« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
excitement of the entire Slavic race, and especially of the Russian people, rose to fever-heat, and foreshadowed the enlargement of the seat of war by the active interference of Russia. As such an event was regarded as affecting generally and intensely the interests of all the nations of the civilized world, a last though unsuccessful attempt was made by the treaty powers of Europe, by an international conference, to avert a new Eastern war. To conciliate public opinion in Europe, the Government of Turkey deemed it necessary to proclaim a constitution conferring upon its inhabitants, of all races and religions, the principal rights enjoyed by the people under constitutional monarchies. The article “ Turkey” has, therefore, a prominent place in this volume, and presents an extensive account of the military operations, of the diplomatic negotiations, and of the new constitution. A special map of the seat of the war, giving most of the places mentioned, will be found a valuable aid in following the progress of the above-mentioned military operations. Another map, on the races and religions of Turkey, will greatly facilitate a just appreciation of the dangerous crisis through which that country is now passing. The attitude of the other great powers of Europe, under the new aspect of the Eastern question, is fully set forth in the articles devoted to their respective countries. The unusual state of affairs in Denmark during the year will be found to be presented in a very clear and satisfactory manner.
The international relations of the United States are presented under the title of “Diplomatic Correspondence.”
The special articles on the great religious divisions and denominations constitute, on the whole, a religious bistory of the year, probably the only one now accessible in the English language.
The advance in the branches of astronomical and chemical science, with new and valuable applications to various purposes, is extensively described. A notice has also been taken of the International Congresses of the adepts of various sciences.
The great engineering enterprises of the world in progress are fully described, and also numerous mechanical improvements.
The narrative of geographical discoveries in the different parts of the earth is very complete; also, under the title “ Earth,” we present summaries of the area and population of the large divisions of the globe, according to the latest statistical information.
Under “ Archæology” will be found very full descriptions of the discoveries of Schliemann and Cesnola.
The results of the Centennial Exhibition are presented in a summary but very complete manner.
The record of Literature and Literary Progress in the United States and in each of the countries of Europe is as important as during any preceding year.
The biographical department is very full, and embraces brief notices of deceased persons of distinction in State, Church, society, and literature; there are also notices of many living persons who were distinguished during the year.
The volume contains numerous illustrations of noted cities and places in the various countries of the world, and also steel portraits of the two leading candidates at the recent presidential election in this country.
All important documents, messages, orders, and letters from officials and others, have been inserted entire.
A ABDUL-AZIZ, Sultan of Turkey, born Feb- the national credit was to be restored, but ruary 9, 1830; died June 4, 1876. He was which, in reality, were wasted for the most the thirty-second Sultan of the Turkish Empire, trivial purposes. In 1863 he paid a visit to and the second son of Mahmoud II., the first the viceroy of Egypt, which at the time was sovereign of Turkey who weakened the fanati- looked on with suspicious eyes by the other cal spirit with which the Mussulmen opposed nations of Europe. This journey, as well as changes in her laws and her military organiza- the reception ceremonies instituted by his tion. Abdul-Aziz succeeded his brother, the mother, again consumed large amounts of Sultan Abdul-Medjid, on June 25, 1861. On money. In 1862 his armies conquered the ascending the throne he imitated the conduct Montenegrins, but the impending ruin of his of his predecessor at his accession in 1839, in- empire became all the more apparent. In the troducing some reforms, and announcing that Danubian principalities he had to acknowlhe would make many more which would put edge Prince Charles of Hohenzollern, who thus Turkey on an equality with the Christian na- converted another Turkish dependency from tions of Europe. Like Abdul-Medjid, he in- an elective into an hereditary monarchy. In herited from his father, Mahmoud, the belief spite of the dissatisfaction prevailing throughthat it would be well to modernize Turkey. out the entire empire, he undertook in 1867 His accession to the throne awakened great a journey through Europe, in the course of hopes, as it was thought that he was brave, which he visited the Paris Exhibition, and patriotic, and determined. To the great regret passed through England, Germany, and Ausof the Old Turkish party, he confirmed the tria. This journey, which had consumed a hatti-sherif of Gylhane, and the hatti-hu- large amount of money, was looked upon by a mayun of 1856, and thus' bound himself to number of enthusiasts as an event of great imthe execution of the great reforms depending portance in the history of civilization. The upon those documents. He, furthermore, prom- civilization of Europe had indeed made a deep ised to restore order in the interior, and econ- impression upon the Sultan, and he declared, omy in the finances, and in this latter measure upon his reception by the Grand-Vizier, that led the way by reducing his own civil list he would make it his chief aim to develop the $3,000,000, and by dismissing his brother's means of communication, the public credit
, and seraglio. Changes were also made among the the education of his nation." But in spite of high officers of state, none of which, however, his good intentions, and of many reforms inbetrayed a peculiar policy or a firm determi- troduced by him, the political and social connation on the part of the Sultan. He showed dition of the empire remained virtually una great fondness for the army, increased the changed. In March, 1868, a change took place number of soldiers, introduced new uniforms in the formation of the Council of State, which and armaments, thus swelling the budget very henceforth was to be the central government largely, while the actual condition of the troops for the whole empire. In opening this constiremained unchanged. In the midst of these tutional council, which was composed of thirtygreat financial difficulties, a reform of the min- four Mohammedans and sixteen Christians, he istry of finance was begun, and a commission delivered a speech in person, in which he promappointed to take charge of the public debt. ised reformatory legislation, reports on the These and other measures led to the contrac- condition of the empire, and an approach to tion of a number of loans, by means of which European civilization. In the mean time the
VOL. XVI.-1 A
continced anarchy existing in his empire, and successor had his body examined by a number the insurrection in Candia, occupied the entire of physicians, who arrived at the following attention of himself and of his ministers, and verdict : at the same time absorbed the resources of the 1. That the death of the ex-Sultan Abdul-Aziz was empire. In the year previous, giving way to caused by the hæmorrhage produced by the wounds the counsels of the other European nations, made in the blood-vessels of the bends of the arms. and in order not to be involved in difficulties
2. That the instrument shown to us could per
fectly inflict those wounds. with Servia while having the revolt in Candia 3. That the direction and nature of the injuries, as on his hands, he had withdrawn the Turkish well as the instrument which caused them, lead us garrison from the important fortress of Bel- to conclude it to be a case of suicide. grade, and had thus granted Servia complete The report was signed by the following political autonomy. In addition to this state physicians : of affairs, a confict threatened with Greece in
Dr. Marco, doctor to Abdul-Aziz Khan; Dr. Nouri, 1868, which country was aiding the rebels in Dr. Sotto, attaché of the imperial and royal emCandia. As a war against Greece would have bassy of Austria and Hungary; Dr. Spagnolo, Italbrought on new complications with the Euro- jan; Dr. Marc Markel, of the British embassy ; Dr. pean powers, the Sultan, although hating the ...de Casho, Italian; Dr. A. Marroni, of the French Greeks, and dreaming of the restoration of the Dickson,' of the British embassy; Dr. O. Vitalis, of power and the glory of his empire, permitted the Sanitary Administration; Dr. Eduard Spodaro, the difficulties to be adjusted by his ministers Italian; Dr. Nouridjan, Armenian ; Dr. Iatropoulo, at a conference of the powers in Paris. The Hellenic; Dr. Abdinour, Dr. Servet, Dr. Miltiade victory here gained by Turkish diplomacy gave
Bey, Greek; Dr. Moustapha, Dr. Mehemet. the Sultan and his government the courage A favorite scheme pursued by Abdul-Aziz, and the power to force Ismail Pasha, who in during the greater part of his reign, aimed at 1867 had been invested with the title of khe- the abolition of the law of seniority by which dive of Egypt, and who had for some time he himself had ascended the throne, to the exbeen meditating to throw off his allegiance to clusion of the sons of his brother, and for which the Sultan, to an apparent subjection, so that he desired to substitute a law similar to that in 1870 the latter came to Constantinople as if prevailing in other European states, thus giving suing for mercy. But in the visits of 1872 the throne to his oldest son in preference to which the khedive paid the Sultan, he suc- his nephew Murad Effendi, who was entitled ceeded, by making a wise use of the financial to it by the law of succession then prevailing. embarrassments of the latter, in regaining the To prepare the way for this important change, concessions made at his previous visit, and he permitted the introduction of a similar law in obtaining at the same time a new law of in Egypt; empowered his nephew Murad to succession for his house, and almost all the establish his own household by making him a prerogatives of an independent sovereign. In pasha, thus destroying the exclusiveness of the the mean while the condition in the imme- imperial harem, and finally abolished the bardiate dominions of the Sultan assumed every barous custom of killing all male children of day more threatening forms. One ministry princesses married to high officers of state. followed another at short intervals, while the On his journey through Europe, in 1867, he influence of the Russian embassador, General also endeavored by all possible means to have Ignatieff
, had become all-powerful with the his son regarded as his successor, while he kept Sultan. The state of the finances had fallen his nephews in the background. His plans, so low that the revenues barely sufficed to however, failed, and he was succeeded by bis pay the interest on the public debt. This nephew Murad. See Azam, “L'avénement was the condition of the country when in d'Abdul-Aziz ” (1861); Millingen (Osman1875 the revolt in the Herzegovina broke out, Seify-Bey), "La Turquie sous la règne d'Abwhich, originating in the refusal of a few doul-Aziz" (1868). See also MURAD V., and villages to pay still further the exorbitant tax- TURKEY. es imposed upon them, soon spread over the ABDUL-HAMID II., Sultan of Turkey, was whole province of Bosnia. Owing to the born September 22, 1842. He is the second depleted condition of the treasury, the gov- son and fourth child of Abdul-Medjid. He ernment of the Sultan was unable to meet succeeded his brother, Murad V., as Sultan it with such energy as it demanded. Abdul- of Turkey, on August 31, 1876. His life has Aziz himself appeared to be entirely unable been quiet and uneventful. His mother died to comprehend the gravity of the situation. young, and he was adopted by his father's In this emergency the softas, the theological second wife, herself childless, who is very students, demanded his abdication, and the wealthy, and has made him heir to all her council of ministers, in the name of the nation, property. During the lifetime of his father decreed his removal from the throne, pro- he, as well as his elder brother, the deposed claiming his nephew Murad V. as his succes- Murad V., led a merry life, his every wish and sor. Shortly afterward, on June 4th, he was fancy being indulged to the utmost, his educafound dead in his chambers. As rumors began tion chiefly consisting in being diverted by the to circulate that he had been assassinated at amusements and tricks devised for his enterthe instigation of the existing government, his tainment by the numerous slaves surrounding
him. His initiation into all the depravities of nama in 1873, which was, however, immeharem life was unusually early and complete; diately punished by Munzinger. This raid was but his vigorous constitution withstood the decidedly free from all political objects; it was effects of the excesses that undermined his one of those made to capture slaves and cattle, brother's health, and when he married he was and undertaken regularly every year, not only a strong, hardy lad. He accompanied his un- by the Abyssinians, but also by the Egyptian cle, Abdul-Aziz, and his brother Murad, to the troops and the Mohammedan tribe of the AlParis Exhibition in 1867. On this journey he gedes against the heathen tribe of the Kunawas continually kept in the background by his mas. Munzinger put an end to these raids by uncle, who wished to advance the interests of the Egyptian troops and the Algedes, and since his own son as heir-apparent to the throne. the defeat of the Dembelas they have also enAbdul-Hamid also acquired on this journey a tirely ceased on the part of the Abyssinians. great taste for geography, and in his kiosk on the other disturbances resulted from quarrels the Sweet Waters, which he has since inhab- between the different nomadic tribes, where it ited regularly every summer, he has a very ex was hard to tell who was right and who was tensive and comprehensive collection of maps, wrong. These quarrels deserve no attention, military, geological, and statistical, the study and were only raised to the dignity of state of which constitutes his favorite pastime. He affairs by Egyptian officials in Massowah and also contracted a fondness for European man- Keren. The statement that the Abyssinians ners and dress, and has introduced French interrupted commerce also lacked all foundacustoms and demeanor into the daily life of tion. Every day a larger or smaller number all those by whom he is intimately surround- of Abyssinian traders arrived in Massowah, ed. He inherited from his father a small while Arabians traveled unmolested through palace on the Sweet Waters, where he resided all parts of Abyssinia. Only with Amhara the with his wife and two children, a boy of six intercourse was temporarily interrupted by and a girl of three years, up to his elevation internal disturbances. There were also no to the throne, eating at the same table, and Abyssinian troops in Hamasen at any time; playing with the little ones. He is an orthodox only in Asmara, on the road from Massowah Turk, and a resolute opponent of the “Young to Adowa, a few troops were kept by the govTurkish " party-being an “Old Turk,” but ernor of the town to preserve order.-- Atter not an extreme one. He is considered a much the decisive defeat which the Egyptians susabler man, mentally and physically, than his tained at the close of 1875, the Khedive immebrother whoin he succeeded. The only symp- diately took measures to retrieve the disaster. tom of Orientalism in his own personal ap- A large army was collected in Massowah early pearance is in the fez, which he dislikes, but in January, under the command of Prince still continues to wear, because it is the neces- Hassan, the khedive's son, General Loring, sary token of his nationality. The state of and Ratib Pasha. This expedition left Masaffairs has not been changed by his accession sowah on January 10th, and toward the end to the throne. He introduced a few financial of the same month reached Goura, 50 miles reforms, but the condition of the empire re- south-southwest of Massowah, without having mains in the same precarious state as under his encountered the slightest obstacle. An inpredecessor. (See TURKEY.)
trenched camp was then established, to let the ABYSSINIA, a country of Eastern Africa; soldiers rest without exposing them to surarea about 158,000 square miles; population prise; for it was known that King John, at the variously estimated at from 3,000,000 to 4,000,- head of the armed population of Abyssinia, 000.
was moving about the provinces. According The war with Egypt continued during the to the spies, he did not wish to disperse his year. The cause for this war was stated by army in face of an invasion of the country, Egyptian authorities to be the punishment of because none of his provinces were rich enough bands of Abyssinians, who for more than three to permit him to fix himself anywhere with his years had disturbed the neighboring territory, troops. The Egyptian expedition, without proand continued their depredations in spite of all visions, remained a month in the intrenched remonstrances with King John. At the
same camp at Goura without seeing the enemy. On time all commercial intercourse with Egypt February 17th they were informed by spies was prohibited, and a small army was sta- that King John and his army would have to tioned in Hamasen for hostile purposes. Ha- pass between the intrenched camp and the demasen, the scene of all these battles, is the file of Cazachor. The Egyptian troops, then northern part of Tigré, that part of Abyssinia placed under the command of Osman Pasha, lying nearest to the Red Sea. On the north, consisted of three batteries and nine battalions. east, and west, it is surrounded by Egyptian The batteries, armed with mountain-pieces, territory.—The Abyssinians, on the other hand, and seven battalions, left the intrenched camp, claim that the war was commenced by Egypt and took up their position, six kilometres for the sole purpose of aggrandizement; that ahead, on the slope of two hills forming a valonly one incursion of any account had been ley, which, prolonging itself beyond them, bemide by Abyssinians into Egyptian territory comes a plain of some miles in extent. The during the year, that of the Dombelas to Ku- bed of a dried-up stream passes at the bottom
of this valley, and extends across the plain, head of his army, facing the plain and the cutting it in two. The Egyptians occupied Abyssinians. From time to time the latter both sides of this bed, and distributed them- attempted to break them, and each time they selves from the banks to about the middle of were repulsed by the Egyptian artillery, and the heights. Facing them, at the extremity already the khedive's troops were shouting of the plain, they could see the Abyssinian victory, when the most horrible of surprises army, which seemed to intend advancing to changed their shout of triumph into cries of force the defile occupied by the Egyptians. despair. While the mass of the Abyssinian Osman Pasha established his batteries at the army was pretending to wish to force the de
file, this was simply a ruse of war. Behind lowing day, while the intrenched camp, reduced them soldiers had entered the dried-up bed of in number to 2,000, was fortifying, the enemy the stream; crawling along the ground, they did not appear. The day after that they were got round the hills on which the Egyptian seen in the distance, but disappeared before troops were massed. These hills they ascended the firing with which they were received. On from the opposite side, and then, once arrived the 19th they made an assault, but were reat the summit
, by thousands, men and women, pulsed. A cannon-ball passed close to King soldiers on foot and on horseback, from behind John; he was thrown from his horse, and the rocks, trees, and hollows, rushed down with assault was interrupted. On the fourth day furious cries on the rear flanks of the Egyptians. the Egyptians succeeded in projecting explosive Dreadful confusion ensued. The Egyptians balls into the Abyssinian camp. This caused made no attempt at resistance. Driven on great terror, and the day after a messenger both sides, they rushed into the dry channel; arrived from King John. “It was time,” he panic seized them; the artillerymen abandoned said, “to put an end to this struggle. He their pieces in the van, and added to the con- was ready to make honorable concessions and fusion. The bulk of the Abyssinian army to come to a humane arrangement.” They crossed the valley and engaged with the sole required him to consent to a rectification of diers of the Nile. They fought hand to hand. their frontiers, and to return the prisoners, Hassan Pasha, with heroic efforts, then suc- and arms; in fact, to act as if he had been deceeded in gathering around him some of the feated. The Abyssinians on the other hand deofficers, with 500 or 600 soldiers, who, together manded the cession of Massowah. As this virforming a compact body, fought their way tually implied the complete abandonment of through the Abyssinians to the intrenched Hamasen, which the Egyptians claimed becamp. Of the seven battalions and three bat- longed to them, the demand was refused, and teries this was all that survived. Rachid Bey, all available troops were sent to Massowah. Giebri Bey, Colonel Deye, and many other In the mean while an Abyssinian chief, Walda foreign and Egyptian officers, remained dead Michael, revolted against King John, incited, or wounded on the field of battle. The fol- as it was supposed, by the Egyptians. On Au