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any bishopric. He was possessed of great the historic truth of the “Iliad” than would wealth, derived entirely from his parents, as the recovery of an authentic record, or the he solemnly declares in his will, and at his location of all the places mentioned in the death left his property mainly to his family. epic. He was a man of taste, had a fine gallery and Heinrich Schliemann, whose parents were a remarkable collection of gems, which he be- not wealthy, acquired the knowledge of the queathed to the Vatican Museum. He was in- Greek language first when he was well adterred in the cemetery of San Lorenzo, with- vanced in years. Though always showing a out the walls of Rome.
love of study, he received no academic educaARCHÆOLOGY. The excavations of Dr. tion, but entered the employ of a mercantile Schliemann in Mycena and General di Ces- house at an early age, and in the progress of nola upon Cyprus have brought to light mon- an industrious commercial career acquired a uments of ancient art and culture, affording a considerable fortune in St. Petersburg. In the revelation of the early Greek world, as impor- mean tiine he had learned several modern lantant and interesting as any archæological dis- guages, Greek among them, and gained a good coveries made in modern times. These dis- store of general information, and, when at last coveries were not in any manner accidental. he had leisure, he devoted himself to the study The two explorers are zealous students of of ancient Greek, for which he had a longarchæology, who pursued their investigations cherished inclination. Impressed with the with an intelligent preconception of the re- vivid narrative of the Homeric epos, he besults, amid many difficulties, and only achieved came fired with the purpose of restoring to the their great discoveries after long and arduous province of history the stories of the Iliad," and expensive preliminary labors. Both ex- which over-critical modern scholarship had plorers, with disinterested generosity, relin- relegated to the land of fable. To this purquished the pecuniary profits which they might pose he devoted his leisure and his means and have reaped from their long and difficult inves- energetic abilities, acquired in the school of tigations, whose expense they had borne un- practical affairs. aided, and in which they had embarked their Seeking the ancient Ilion, he excavated in private fortunes. Dr. Schliemann has presented the hill of Hissarlik, which the mass of ancient his treasure outright to the Greek Government, testimony pointed out as the site of Troy. and General di Cesnola has abated a consider- Here he indeed discovered the remains of a able profit, in order that, in the interest of great city of high antiquity, which may very science, his collection might be preserved en- probably have been the Troy of Homer, though tire, and has delivered it by preference to the that can hardly be proved. His excavations study of his fellow-citizens of America. Archæ- were laboriously pursued on a large scale ological research has been prosecuted with between 1870 and 1873, his method being to activity of late also at Pompeii, Rome, and else- sink vertical shafts and then cut transverse where. The wealth of art which lies concealed galleries underground. There were found under the soil of Cyprus is probably far from traces of two different cities. The upper one exhausted ; and the treasures buried in the ruins was Greek ; and near the surface coins were of Mycena are still being unearthed by the found of the time of Constantine. From forty energetic German IIellenist. These extraor- to fifty feet below the surface were found the dinary discoveries will probably stimulate an- remains of an older town, which the doctor too tiquarian investigation to new efforts, and fur- positively asserts to have been Troy, and which, ther revelations of the life, art, and history of in his much-criticised book, " Trojanische Althe great nations of antiquity may be yet sifted terthümer" (1874), he endeavors to prove. out of the secular dust of buried cities.
Among the objects disinterred were å rich Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, whose archæo- store of pottery of Oriental form and ornamenlogical discoveries in Asia Minor, and much- tation, articles of jewelry, etc. A treasure was doubted identification of the site of ancient found in the ruins of a palace which seemed Troy, brought to the enthusiastic explorer to have been abandoned in haste; an abunrather unmerited ridicule than the honor which dance of red ashes bears witness to a conflagrabelongs to an attempt so disinterested to clear tion; a large number of helmeted skeletons, up the history of those races whose splendid found in what Schliemann identifies as the deeds were the burden of Homer's song, has temple of Athene, the patron saint of Ilion, made further archæological discoveries this show that the city was captured and destroyed last year in Argolis, which cannot fail to win in war; but there is too little evidence, and the applause which his enthusiastic purpose the evidence is too inconsistent, to establish its has amply deserved. In excavating upon the identification with the Homeric Ilion. The insite of Mycenæ, Dr. Schliemann has discovered habitants of this ancient city were of Aryan the remains of a well-built city of prehistoric stock, as is proved by an abundance of Aryan date, and in richly-furnished dwellings and symbols among the relics: tombs of the same has found relics of a fine Dr. Schliemann next transferred his operaart-culture. These discoveries, in confirming tions to Mycenæ, the capital of Argolis and Homer's accounts of the culture and advance- seat of Agamemnon. Here again he has been ment of the Argives, go further to establish rewarded during the past year, after extensive
and difficult excavations, with rich discoveries umns or statues. There stood until modern of much greater value and interest than bis times a column on either side of the entrance, others.
covered with richly-sculptured ornaments, in a Dr. Schliemann made his first visit to Mycenæ style similar to the sculptures at Persepolis. in 1867, but did not then undertake any ex- The marks of bolts and hinges are seen in this tended investigations. Ile found the well-de- portal likewise. The interior consists of two fined ruins of the ancient Acropolis, which the compartments, the first cone-shaped of fifty villagers call to-day the fort of Agamemnon, feet diameter and fifty feet in height, the secwhile they show the treasury of Atreus as ond quadrangular in form, twenty-one feet Agamemnon's tomb. The citadel is of irregu- square. The walls consist of hewn stones lar triangular shape, about 1,000 feet long, and joined without cement, which are pierced with stands upon a small steep hill, between two many little holes, in some of which the bronze mountains. The outside walls still exist, stand- nails, which they were made to receive, are ing from sixteen to thirty-nine feet high, ac- still remaining. These held the plates of polcording to the nature of the ground, and hav- ished metal, with which the chamber once was ing a thickness of from sixteen to twenty-three lined. feet. They are built in some places of immense Dr. Schliemann carried on his excavations at irregular blocks of stone, with the interstices the citadel rapidly, employing 125 laborers. filled up with smaller stones, but oftener of Around the outer wall of the Acropolis he dispolygonal blocks, so hewn as to fit snugly to- covered a circular wall about twelve feet in gether; and in the neighborhood of the great height, topped with two rows of large slabs, gate and in some other places they are of quad- which he supposed to be tombstones. Inside rangular dimensions, five to fifteen feet long, this circular wall the space had been filled three to five high, and three to six in thick- up with rubbish. Within this circle and near ness. Within the walls there are terraces the two rows of slabs were uncovered two rising toward the centre, supported by the parallel lines of upright slabs, of which seven outside walls. A passage between the wall of only are still standing, being about three feet the citadel and an external wall, built to guard apart, three in one row and four in the other, the passage, leads up to the great gate, which the latter containing sculptures. One of these is situated on the northwest side. The gate is has below two circles with spiral ornamenconstructed of two large slabs surmounted by tations, and above a design representing a another. The gateway is ten feet high and man drawn in a chariot by a horse in rapid nine wide. Upon the cross-piece rests a trian- motion; in front of the chariot is another degular stone twelve feet long and nine high, sign of a man with a long lance, near whose upon which are carved in low-relief the images point is an object resembling an idol; and beof two lions standing upon their hind-legs, with hind it is carved the head of a spear. Another their fore-paws resting upon an altar, upon slab contains representations of serpents whose which stands a column, with a capital formed coiled folds form regular designs of great of four circles inclosed in parallel chaplets. beauty. This column is said to be the symbol of Apollo Pausanias speaks of the sepulchre of Atreus, Aggieus, the protector of portals. These fig- and the tombs of the companions of Agaures are executed with great finish and fine memnon who were slain treacherously by artistic feeling, in a manner more primitive, or Ægisthos, and that of Agamemnon and his rather more Oriental, than the sculptures of charioteer, Eurymedon, in which were also classic Greece. The pavement shows the ruts buried the twins, Teledamos and Pelops, chilworn by chariot-wheels, and the stones of the dren of Cassandra, which were destroyed by gateway bear the marks of the bolts and hinges. Ægisthos, and that of Cassandra, which was Another gate on the northeast side, formed doubted by the Lacedæmonians. Ægist hos also of three stones, without sculptures, is seven and Clytemnestra, he says, were buried withfeet high by four wide. The surface was cov- out the wall, being deemed unworthy of resting ered with potsherds and tiles, and the soil within the sacred inclosure. Pausanias could below was full of these remains, as Dr. Schlie- not have seen these tombs, which had long bemann had an opportunity to observe in the sides fore his day been buried from sight. There of a ditch dug by the peasants. The treasury of is every probability that these tombstones were Atreus, shown by the inhabitants as the tomb erected on the spots indicated by tradition as of Agamemnon, is cut into the side of a hill the tombs of Agamemnon and his companions ; about three-quarters of a mile from the Acrop- the sculptures are apparently of the same style olis; it faces a deep ravine. A passage 147 as the lions of the gate, and different from any feet long by thirty wide, between two walls other Greek remains. of hewn stone about thirty feet high, leads to Below the row of three tombstones he came the grand entrance, which is thirteen feet high, upon a square tomb, 264 feet by 114 feet, at a with a width of six feet, and is covered with a depth of fifteen feet or more below the surface Deatly-dressed solid block of stone, above which of the rock, and fifty-three feet at least below is another opening of triangular shape twelve the Acropolis. The wall which supports the feet in height and the same in breadth, with circular parallel rows of slabs traverses this traces at the base of the pedestals of little col- tomb, and hence belongs to a later age. The
contents of the tomb were probably removed with round bodies; and female forms with when the wall was built. Thirteen gold but- cow's-heads were found on vase-handles. A tons only were found remaining, on which porphyry form-stone had upon it the patterns pretty spiral ornaments were engraved, and of fifteen different descriptions of ear-rings and on some of them the sign sometimes called the other articles of jewelry. In bronze, five Svastika or Arani, from its similarity to the knives, two small wheels, two lances, two Indian symbols of those names. Numbers of double-edged hatchets, two vases and four gold blades were also found scattered about in others mutilated, a tripod, and hairpins, were confusion, containing indented circular and found together. A number of perforated spiral ornaments. Under the other row of agates showed figures of animals in intagtombstones was, beneath two of them, an ob- lio, done in an archaic style, some of them long excavation, 11% feet broad by 21 in length, quite artistically, which evidently belonged and 144 feet deep. Around its four sides is a to necklaces. Vases were found in great numcyclopean wall, five feet high and two feet bers, and painted with the greatest variety of thick. This contained bodies, surrounded by design. Most of them had both outside and black ashes and covered by a layer of large inside paintings. Small balls of white glass stones, which shows that they had been burnt. and perforated pieces of a black kind of glass, One of the corpses was covered with five great which probably served as wall-ornaments, leaves of gold, forty-seven to sixty-three cen- were found in numbers, as well as small cones timetres long and some six and a half centi- with spiral lines upon them. Large, tall gobmetres in breadth, upon which were crosses lets with one and two handles recall the of gold-foil eighteen centimetres long and four goblets mentioned by Homer. A disk and broad. There were also four gold blades of a two idols were found containing inscriptions round shape, and numerous other ornaments. which have not yet been deciphered. Among
About this spot he found twelve different the pottery were pieces with the forms of men, sepulchres, and a cyclopean house which also holding their horses' necks with both hands, had once served as a tomb. In this house he modeled upon them, and horses rudely painted found ashes of wood and animal matter, some upon their bases. A portion of a necklace baked grain, a jasper weight, whorls of blue with three beads of different materials strung stone, and some archaic vases, one of which upon a copper wire was found in the treasury. contained an interesting painting of two swans. The fragment of a white-marble frieze has He conjectures that each of the slabs in the spiral ornaments. Above the entrance to the double circular row marks the place of a tomb. treasury were the remains of a dwelling, apThe circumference of the circle is 555 feet. parently of the Macedonian epoch. Of archaic sculptures he found two fragments At the gate of the lions, beneath the ruins of porphyry columns, one of them with a of a Greek dwelling, there was a series of anfrieze of gray-stone, the former bearing a bass- cient walls and corridors, one of which leads relief representing a hall with seats and at each to the cyclopean house excavated near the end a rose, and the latter covered with spiral tombs. IIere Juno idols were found in abunornamentation.
dance, and some interesting arrows, one copNear the gate of the lions he discovered a per-headed, and one with a head of iron. great treasury containing many precious arti. Next the circular rows of slabs, at another cles. It is dome-shaped like the treasury of point, were found a wooden fish, a sceptreAtreus, with an entrance thirteen feet long, head of green-stone carved in the form of a and a roof of four slabs eighteeen and one-half human countenance of Egyptian type, and feet in length. It was evidently covered up at numbers of Juno idols, some of them in the an early period, and was probably a secret form of a cow, standing or sitting, hornless subterranean royal treasure-chamber. In the and with a female head-dress, and other idols treasury there were many ancient Juno idols, of new forms. Two knives and two arrows a female shape, rudely made, with a head either of obsidian, many perforated glass beads, and a round or oblong, and large eyes, some having a small glass disk with a finely-executed im. diadem, and some with, others without breasts. pressed image of a fly, were also found here. Other idols represent a female form with hands To the south of the circle of tombstones a stretched out, with horns starting below the vast cyclopean house was excavated, of five or breast and meeting in the form of a semicircle. more chambers and four intersecting corridors, Male idols of Oriental type have bare heads and a deep cistern and conduit. Traces of the with incised diadems and a star in front, a long clay coating still adhere to the walls in parts. aquiline nose, and an Assyrian beard. There This building, the doctor pronounces, was the were also very ancient Juno idols in the form royal palace. In this house many most interestof a cow, with painted red or black ornaments. ing implements and articles of jewelry were disThe idols were mostly found about the treas- covered. A finger-ring of onyx has an intaglio ury, except the Juno idols, of which several of two figures of cows without horns, in an hundreds were collected in different parts of the archaic but elaborate manner. Disks of serAcropolis, and a bird-headed idol with a bowl pentine and agate, which were evidently neckshaped protuberance, on which, sometimes, a lace-beads, contain incised spiral ornaments cross was painted. There were other idols and the figures of horses and deer. An inter
esting discovery was a jasper mould or form- of Christ. Here he came upon the remains of stone with six sides covered with curious pat- a Greek temple, with inscriptions indicating terns for gold and silver ornaments, and among that it was dedicated to the goddess Demeter them the mould for the small glassy cone with Paralia, in which many small figures in terraspiral lines which was frequently found. Axes cotta, some of them belonging to a ripe period of jasper or green-stone and many whorls of of Grecian art, were found, and, in a tomb outblue-stone were found here, and a large num- side, a bronze jar containing some six hundred ber of fine vases in terra-cotta, covered with gold staters of Philip and Alexander; and also paintings of warriors in dark-red on a yellow discovered the ruins of a Phænician temple ground. These warriors wear coats of mail, containing broken marble bowls and pateræ girdle-belts, sandals, greaves, and either shaggy with dedications to Melkart and another Phcehelmets, which look like the skin of a porcu- nician divinity inscribed in Phænician charpine, or helmets with long crests; a protuber- acters, besides a marble sarcophagus with a ance like a horn stands out from the front of Phænician head in high-relief, and two alabasthe helmets; the warriors also carry large, ter vases with an inscription on one in Phæround shields, with a crescent-shaped hole at nician. The Greek tombs were more richly the bottom, and lances with the object looking furnished with funeral relies than the Phænisomething like an idol, seen on the represen- cian, and yielded numerous lamps, bronze mirtation of a warrior upon one of the tombstones. rors, and glass vessels, which were not iridesThe men have an Asiatic cast of features. In- cent like those found in other places. Going teresting also are the vases with three handles next to the site of Idalium, on which stands the in the form of crocodiles. There are other modern Dali, Signor di Cesnola opened 15,000 vases with rows of circles and rows of signs graves, most of them Phænician, containing which may be writing. In this house were thousands of terra-cotta vases of the most vaalso found a large brazen tripod and another rious sizes and shapes, but decorated in the vessel of brass.
earliest style of arts with simple zigzag lines General Count Luigi Palma di Cesnola, and concentric circles, but some of them Greek who has been engaged for the past ten years containing glass objects of a beautiful iridesin extensive antiquarian explorations upon cence. Going next to Golgos, he met with a the island of Cyprus, is an Italian nobleman of richer success than had yet attended his labors; Turin, of military education, who entered the the burial-place and two temples of the ancient service of the United States at the breaking city were explored, in the larger and more reout of the civil war, and, after serving with cent of which were nearly one thousand statues, distinction, was, at its close, appointed Ameri- some of them from the earliest and best period can consul to Cyprus. His explorations have of Egyptian art, and some statues and bassbeen prosecuted amid the greatest difficulties, reliefs in Assyrian style, and a few examples of and have been rewarded with discoveries of Greek and Roman art, but most of them belongthe highest historical and artistic value. ing to a period of which few other examples are
He commenced his investigations in 1865, in known, and illustrate the birth of classic art an amateur sort of a way, having obtained a and the development of the Greek ideal from firman from the Porte for the purpose ; but he the rigid conventionalism of the Egyptian and soon became so engrossed in the archæology Assyrian models. These statues are most of of the island, and so convinced that valuable them in a remarkable state of preservation. relics could be unearthed, which would shed a They were evidently produced by native artists, new light upon the early history, art, and cult- being cut from the calcareous stone of Cyprus, ure of the classic races, upon this spot, which which was quarried but a short distance from was the portal between the ancient world of Golgos. These most interesting sculptures are the East and the ancient world of Europe, that contained in the Metropolitan Museum of Art notwithstanding the slender success of his first in New York, where, when they shall be exexcavations, he declares that his enthusiasm posed to the public, they will afford a comwas aroused to such a point that he could not parative view of the origin and early develophave brought himseif to give up the pursuit. ment of classic art such as cannot be found
He commenced his diggings at Kitium, the elsewhere. Chittim of the Bible, upon the burial-place of It was at Golgos that Cesnola found the which stands the modern town Larnaca. At bulk of the collection which he carried to the end of a year he had identified the sites London for view in 1872. The reception to of four ancient cities, Idalium, Salamis, Gol- the treasures, of whose great historical value gos, and Kitium. At Kitium he opened, first he was convinced, was at first cool and disand last, over 2,000 graves, but found most of couraging; but other archæologists soon recthem empty, they having been probably de- ognized their importance. Efforts were made spoiled in some former age, perhaps by the to secure the collection to the British Museum Crusaders, as a rude painted figure, somewhat by purchase, but they were obtained by the resembling a knight of the middle ages, which more forehanded managers of the New York was found in one of the graves, would indicate. Museum at the price of $61,888.22. EightyThe tornbs of Kitium belong for the most part eight cases of the treasure had, however, been to the period between 400 B.C. and the time presented by General di Cesnola to the Ot
toman Museum of Constantinople as an ac a second unknown temple. He was attracted knowledgment of the rights of the sovereign especially toward one spot where eight colover the soil which had concealed this rich umns were imbedded in the soil, and upon treasure trove.
excavating here he came to a mosaic paveAfter finishing the explorations at Golgos, ment of Assyrian device, a large piece of he went to Salamis, but his excavations here which is preserved in his collection. There were fruitless, and it is probable that the ex were marks of some former search for treasploitation of the ruins of that famous city took ure, as the pavement was broken up and a place at an early period. In the vicinity of space dug to the depth of six or seven feet Cape Pedalium, the modern Cape Greco, he below it. Cesnola dug deeper, encouraged explored the ruins of Leucolla, where were by a hollow sound produced by stamping. found the débris of a temple with statues in At the depth of twenty feet farther down Greek style ; the tombs here contained each a Cesnola came upon an arched passage in the coffin of terra-cotta covered with three tiles, rock, four feet wide by five high, which he foland ornamented simply around the rim with a lowed out till he reached a slab which was the wreath of colored flowers; here he explored a door to a small chamber. He was gratified by strange burial-place, a rock cavern, whose only the discovery here of objects of gold jewelry; approach was from the sea, in which were the loose earth which was in the compartment petrified human bones in great numbers. was removed and carefully sifted. He then
The succeeding explorations enabled him to came to a second chamber opening into this, identify the sites of Throni, Carpassia, Aph- which led to a third and a fourth cell. In the rodisium, Acte-Achæon, Lapethus, Soli, and first were found articles of gold almost exArsinoē, in which he found several temples clusively; in the second, of silver; in the third, and burial-places. Then crossing the moun- of terra-cotta, caskets, vases, and groups of tains he made excavations on the sites of Neo- statuary; and in the fourth, works in bronze. Paphos and Palæo-Paphos, and at Visuri and This secret depository he concluded was the Amathus, and thence proceeded to Curium, hidden treasury of some unknown temple, the exploration of which completed his labors. where, as he inferred from the sonjewhat disAt the latter place, in the treasure-chambers of orderly manner in which the objects were an unknown temple, he came upon his richest stowed, the priests had hastily conveyed the discovery, this being votive offerings of the precious furniture of the temple upon the occamost diverse materials and styles of workman- sion of some Persian invasion. Each of the ship, comprising some of the finest specimens rooms measures about fourteen and a half feet of antique gem-engraving and delicate metal- in height, by eleven in width, and twentywork ever recovered. He was led to the site three in length; there were no inscriptions of this city by a vague indication on the chart nor carvings upon the walls; the pavement of Strabo, which author, with Pausanias, he was of blue pebbles, bedded in sand and plasused as uncertain guides in most of his explo- ter. In the gold vault there were sifted out of rations. The spot indicated was the summit of the mould 550 objects, embracing diadems, a rock 300 feet high and five hours' ride from bracelets, necklaces, finger-rings, signet-rings, the west coast, west of the ruins of Amathus, ear-rings, arınlets, etc. The second room yieldor Palæo-Limisso, as it is called. It was a ed only objects of silver, very imperfectly prestrong position, inaccessible on three sides, served, as are all specimens of ancient silvertwo of which were artificially scarped, the work, some of them so eaten through by oximarks of the chisel being still visible. About dation as to be almost ready to crumble at a 40 feet above the base à terrace was found touch; but still constituting the largest and hollowed out in the form of a ditch, 100 feet finest collection of antique silver in the world. wide and 25 feet deep, and this was the an- Two hundred and seventy articles were taken cient burial-place of the city. Thousands of out, some of them remarkably well preserved, tombs were found cut into the rock, some of but most of them in a corroded and fragarched form and roughly hewn, and others mentary condition. The third room disclosed rectangular and very regular, some of them a great variety of products of the fictile art, containing sarcophagi chiseled out of the and the bronze chamber afforded 500 specisolid rock. The graves were found to con- mens of bronze-work. tain skeletons, a number of earthen lamps, Among the objects of historical interest in four Phænician amphoræ, a copper mirror, the collection is the official seal of Thothmosome rings of gold, and ear-rings and bracelets sis III., the Egyptian king who conquered of silver. General di Cesnola noticed in seven- Cyprus about fourteen centuries before Christ, teen places the broken shafts of columns, and a finely-incised intaglio still resting on the bar detected the steps to an ancient fountain; which runs through its centre, with its gold broken pottery and fragments of pavement mounting intact, and the movable silver with ruts worn by wheels lay scattered about handle seldom found preserved in ancient sig. the whole ground, and in hundreds of small nets. Most interesting are the Babylonian mounds he detected the places of ancient cylinders of meteoric, calcedony, hematite, and dwellings. He located the great temple of carnelian, with incised inscriptions, said by Apollo, and struck the treasure-chambers of Sayce and Rawlinson to refer to the dates 1600,