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any bishopric. He was possessed of great wealth, derived entirely from his parents, as he solemnly declares in his will, and at his death left his property mainly to his family. He was a man of taste, had a fine gallery and a remarkable collection of gems, which he bequeathed to the Vatican Museum. He was interred in the cemetery of San Lorenzo, without the walls of Rome. ARCHAEOLOGY.. The excavations of Dr. Schliemann in Mycenae and General di Cesnola upon Cyprus have brought to light monuments of ancient art and culture, affording a revelation of the early Greek world, as important and interesting as any archaeological discoveries made in modern times. These discoveries were not in any manner accidental. The two explorers are zealous students of archaeology, who pursued their investigations with an intelligent preconception of the results, amid many difficulties, and only achieved their great discoveries after long and arduous and expensive preliminary labors. Both explorers, with disinterested generosity, relinquished the pecuniary profits which they might have reaped from their long and difficult investigations, whose expense they had borne unaided, and in which they had embarked their private fortunes. Dr. Schliemann has presented his treasure outright to the Greek Government, and General di Cesnola has abated a considerable profit, in order that, in the interest of science, his collection might be preserved entire, and has delivered it by preference to the study of his fellow-citizens of America. Archaeological research has been prosecuted with activity of late also at Pompeii, Rome, and elsewhere. The wealth of art which lies concealed under the soil of Cyprus is probably far from exhausted; and the treasures buried in the ruins of Mycenae are still being unearthed by the energetic German Hellenist. These extraordinary discoveries will probably stimulate antiquarian investigation to new efforts, and further revelations of the life, art, and history of the great nations of antiquity may be yet sifted out of the secular dust of buried cities. Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, whose archaeological discoveries in Asia Minor, and muchdoubted identification of the site of ancient Troy, brought to the enthusiastic explorer rather unmerited ridicule than the honor which belongs to an attempt so disinterested to clear up the history of those races whose splendid deeds were the burden of Homer's song, has made further archaeological discoveries this last year in Argolis, which cannot fail to win the applause which his enthusiastic purpose has amply deserved. In excavating upon the site of Mycenae, Dr. Schliemann has discovered the remains of a well-built city of prehistoric date, and in richly-furnished dwellings and tombs of the same has found relics of a fine art-culture. These discoveries, in confirming Homer's accounts of the culture and advancement of the Argives, go further to establish

the historic truth of the “Iliad” than would the recovery of an authentic record, or the location of all the places mentioned in the epic. Heinrich Schliemann, whose parents were not wealthy, acquired the knowledge of the Greek language first when he was well advanced in years. Though always showing a love of study, he received no academic education, but entered the employ of a mercantile house at an early age, and in the progress of an industrious commercial career acquired a considerable fortune in St. Petersburg. In the mean time he had learned several modern languages, Greek among them, and gained a good store of general information, and, when at last he had leisure, he devoted himself to the study of ancient Greek, for which he had a longcherished inclination. Impressed with the vivid narrative of the Homeric epos, he became fired with the purpose of restoring to the province of history the stories of the “Iliad,” which over-critical modern scholarship had relegated to the land of fable. To this purpose he devoted his leisure and his means and energetic abilities, acquired in the school of practical affairs. Seeking the ancient Ilion, he excavated in the hill of Hissarlik, which the mass of ancient testimony pointed out as the site of Troy. Here he indeed discovered the remains of a great city of high antiquity, which may very probably have been the Troy of Homer, though that can hardly be proved. His excavations were laboriously pursued on a large scale between 1870 and 1873, his method being to sink vertical shafts and then cut transverse galleries underground. There were found traces of two different cities. The upper one was Greek ; and near the surface coins were found of the time of Constantine. From forty to fifty feet below the surface were found the remains of an older town, which the doctor too positively asserts to have been Troy, and which, in his much-criticised book, “Trojanische Alterthümer" (1874), he endeavors to prove. Among the objects disinterred were a rich store of pottery of Oriental form and ornamentation, articles of jewelry, etc. A treasure was found in the ruins of a palace which seemed to have been abandoned in haste; an abundance of red ashes bears witness to a conflagration; a large number of helmeted skeletons, found in what Schliemann identifies as the temple of Athene, the patron saint of Ilion, show that the city was captured and destroyed in war; but there is too little evidence, and the evidence is too inconsistent, to establish its identification with the Homeric Ilion. The inhabitants of this ancient city were of Aryan stock, as is proved by an abundance of Aryan symbols among the relics: Dr. Schliemann next transferred his operations to Mycenae, the capital of Argolis and seat of Agamemnon. Here again he has been rewarded during the past year, after extensive and difficult excavations, with rich discoveries of much greater value and interest than his others. Dr. Schliemann made his first visit to Mycenae in 1867, but did not then undertake any extended investigations. IIe found the well-defined ruins of the ancient Acropolis, which the villagers call to-day the fort of Agamemnon, while they show the treasury of Atreus as Agamemnon's tomb. The citadel is of irregular triangular shape, about 1,000 feet long, and stands upon a small steep hill, between two mountains. The outside walls still exist, standing from sixteen to thirty-nine feet high, according to the nature of the ground, and having a thickness of from sixteen to twenty-three feet. They are built in some places of immense irregular blocks of stone, with the interstices filled up with smaller stones, but oftener of polygonal blocks, so hewn as to fit snugly together; and in the neighborhood of the great gate and in some other places they are of quadrangular dimensions, five to fifteen feet long, three to five high, and three to six in thickness. Within the walls there are terraces rising toward the centre, supported by the outside walls. A passage between the wall of the citadel and an external wall, built to guard the passage, leads up to the great gate, which is situated on the northwest side. The gate is constructed of two large slabs surmounted by another. The gateway is ten feet high and nine wide. Upon the cross-piece rests a triangular stone twelve feet long and nine high, upon which are carved in low-relief the images of two lions standing upon their hind-legs, with their fore-paws resting upon an altar, upon which stands a column, with a capital formed of four circles inclosed in parallel chaplets. This column is said to be the symbol of Apollo Aggieus, the protector of portals. These figures are executed with great finish and fine artistic feeling, in a manner more primitive, or rather more Oriental, than the sculptures of classic Greece. The pavement shows the ruts worn by chariot-wheels, and the stones of the gateway bear the marks of the bolts and hinges. Another gate on the northeast side, formed also of three stones, without sculptures, is seven feet high by four wide. The surface was covered with potsherds and tiles, and the soil below was full of these remains, as Dr. Schliemann had an opportunity to observe in the sides of a ditch dug by the peasants. The treasury of Atreus, shown by the inhabitants as the tomb of Agamemnon, is cut into the side of a hill about three-quarters of a mile from the Acropolis; it faces a deep ravine. A passage 147 feet long by thirty wide, between two walls of hewn stone about thirty feet high, leads to the grand entrance, which is thirteen feet high, with a width of six feet, and is covered with a neatly-dressed solid block of stone, above which is another opening of triangular shape twelve feet in height and the same in breadth, with traces at the base of the pedestals of little col

umns or statues. There stood until modern times a column on either side of the entrance, covered with richly-sculptured ornaments, in a style similar to the sculptures at Persepolis. The marks of bolts and hinges are seen in this portal likewise. The interior consists of two compartments, the first cone-shaped of fifty feet diameter and fifty feet in height, the second quadrangular in form, twenty-one feet square. The walls consist of hewn stones joined without cement, which are pierced with many little holes, in some of which the bronze nails, which they were made to receive, are still remaining. These held the plates of polished metal, with which the chamber once was lined. Dr. Schliemann carried on his excavations at the citadel rapidly, employing 125 laborers. Around the outer wall of the Acropolis he discovered a circular wall about twelve feet in height, topped with two rows of large slabs, which he supposed to be tombstones. Inside this circular wall the space had been filled up with rubbish. Within this circle and near the two rows of slabs were uncovered two parallel lines of upright slabs, of which seven only are still standing, being about three feet apart, three in one row and four in the other, the latter containing sculptures. One of these has below two circles with spiral ornamentations, and above a design representing a man drawn in a chariot by a horse in rapid motion; in front of the chariot is another design of a man with a long lance, near whose point is an object resembling an idol; and behind it is carved the head of a spear. Another slab contains representations of serpents whose coiled folds form regular designs of great beauty. Pausanias speaks of the sepulchre of Atreus, and the tombs of the companions of Agamemnon who were slain treacherously by AEgisthos, and that of Agamemnon and his charioteer, Eurymedon, in which were also buried the twins, Teledamos and Pelops, children of Cassandra, which were destroyed by AEgisthos, and that of Cassandra, which was doubted by the Lacedaemonians. AEgisthos and Clytemnestra, he says, were buried without the wall, being deemed unworthy of resting within the sacred inclosure. Pausanias could not have seen these tombs, which had long before his day been buried from sight. There is every probability that these tombstones were erected on the spots indicated by tradition as the tombs of Agamemnon and his companions; the sculptures are apparently of the same style as the lions of the gate, and different from any other Greek remains. Below the row of three tombstones he came upon a square tomb, 264 feet by 11% feet, at a depth of fifteen feet or more below the surface of the rock, and fifty-three feet at least below the Acropolis. The wall which supports the circular parallel rows of slabs traverses this tomb, and hence belongs to a later age. The contents of the tomb were probably removed when the wall was built. Thirteen gold buttons only were found remaining, on which pretty spiral ornaments were engraved, and on some of them the sign sometimes called the Svastika or Arani, from its similarity to the Indian symbols of those names. Numbers of gold blades were also found scattered about in confusion, containing indented circular and spiral ornaments. Under the other row of tombstones was, beneath two of them, an oblong excavation, 113 feet broad by 21 in length, and 144 feet deep. Around its four sides is a cyclopean wall, five feet high and two feet thick. This contained bodies, surrounded by black ashes and covered by a layer of large stones, which shows that they had been burnt. One of the corpses was covered with five great leaves of gold, forty-seven to sixty-three centimetres long and some six and a half centimetres in breadth, upon which were crosses of gold-foil eighteen centimetres long and four broad. There were also four gold blades of a round shape, and numerous other ornaments. About this spot he found twelve different sepulchres, and a cyclopean house which also had once served as a tomb. In this house he found ashes of wood and animal matter, some baked grain, a jasper weight, whorls of blue stone, and some archaic vases, one of which contained an interesting painting of two swans. He conjectures that each of the slabs in the double circular row marks the place of a tomb. The circumference of the circle is 555 feet. Of archaic sculptures he found two fragments of porphyry columns, one of them with a frieze of gray-stone, the former bearing a bassrelief representing a hall with seats and at each end a rose, and the latter covered with spiral ornamentation. Near the gate of the lions he discovered a great treasury containing many precious articles. It is dome-shaped like the treasury of Atreus, with an entrance thirteen feet long, and a roof of four slabs eighteeen and one-half feet in length. It was evidently covered up at an early period, and was probably a secret subterranean royal treasure-chamber. In the treasury there were many ancient Juno idols, a female shape, rudely made, with a head either round or oblong, and large eyes, some having a diadem, and some with, others without breasts. Other idols represent a female form with hands stretched out, with horns starting below the breast and meeting in the form of a semicircle. Male idols of Oriental type have bare heads with incised diadems and a star in front, a long aquiline nose, and an Assyrian beard. There were also very ancient Juno idols in the form of a cow, with painted red or black ornaments. The idols were mostly found about the treasury, except the Juno idols, of which several hundreds were collected in different parts of the Acropolis, and a bird-headed idol with a bowlshaped protuberance, on which, sometimes, a cross was painted. There were other idols

with round bodies; and female forms with cow's-heads were found on vase-handles. A porphyry form-stone had upon it the patterns of fifteen different descriptions of ear-rings and other articles of jewelry. In bronze, five knives, two small wheels, two lances, two double-edged hatchets, two vases and four others mutilated, a tripod, and hairpins, were found together. A number of perforated agates showed figures of animals in intaglio, done in an archaic style, some of them quite artistically, which evidently belonged to necklaces. Vases were found in great numbers, and painted with the greatest variety of design. Most of them had both outside and inside paintings. Small balls of white glass and perforated pieces of a black kind of glass, which probably served as wall-ornaments, were found in numbers, as well as small cones with spiral lines upon them. Large, tall goblets with one and two handles recall the goblets mentioned by Homer. A disk and two idols were found containing inscriptions which have not yet been deciphered. Among the pottery were pieces with the forms of men, holding their horses' necks with both hands, modeled upon them, and horses rudely painted upon their bases. A portion of a necklace with three beads of different materials strung upon a copper wire was found in the treasury. The fragment of a white-marble frieze has spiral ornaments. Above the entrance to the treasury were the remains of a dwelling, apparently of the Macedonian epoch. At the gate of the lions, beneath the ruins of a Greek dwelling, there was a series of ancient walls and corridors, one of which leads to the cyclopean house excavated near the tombs. Here Juno idols were found in abundance, and some interesting arrows, one copper-headed, and one with a head of iron. Next the circular rows of slabs, at another point, were found a wooden fish, a sceptrehead of green-stone carved in the form of a human countenance of Egyptian type, and numbers of Juno idols, some of them in the form of a cow, standing or sitting, hornless and with a female head-dress, and other idols of new forms. Two knives and two arrows of obsidian, many perforated glass beads, and a small glass disk with a finely-executed impressed image of a fly, were also found here. To the south of the circle of tombstones a vast cyclopean house was excavated, of five or more chambers and four intersecting corridors, and a deep cistern and conduit. Traces of the clay coating still adhere to the walls in parts. This building, the doctor pronounces, was the royal palace. In this house many most interesting implements and articles of jewelry were discovered. A finger-ring of onyx has an intaglio of two figures of cows without horns, in an archaic but elaborate manner. Disks of serentine and agate, which were evidently neckace-beads, contain incised spiral ornaments and the figures of horses and deer. An interesting discovery was a jasper mould or formstone with six sides covered with curious patterns for gold and silver ornaments, and among them the mould for the small glassy cone with spiral lines which was frequently found. Axes of jasper or green-stone and many whorls of blue-stone were found here, and a large number of fine vases in terra-cotta, covered with paintings of warriors in dark-red on a yellow ground. These warriors wear coats of mail, girdle-belts, sandals, greaves, and either shaggy helmets, which look like the skin of a porcupine, or helmets with long crests; a protuberance like a horn stands out from the front of the helmets; the warriors also carry large, round shields, with a crescent-shaped hole at the bottom, and lances with the object looking something like an idol, seen on the representation of a warrior upon one of the tombstones. The men have an Asiatic cast of features. Interesting also are the vases with three handles in the form of crocodiles. There are other vases with rows of circles and rows of signs which may be writing. In this house were also found a large brazen tripod and another vessel of brass. General Count Luigi Palma di Cesnola, who has been engaged for the past ten years in extensive antiquarian explorations upon the island of Cyprus, is an Italian nobleman of Turin, of military education, who entered the service of the United States at the breaking out of the civil war, and, after serving with distinction, was, at its close, appointed American consul to Cyprus. His explorations have been prosecuted amid the greatest difficulties, and have been rewarded with discoveries of the highest historical and artistic value. He commenced his investigations in 1865, in an amateur sort of a way, having obtained a firman from the Porte for the purpose; but he soon became so engrossed in the archaeology of the island, and so convinced that valuable relics could be unearthed, which would shed a new light upon the early history, art, and culture of the classic races, upon this spot, which was the portal between the ancient world of the East and the ancient world of Europe, that, notwithstanding the slender success of his first excavations, he declares that his enthusiasm was aroused to such a point that he could not have brought himself to give up the pursuit. He commenced his diggings at Kitium, the Chittim of the Bible, upon the burial-place of which stands the modern town Larnaca. At the end of a year he had identified the sites of four ancient cities, Idalium, Salamis, Golgos, and Kitium. At Kitium he opened, first and last, over 2,000 graves, but found most of them empty, they having been probably despoiled in some former age, perhaps by the Crusaders, as a rude painted figure, somewhat resembling a knight of the middle ages, which was found in one of the graves, would indicate. The tombs of Kitium belong for the most part to the period between 400 B. c. and the time

of Christ. Here he came upon the remains of a Greek temple, with inscriptions indicating that it was dedicated to the goddess Demeter Paralia, in which many small figures in terracotta, some of them belonging to a ripe period of Grecian art, were found, and, in a tomb outside, a bronze jar containing some six hundred gold staters of Philip and Alexander; and also discovered the ruins of a Phoenician temple containing broken marble bowls and patera with dedications to Melkart and another Phoenician divinity inscribed in Phoenician characters, besides a marble sarcophagus with a Phoenician head in high-relief, and two alabaster vases with an inscription on one in Phoenician. The Greek tombs were more richly furnished with funeral relics than the Phoenician, and yielded numerous lamps, bronze mirrors, and glass vessels, which were not iridescent like those found in other places. Going next to the site of Idalium, on which stands the modern Dali, Signor di Cesnola opened 15,000 graves, most of them Phoenician, containing thousands of terra-cotta vases of the most various sizes and shapes, but decorated in the earliest style of art with simple zigzag lines and concentric circles, but some of them Greek containing glass objects of a beautiful iridescence. Going next to Golgos, he met with a richer success than had yet attended his labors; the burial-place and two temples of the ancient city were explored, in the larger and more recent of which were nearly one thousand statues, some of them from the earliest and best period of Egyptian art, and some statues and bassreliefs in Assyrian style, and a few examples of Greek and Roman art, but most of them belonging to a period of which few other examples are known, and illustrate the birth of classic art and the development of the Greek ideal from the rigid conventionalism of the Egyptian and Assyrian models. These statues are most of them in a remarkable state of preservation. They were evidently produced by native artists, being cut from the calcareous stone of Cyprus, which was quarried but a short distance from Golgos. These most interesting sculptures are contained in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, where, when they shall be exposed to the public, they will afford a comparative view of the origin and early development of classic art such as cannot be found elsewhere. It was at Golgos that Cesnola found the bulk of the collection which he carried to London for view in 1872. The reception to the treasures, of whose great historical value he was convinced, was at first cool and discouraging; but other archaeologists soon recognized their importance. Efforts were made to secure the collection to the British Museum by purchase, but they were obtained by the more forehanded managers of the New York Museum at the price of $61,888.22. Eightyeight cases of the treasure had, however, been presented by General di Cesnola to the Ottoman Museum of Constantinople as an acknowledgment of the rights of the sovereign over the soil which had concealed this rich treasure trove. After finishing the explorations at Golgos, he went to Salamis, but his excavations here were fruitless, and it is probable that the exploitation of the ruins of that famous city took place at an early period. In the vicinity of Cape Pedalium, the modern Cape Greco, he explored the ruins of Leucolla, where were found the débris of a temple with statues in Greek style; the tombs here contained each a coffin of terra-cotta covered with three tiles, and ornamented simply around the rim with a wreath of colored flowers; here he explored a strange burial-place, a rock cavern, whose only approach was from the sea, in which were petrified human bones in great numbers. The succeeding explorations enabled him to identify the sites of Throni, Carpassia, Aphrodisium, Acte-Achaeon, Lapethus, Soli, and Arsinoë, in which he found several temples and burial-places. Then crossing the mountains he made excavations on the sites of NeoPaphos and Palaeo-Paphos, and at Visuri and Amathus, and thence proceeded to Curium, the exploration of which completed his labors. At the latter place, in the treasure-chambers of an unknown temple, he came upon his richest discovery, this being votive offerings of the most diverse materials and styles of workmanship, comprising some of the finest specimens of antique gem-engraving and delicate metalwork ever recovered. He was led to the site of this city by a vague indication on the chart of Strabo, which author, with Pausanias, he used as uncertain guides in most of his explorations. The spot indicated was the summit of a rock 300 feet high and five hours' ride from the west coast, west of the ruins of Amathus, or Palaeo-Limisso, as it is called. It was a strong position, inaccessible on three sides, two of which were artificially scarped, the marks of the chisel being still visible. About 40 feet above the base a terrace was found hollowed out in the form of a ditch, 100 feet wide and 25 feet deep, and this was the ancient burial-place of the city. Thousands of tombs were found cut into the rock, some of arched form and roughly hewn, and others rectangular and very regular, some of them containing sarcophagi chiseled out of the solid rock. The graves were found to contain skeletons, a number of earthen lamps, four Phoenician amphorae, a copper mirror, some rings of gold, and ear-rings and bracelets of silver. General di Cesnola noticed in seventeen places the broken shafts of columns, and detected the steps to an ancient fountain; broken pottery and fragments of pavement with ruts worn by wheels lay scattered about the whole ground, and in hundreds of small mounds he detected the places of ancient dwellings. He located the great temple of Apollo, and struck the treasure-chambers of

a second unknown temple. He was attracted especially toward one spot where eight columns were imbedded in the soil, and upon excavating here he came to a mosaic pavement of Assyrian device, a large piece of which is preserved in his collection. There were marks of some former search for treasure, as the pavement was broken up and a space dug to the depth of six or seven feet below it. Cesnola dug deeper, encouraged by a hollow sound produced by stamping. At the depth of twenty feet farther down Cesnola came upon an arched passage in the rock, four feet wide by five high, which he followed out till he reached a slab which was the door to a small chamber. He was gratified by the discovery here of objects of gold jewelry; the loose earth which was in the compartment was removed and carefully sifted. He then came to a second chamber opening into this, which led to a third and a fourth cell. In the first were found articles of gold almost exclusively; in the second, of silver; in the third, of terra-cotta, caskets, vases, and groups of statuary; and in the fourth, works in bronze. This secret depository he concluded was the hidden treasury of some unknown temple, where, as he inferred from the somewhat disorderly manner in which the objects were stowed, the priests had hastily conveyed the precious furniture of the temple upon the occasion of some Persian invasion. Each of the rooms measures about fourteen and a half feet in height, by eleven in width, and twentythree in length; there were no inscriptions nor carvings upon the walls; the pavement was of blue pebbles, bedded in sand and plaster. In the gold vault there were sifted out of the mould 550 objects, embracing diadems, bracelets, necklaces, finger-rings, signet-rings, ear-rings, armlets, etc. The second room yielded only objects of silver, very imperfectly preserved, as are all specimens of ancient silverwork, some of them so eaten through by oxidation as to be almost ready to crumble at a touch; but still constituting the largest and finest collection of antique silver in the world. Two hundred and seventy articles were taken out, some of them remarkably well preserved, but most of them in a corroded and fragmentary condition. The third room disclosed a great variety of products of the fictile art, and the bronze chamber afforded 500 specimens of bronze-work. Among the objects of historical interest in the collection is the official seal of Thothmosis III., the Egyptian king who conquered Cyprus about fourteen centuries before Christ, a finely-incised intaglio still resting on the bar which runs through its centre, with its gold mounting intact, and the movable silver handle seldom found preserved in ancient signets. Most interesting are the Babylonian cylinders of meteoric, calcedony, hematite, and carnelian, with incised inscriptions, said by Sayce and Rawlinson to refer to the dates 1600,

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