continued until December read by members of the cabinet, declaring, in 12th. On the one hand the Liberals demanded virtue of Article II. of the Constitution, the that General Berthaut should not resume the ordinary parliamentary session closed. The ministry of War, while on the other hand Presibudget was left in an unfinished state.
dent MacMahon was as firmly resolved not only Immediately after the adjournment of the to save General Berthaut, but also to form å Chambers, General de Cissey, who had held Conservative ministry if possible. A comprothe ministry of War almost without interrup- mise was eventually effected, by which Jules tion since 1871, was dismissed at his own re- Simon was appointed Vice-President of the quest, and was immediately replaced by Gen- Council of Ministers and Minister of the Ineral Berthaut.
terior, and M. Martel, First Vice-President of On October 8th, 33,000 communes elected the Senate and a member of the Left Centre, their mayors. The result was mostly the re- Minister of Justice and Religious Affairs, the election of the former incumbents. Where remainder of the cabinet remaining unchanged. new ones were chosen, they were generally On December 14th M. Simon, in the name of Repnblicans, and in some cases Bonapartists. the new ministry, read an address, in which,
The Chambers met again on October 30th, after speaking of his appointment, he said: but adjourned after a short session, the Senate “I am, as you know, a decided Republican, until November 6th, and the Chamber of Dep- and at the same time strongly conservative in uties until the 3d. On the 3d the Duke Decazes, my sentiments; devoted by all my convictions Minister of Foreign Affairs, read a statement and the studies of my life to the principles of in the Chamber, with regard to the Eastern liberty of conscience, and filled with deep requestion, as follows: “France sympathizes spect for religion. The cabinet that is before with the Latin Christians in the East, and will you is parliamentary, and desires to remain so. take every opportunity to defend their cause. We are in perfect accord with each other and France has not sacrificed a particle of its dig- with the majority of Parliament. We desire nity, but it will observe under all circum- like the majority the preservation and the stances the strictest neutrality, and will not final establishment of the Constitution which enter upon a war in which the welfare, the France has given to itself." dignity, or the safety of the country is not The close of the session was characterized interested.” Immediately after the reading of by a dispute between the Senate and the Chamthis declaration, M. Gatineau's bill, providing ber of Deputies. The Chamber had strieken for the trial of Communists by the civil courts off a number of items set down by the Govern instead of by the military courts, was taken ment, notably that for chaplains. The Senate up and discussed, and was finally passed on the had restored these items. The Chamber made 4th, with the exception of the fourth article, a few more changes in the budget as it came thus excepting from this provision those Com- from the Senate, and the whole budget was munists whose offenses had been of the gravest, then passed by a vote of 412 to 30 in the or who had been convicted of contumacy. Chamber of Deputies, and by a unanimous
A ministerial crisis broke out in the first vote in the Senate. The Chamber then adweek of December. The Government had re- journed on December 30th. fused military honors to several members of An agreement was entered into with Switzerthe Legion of Honor, because they had for- land, according to which the commercial treaty bidden any religious ceremonies to be observed of June 30, 1874, should remain in force until at their funeral. This caused considerable dis- August 10, 1877.
The President in the course of the year par- a Bishop as revised and set forth by the Second Gendoned a large number of Communists. Up to eral Council of the Reformed Episcopal Church,
and July 249 had been pardoned, the petitions in to Convocation that at the consecration of future
that it be a special recommendation of the Council the cases of 208 had been rejected, and 199 bishops of the Free Church of England a consecrated others awaited consideration. On July 26th bishop or bishops, and three or more presbyters, be the President granted 127 and on November invited to conduct the ceremony of consecration. 5th 52 additional pardons.
A Convocation of the Free Church of EngIn March the country was visited by severe land was held at Christ Church, Teddington, storms and inundations. The Seine had risen beginning August 15th. Bishop Cridge, of the ten feet higher than in 1872, causing extensive Reformed Episcopal Church, was present, and inundations in the suburbs of Paris. All the was greeted with a resolution of welcome. He large streams between Paris and the frontier delivered an address, in which he gave a rewere out of their banks, causing the country view and a definition of the position of the for miles around to be flooded.
Reformed Episcopal Church and of the Free FREE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. The Church of England, as contrasted with the following Confession of Faith has been adopt- ecclesiastical pretensions and prerogatives of ed by this Church:
the Anglican Church and the bodies in comDeclaration of Principles of the Free Church of Eng- munion with it. The Rev. Bishop Price, hav
land, in Union with the Reformed Episcopal Church, ing been some time previously elected bishop adopted at Convocation held in London, June, 1876. of this Church, was consecrated in that office, 1. The Free Church of England, holding the August 15th, with the laying on of hands by faith once delivered unto the
saints," declares its be- the presbyters present, assisted by Bishop lief in the Holy Seriptures of the Old and New Tes- Cridge. The name of the Rev. John Sugden and practice; in the creed " commonly called the was presented to the convocation by the CounÅposiles' Creed;" in the divine institution of the cil of the Church, as having been nominated sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper; and by them for the office of bishop. The nominain the doctrines of grace substantially as they are set tion was approved by the convocation, and forth in the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion. 2. This Church recognizes and adheres to Epis
Bishop Sugden was consecrated August 20th, copacy, not as of divine right, but as a very ancient at Christ Church, Lambeth, with the laying on and desirable form of church polity; but, for the of hands by the presbyters present, assisted by avoidance of any possible misunderstanding, it here- Bishops Cridge and Price. by emphatically declares its repudiation of the Rom
German ish dogma of apostolical succession in the ministry poet, born in Detmold, June 17, 1810; died in
FREILIGRATH, FERDINAND, a 3. This Church, retaining a Liturgy which shall Canstatt, March 18, 1876. Up to his fifteenth not be repressive of freedom in prayer, accepts the year he visited the gymnasium in his native Book of Common Prayer as revised and recom- town, but after that devoted himself to a mermended for use by the Convocation of the Free cantile business in Soest, in Westphalia. His Church of England.
4. This Church condemns and rejects the following leisure hours he devoted entirely to the study erroneous and strange doctrines as contrary to God's of history and natural history, and of French Word:
and English literature. From Soest he went (1.) That the Church of Christ exists only in one to Amsterdam, and then to Barmen. In 1838 order or form of ecclesiastical polity.
he left the mercantile career, encouraged by (2.) That Christian ministers are priests” in an- the success with which his collected poems other sense than that in which all believers are a royal priesthood.”
met, which were published in 1838 in Stutt(3.) That the Lord's Table is an altar on which gart. His early works, chiefly descriptions the oblation of the body and blood of Christ is of- of life in the tropics, showed a wonderful fered anew to the Father.
power of imagination, and rapidly gained for (4.) That the presence of Christ in the Lord's him the popular favor. In consequence of Supper is a presence in the elements of bread and Herwegh's celebrated letter to the King of wine.
(5.) That regeneration is inseparably connected Prussia, Freiligrath published his poem "Ein with baptism.
Brief,” 'in which he attacked Herwegh, and 5. This Church, in its public worship, and in which the latter answered by his poem “Par: preaching the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ, is tei.” In 1842 Freiligrath received through distinctly opposed both to sacerdotalism and ration- the favor of the King of Prussia an annuity of
300 thalers. He now went from Darmstadt, At the Quarterly Meeting of the Council of where he had been living, to St. Goar, where the Free Church of England, held February with Emanuel Geibel he passed a short peSth, the following resolution was adopted with riod of uninterrupted happiness... But he soon reference to the form to be used in the conse- began to be affected by the liberal current cration of bishops:
then making itself felt throughout Germany, Whereas, The Free Church of England professes and in the beginning of 1844 he declined to to be, and is an Episcopal Church, and circumstances receive any longer the annuity granted him by render it desirable and expedient that this principle the King, and in the same year published his should be more clearly defined and expressed, it is hereby resolved that the future bishops of this
"Glaubensbekenntniss," a volume of poems, Church shall be consecrated or set apart to their with which he went over openly to the Liberal office in accordance with the form of Consecrating camp. The reasons for this step he sets forth
quite distinctly in the preface to this volume. ability the metres of the originals. The first On account of his radical opinions, which he complete edition of his poems in six volumes now loudly proclaimed, he was in 1845 forced was published with his approval by Fred. Gerto seek refuge in Switzerland, but even here hard in New York, in 1850. His Gedichte," was turned away first in St. Gall, and then in published for the first time in Stuttgart in 1838, Rapperswyl, and in 1846 went to London, appeared in their twenty-ninth edition in 1873. where he found employment as a correspond- He also published " Roland's Album" (1840); ent in a business house. The Revolution of with J. Hub and Aug. Schnezler, the first and 1848 he greeted with two poems," Die Revo- second series of the "Rheinische Odeon " (1836 lution” and “ Februarklänge." He returned and 1839); with Simrock and Matzerath, the to Germany in that year and settled in Düssel- “Rheinische Jahrbuch" (1840–41); with Levin dorf. On account of his poem “Die Todten Schücking, "Das malerische und romantische an die Lebenden,” in which he arraigned the Westfalen " (1840–'42; second edition, 1871); King of Prussia for the murder of those killed with Duller, "1842, Gedicht zum Besten des by the troops during the riots in Berlin, he Kölner Doms" (1842), and“ Karl Immermann, was arrested and tried for insulting the King, Blätter der Erinnerung an ihn " (1842); “Dichbut on October 3d he was acquitted by a tung und Dichter, eine Anthologie" (1854); jury. In 1849 he went to Holland, but, being and the English anthology, “ The Rose, Thistle
, expelled from that country, settled in Bilk, and Shamrock” (fifth edition, 1874). His colnear Düsseldorf. In 1850 he was ordered to lected works (six vols., 1870, second edition, leave Prussia, but, having proved that he had 1871) met with a brilliant reception. In 1876 been a subject of Prussia for ten years, was he assumed the publication of an English admitted as a citizen in Düsseldorf in 1851. periodical, the Illustrated Magazine, which was The year 1849 also saw the publication of a published by Hallberger & Co. in Stuttgart. small volume of poems, "Zwischen den Gar- His wife Ida also gained considerable repuben einer Nachlese.” It contains no political tation as a translator of English poems, while poems, but, on the other hand, many of his his daughter Kate furnished admirable English inost beautiful productions, e. g., "Olieb' so translations of her father's poems. lang du lieben kannst," a poem which prob FRIENDS. The London Yearly Meeting of ably gained for him more hearts than any of Friends was held May 25th. The statistical rehis other works. In the mean while his rela- ports showed that the number of members was tions to the Government had become more 14,200, or fifty-two more than were reported and more critical, Early in 1851 he was the previous year. Epistles were read from the threatened with arrest for various offenses. Yearly Meetings of Canada and Ireland, and During his second exile in England he lived from all the Yearly Meetings in the United for a few years as a clerk, entirely removed States except that of Pennsylvania. The reports from the schemes of the other refugees. His from the several quarterly meetings described business again required his full time. For activity in various departments of religious original works he lacked the humor, but he and benevolent work, as shown in the organitook up his former activity as a translator, zation and operations of adult and juvenile producing among other works the admirable Sunday - schools, women's temperance mistranslation of Longfellow's "Hiawatha.” In sions, temperance societies, Bands of Hope, in. 1855 he again devoted himself entirely to lit- door and open-air mission-meetings, mothers' erary labors, furnishing admirable articles for meetings, etc. The reports from the tract the Athenæum. In 1857 he received an ap- societies showed that 169,946 tracts and leafpointment as general manager of a Swiss bank lets had been circulated during the year. founded in London, which secured for him an Some new translations into French and Gerindependent living. During this time his man had been made, and 3,600 copies of French friends pressed him to take the necessary steps tracts had been distributed by Friends on reto secure a return to Germany. All these ad-ligious service in France. About 60,000 tracts vices he kindly but firmly rejected. In 1867 had been ordered by Friends in Philadelphia the bank of which he was manager failed, and for distribution during the Exhibition in that his friends now brought into execution a long- city. The expenditures of the Friends' Fordiscussed plan of making up a national sub- eign Missionary Society during the year had scription. The amount of this subscription, been £6,600, an increase of £1,500 over the over 60,000 thalers, secured for him an inde- expenditures of the previous year. Of this pendent living for the rest of his life, and in sum, £4,840 had been spent in Madagascar, 1868 he returned to Germany and settled in and £1,297 in India. Two thousand pounds Canstatt. The war with France, 1870–71, sterling had been spent in translating extracts again called forth his full poetical powers, and from the Scriptures and other writings, and the poems written during this time are among 100,000 publications had been issued from the the best he ever wrote. Besides the trans- printing-press in Madagascar. The first annilation of Hiawatha," he also furnished master- versary of the school in Madagascar had been ly translations of the poems of Thomas Moore, held six months before. It reported 1,200 Mrs. Hemans, Robert Burns, Thomas Hood, children and 800 adults as scholars. An acand Victor Hugo, preserving with wonderful count was given of a first monthly meeting of
Friends established in Syria. The Friends FÜHRICH, JOSEPH Von, a great German risiting the mission-stations in the Holy Land painter, was born at Kratzau, Bohemia, Febhad bought a burying-place, mission - house, ruary 9, 1800; died at Vienna, March 13, 1876. and school-buildings. The meeting considered He studied in Prague under Bergler, and by the report of a large committee appointed by the support of Prince Metternich and Connt the previous Yearly Meeting to consider the Clam-Gallas, the owner of Kratzau, was enconstitution of the meeting of ministers and abled to pursue his studies in Rome. While elders. It was decided that the name of the his first works were devoted to historical submeeting should be “Meeting on Ministry and jects, he began in Rome, after the example of Oversight;" that elders should be members Overbeck, to choose Scriptural and ecclesiasof it, but should come under a triennial revi- tical painting as his specialty. He returned sion; that overseers should be members of it; home in 1830, and in 1834 went to Vienna, and that the monthly meetings be allowed to where he became, in 1841, Professor of Hisappoint, as other members, suitable Friends, torical Painting at the Academy of Fine Arts. not being either recorded ministers or over- For many years his influence was decisive for seers. The report directed that, “in making the tendency of the works of the Academy, these appointments, it is felt to be important and he now found an opportunity to underthat they should consist of individuals of take, in union with his friends and associates varied gifts and qualifications for service in the Kupelwieser, Schulz, and Dobiashovsky, some Church, and monthly meetings should be care- monumental labors. The most celebrated ful not to limit the selection to those of later among them are a cyclus of paintings reprelife, the introduction of younger Friends being senting the history of the Revelation, for the desirable, those being appointed who give evi- church of the Viennese suburb Lerchenfeld. dence of love to Christ and of attachment to After the completion of these paintings (1861), the principles we profess."
to wbich he was indebted for his elevation to The discussion of the state of the society the Austrian knighthood, he wholly devoted developed the view as being the prevailing himself, with steadily-increasing success, to one that the society, as regards spiritual life, cyclical drawings for engravings and woodnot only contrasted favorably with its condition cuts. Among his most celebrated productions one hundred years ago, but had improved. are the illustrations to the missal which the All the schools except one had reported to the Emperor of Austria in 1868 presented to the meeting their expenditures from their receipts. Pope, as well as the parable of the Prodigal
The minutes of the meeting for business Son, of the Psalms (1874), and Thomas à Kemthe body which represents the society during pis. A biography of Führich was published the year while the Yearly Meeting is not in in 1875, under the title “ Joseph von Fübrich, session — and the documents accompanying eine Lebensskizze” (Vienna, 1875). them, gave accounts of the work in Syria, and FULLER, RICHARD, an American clergythe visits of Friends recently sent there; of man, born in Beaufort, S. C., April 22, 1804; the visits of ministers to Norway and Sweden; died in Baltimore, Ma., October 20, 1876. He of affairs in Australia, Denmark, Germany, graduated at Harvard College in 1824, studied Guernsey, and Jersey; of the action of Friends law, and, before his twenty-first year, was adon the circular issued by the British cabinet in mitted to the bar of South Carolina. He alreference to the surrender of fugitive slaves; most immediately entered upon a large and of action on the subject of vivisection; of lucrative practice, and was on the road to proaction in regard to uncivilized races; of the fessional eminence when he was prostrated by issue of a pamphlet on Church and state, which sickness. On his recovery, he became a memhad been translated into several languages, and ber of the Episcopal Church, afterward joined on other subjects.
the Baptist denomination, and studied for the According to the latest reports, the number ministry. He was ordained in 1833, and took of members of the Society of Friends compos- charge of the Beaufort Baptist Church. In ing the various yearly meetings of the world 1847 he assumed the charge of the Seventh is 78,140, as follows: New England Yearly Baptist Church in Baltimore. He published Meeting, 4,499; New York, 3,306; Canada, “Letters concerning the Roman Chancery," 1,624; Philadelphia (estimated), 3,500; Balti- being a public correspondence between him more, 650; North Carolina, 4,200; Ohio, 3,194; and the Roman Catholic Bishop England (BalIndiana, 16,057; Wisconsin, 11,696 ; Iowa, timore, 1840);"Correspondence with Dr. 8,566; Kansas, 3,420: total on the American Wayland on Domestic Slavery" (1845); “ An Continent, 42,712. London Yearly Meeting Argument on Baptism and Close Cominunion” (comprising England), 14,199; Dublin, 2,935; (1849); volumes of "Sermons” and “LetAustralia, 254. There are also a few Friends ters;' and, in connection with J. B. Jeter, scattered over France, Germany, and Nor- “The Psalmist," a hymn-book in general use
in the Baptist denomination.
VOL. XVI.-21 A
GAUNTLETT, HENRY JOHN, Mus. Dr., an GEOGRAPHICAL PROGRESS AND DISEnglish composer of church-music, born in COVERY IN 1876. No signal discoveries 1806; died March 4, 1876. He was originally have marked the past year in geographical anintended for the church, but afterward chose nals; yet the efforts of scientific explorers have the law as his profession. As organist of St. furnished abundant new matter for the conOlave's, Southwark, he was one of the first to sideration of thoughtful geographical students. introduce the new Bach organs. He also direct- The number of trained and instructed geoed his attention to the reform of hymn-tunes. graphical explorers and the number of geoHe edited the last two parts of the “Psalmist” graphical associations for the organization and (1836 – '41), together with Mr. Kearns the support of explorations have increased this
Comprehensive Tune-Book” (1846-47), and year, as they have for many years past, in a together with Rev. W. J. Blew the “Church rapid ratio. The British Arctic Expedition, Hymn and Tune Book” (1844–51), which which engaged the hopes and thoughts of the has served as model for nearly every tune- geographical world, returned only to report book published since then. He also edited that the Northern Atlantic route is absolutely and composed the music in the “Congrega- and hopelessly impassable. Africa is now full tional Psalmist" (1851) for the Rev. Dr. Allon, of travelers who are pressing into the interior Carlyle's “Manual of Psalmody" (1860), and from all sides, equipped and provisioned for the chief parts of the "Office of Praise," long campaigns, and sometimes leading verita“Tunes, New and Old," and Harland's “Church ble armies to protect them from the unfriendPsalter and Hymnal” (1868). He also pub- ly and cruel natives; while many of the most lished several collections of anthems, songs, implacable of the African tribes have learned and Christmas carols. In 1842 Dr. Howley, to tolerate and even assist European travelers. Archbishop of Canterbury, conferred on him New Guinea is being explored from every the honorary degree of Doctor of Music, this coast, and new wonders have been revealed in being the first time, since the change of religion that strange island. Northern and Central in the sixteenth century, that a primate has Asia have been visited and traversed in new exercised the right of conferring the degree. regions and new directions. The survey of
GEGENBAUR, JOSEPH ANTON VON, a Ger- the Territories is progressing at a respectable man painter, born in 1800; died January 30, pace. The publication of new works of travel 1876. He studied at the Academy at Munich, and geography this year has been extraordiunder R. von Sanger, and during the time narily large. Several new geographical sociepainted a St. Sebastian
for the church in his ties have been established, including four or native town, Wangen in Würtemberg. He con- five national societies. tinued his studies in Rome from 1823 to 1826, NEOROLOGY.—Carl Ernst von Baer, the disand from 1829 to 1835, furnishing some excel- tinguished biologist and ethnologist, died at lent work, particularly in coloring. Among Dorpat, November 29th, aged eighty-four. His his paintings of this period are the First Par- contributions to geography embraced several ents after the Loss of Paradise," and "Moses important treatises on the physical conformadrawing Water from the Rock," both of which tion of the earth, on the navigability of the are at present in the Royal Gallery in Stuttgart. arctic seas, on the steppes of Southern Russia, He was devoted to monumental painting, and etc., and an account of a voyage of exploration particularly to fresco-painting, which had just to the island of Nova Zembla. come into fashion at Rome; but as he could Louis A. Lucas, who went to Africa last June obtain no orders, he decided to paint movable with the intention of penetrating to the Congo frescoes and encaustic paintings on stone and by way of Zanzibar, was prostrated by fever, on linen, in which manner his “Hercules" and and after repeated attacks died on the way “Omphale” were produced. After his return home near Jeddah, on the Red Sea, at the age he received an order from the King of Wür- of twenty-five. temberg to decorate, together with Gutekunst, Theodor von Heuglin, a member of the Gerthe new palace, Rosenstein, with frescoes, the man expedition of 1861–62 to Soodan, and subjects for which were chiefly taken from other important expeditions, and author of mythology. Having been appointed court valuable treatises on the geography and natural painter in 1835, he decorated a number of history of Eastern Africa, died in November. ħalls in the Royal Palace in Stuttgart with Constantine Vladimirovitch Chefkin, a Ruisfrescoes from the history of Würtemberg. sian statesman and savant; who occupied the Among his oil-paintings are a “Sleeping Ve- position of Minister of Public Works, and connus and Two Satyrs,” a “Leda," several small tributed to the transactions of the Russian Venus pictures, and a large altar-painting, a Geographical Society a fruitful treatise on the M:donna with the Child, in the church at mineral resources of the country, died at Nice Wangen.
in November, 1875.