Gambar halaman


dian-Office made an interesting exhibit of In- which reflected great credit upon American indian curiosities, and of the Indian policy of the genuity. The Engineer Corps displayed all the Government. There were also exhibits of the methods and apparatus used in harbor improveEducation Office, the Census-Office, and the Ge- ments, and the engineering operations conological and Geographical Survey of the Terri- nected with the military service, with all the tories. The Smithsonian Institution exhibited a mechanical apparatus employed. There was very extensive and complete collection to illus- also a full display of military ordnance, with an trate the animal resources of the United States. historical collection of weapons, and plans of Besides a comprehensive display of the land forts and arsenals, models illustrating the manand water fauna, there was also a full collec- ufacture of arms, and all the belongings of the tion of hunting and fishing implements, includ- service. Separate buildings connected with ing those used by the Indians, and a very in- the Government display were the ordnance teresting, chronological exhibit of fire-arms. laboratory, showing the manufacture of carThe modes of utilizing animals for food and tridges and dangerous explosive ammunition; other purposes were also exhibited. Supple- a post hospital with all its furniture and chimentary to tliis exhibit was the collection to rurgical instruments and medical supplies; the illustrate the fishery resources of the United building containing a siren or fog signal-horn; States, comprising casts of all the inhabitants and a model of a lighthouse with lamps and of American waters, angling tackle of every fog-bell complete. description, fishing-boats, whaling-implements, etc. There were other collections to illustraté the ethnology and the mineral resources of the United States. The Treasury Department exhibited the workings of the revenue systein, the processes of engraving and printing paper currency, etc. The Coast Survey had an exhibit. The Lighthouse Board exhibited specimens of the different lights and methods of tending them, including a wonderfully brilliant rotary lantern, stationary parabolic reflectors, floating lamps, etc. The Navy Department made an extensive exhibit, embracing the ordnance used in the service, with the means of The Horticultural Hall, built of iron and handling, inspecting, and repairing the differ- glass, in the Moorish style of the twelfth cenent kinds of torpedoes, the publications of this tury, was erected at the cost of the city, and branch of the service, and an historical display designed to remain permanently. It is 383 of the uniforms of the navy; besides two ma- feet long by 193 feet wide, with an altitude in rine engines, one of 800-horse power, a com- its central part of 72 feet. It overlooks the pound screw-engine, and a back-acting conden- Schuylkill River, and is approached by ornasing engine of 500-horse power. The Navigation mental terraces and broad stairways. The Branch exhibited specimens of flags and bunt. central lantern is 170 feet long. Side-poring, different kinds of logs, and sounding and tions, with curved glazed roofs, were used as signaling apparatus, mathematical instruments, forcing-houses. The central portion was filled

The Naval Observatory made an exhibit with splendid specimens of tropical vegetaof its operations and the instruments employed, tion, with sago, date, and cocoa palms, orange and of a collection of relics of the different and lemon trees, the fan-palm, the guava, camarctic expeditions. The Hydrographic and phor and India-rubber trees, the eucalyptus of Nautical Almanac Offices exhibited charts and antiseptic properties, the mahogany-tree, badocuments. The Yard and Dock Branch ex- nanas, and all varieties of the cactus. In the hibited plans of all the navy-yards, machinery, side-portions were an immense collection of buildings, etc. The Equipment and Recruit- tree-ferns, rare flowering plants from Enging, Construction and Repair, Medical and land, azalias from Belgium, pitcher-plants of Surgical, and Pay, Provision, and Clothing the South Sea Islands, the flamingo-plant, etc. Branches also exhibited their methods and Around the Horticultural Building about 25 equipments. The exhibit of the War Depart. acres were laid out in beds and terraces, and ment was also extensive, illustrating every planted with all kinds of hardy flowering branch of the service. The Signal Service ex- plants, indigenous and foreign. The Pacific hibited all its appliances in operation, a weath- Guano Company, of Boston, exhibited the exer-station fully equipped, with a full corps of ob- traordinary properties of their fertilizer in a servers, and recording, telegraphic, and print- luxuriant plantation. One of the finest feating apparatus. The self-acting electric barome- ures of the horticultural display was the colter or barograph, Hough's thermograph, the lection of rhododendrons from the Knapp Hill marine barometer, Eccard's evapograph, Gib- Nurseries, in England. All kinds of gardenbon's electrical rain and snow gauge, Eccard's ers' tools, and the different methods of culture rain-gauge, and Gibbon's anemograph, and the and styles of landscape-gardening, were inmilitary signal apparatus, formed a collection cluded in the horticultural exhibition.

The Agricultural Building was less solidly ter State exhibiting, also, a collection of benebuilt of wood and glass, containing a nave and ficial birds ; Iowa had a large display of farmthree transepts, roofed with Gothic arches, the productions, together with a collection of pave being 820 feet long and 75 feet high, and fruits, and specimens of her soils; Nevada exthe side-transepts 70 feet high, while the central hibited her minerals. The wine-growers of one had the same height as the nave. The California, Obio, Missouri, and New York, ground covered was rectangular in form, 10 made a promising show of native wines. The acres in area, having a breadth of 540 and a starch, four, spice, gelatine, baking powder, length of 820 feet. The display of agricult- mustard, chocolate, macaroni, and farina oral implements and products was the largest manufacturers had competitive exhibits of ever made, and it was specially by this depart- their productions. An exhibit of Southern ment that the Exhibition was distinguished moss, for upholstering purposes, came from from the other World's Fairs. The Americans, New Orleans. An apparatus for hatching standing far in advance of all the rest of the chickens attracted attention. Distillers and world in the application of mechanics to agri- perfumers, hop-growers and maltsters, manuculture, exhibited proudly the finest products facturers of condensed milk and meat extracts, of their skill. Ploughs of the latest approved and canners of fruits, fish, meats, fowls, soups, patterns, drills, seed-planters, horse-rakes, hay shell-fish, vegetables, etc., were represented by loading and baling machines, mowers and har varied displays. The exhibit of tobaccos, in

the leaf and manufactured, was very large, all the principal manufacturers taking part.

The British exhibit in Agricultural Hall was imperfect, though containing some interesting classes, eminently the pickles, preserves, sauces, and extracts, including caffeine and theine ; apiary furniture, a comprehensive exhibit of wools from all countries, ales, Irish whiskey and oatmeal, patent condensed tea and

coffee, with milk; and, among the implements, AGRICULTURAL HALL.

portable engines and road locomotives, and a

curious apparatus for suckling calves, lambs, vesters of a hundred styles, thrashing machin- and pigs. ery for borse and steam power, winnowing and Canada made an extensive display of agriwheat-cleaning machinery, portable steam-en- cultural products, her grains, roots, beans, peas, gines, corn-shellers, various devices for bind- flour, and an exhibit of wool of remarkable ing sheaves, lawn-clippers, steam road-rollers, length and fineness. There were also considmechanical churns, cider-mills, iron-work for erable displays of prepared foods, stuffed anifarms and stables, a machine for making horse- mals, and ingenious agricultural machinery, inshoes, a self-loading excavator, windmills, and cluding a turnip-drill, snow-ploughs, and other machinery for butchers and meat-packers, were novelties. prominent among the multiform contrivances The most prominent and interesting group which the immense discrepancy between the in the French section was that of the wines. extent of tillable ground and the available la- Other attractive displays were the seeds and bor in this country has prompted the quick photographed flowers and vegetables, Strasburg brains of our ingenious men to invent. The pies, and other fine preparations of food, chocodisplay of the land-products and food-manu- late, cheese, etc., tanned leather, silk-cocoons, factures of the United States was very large, artificial manures, cements, hydraulic lime, and and, to most people, exceedingly interesting. artificial stone. Several of the States made collective exhib The Germans exhibited their wines and its. Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wiscon- liquors, essences and extracts, beers, tobacco, sin, exhibited splendid specimens of grain ; and some fine wool from Silesia. The general Oregon exhibited grain, commercial woods, agricultural productions of the country were and dried fruits, among them the curious not exhibited in any way. dried cider and solidified apple-sauce; New The Austro-Hungarian display included Hampshire sent fine samples of wool

, and raisins and dried fruits, beer, and mustards, specimens of her native woods; Massachu- from Bohemia ; excellent wine, wool, flax, and setts exhibited the products of her fisheries, hemp, from Hungary ; with fruits, nuts, and and the methods of capture and packing; Cali- grains, from different parts of the empire; canfornia exhibited her woods, birds, and agri- died fruits put up in Vienna, leather from cultural products, and a case of live silk- Austria and Bohemia, etc. Forms; the Cotton Exchange of New Or Italy exhibited hemp, leather, Piedmontese leans exhibited bales and samples of cotton; rice, oil, wine, sardines, fine soap, honey, grains, New Jersey and Delaware, Ohio, Nebraska, beans, nuts, and cordials ; sausages and cured and Wasliington Territory, made collective ex- meats from Bologna, Parmesan and Gorgonhibits of agricultural products ; Connecticut zola cheese from Milan, macaroni and dried and Massachusetts made like displays, the lat- fruits from Naples and Sicily, and oranges,



lemons, olives, figs, essential oils, and licorice exhibited a national school-house, with all the from Sicily, confections from Turin, etc. educational appliances and furniture complete.

Spain made a fine and systematic exhibition France had a Government building containing of her products, native and colonial. The col- charts, drawings, and models of public works. lection of wines, fine wools, oil, skins, and Cor- Canada displayed her wood and lumber prodovan leather, and all the agricultural produc- ductions in a log and timber house, constructed vions of the peninsula, varied with the products from the products of her forests. Spain also of Spanish America and the Philippine Islands, erected a Government exhibition building, a great logs of mahogany and rosewood, festoons soldiers' barracks, and a Cuban acclimation of tobacco and cases of cigars, chocolates, Ma- garden. Turkey illustrated her sponge-fishernila hemp and cordage, and gums and resins, ies in a special building. Japan exhibited a formed a well-arranged and pleasing exhibit. model dwelling. Morocco had a Moorish villa

The Portuguese exhibit was scarcely less for the display and sale of her productions. A extensive and attractive, including her gen- frame building erected by Chili contained moderous wines, olives, oils, silk-cocoons, fruits, els of amalgamating machines. England had spices, and many other products.

a boiler-house, and Sweden exhibited also a Belgium had a small exhibit of chiccory, meteorograph. Three private French exhibitchocolate, cordials, fine leathers, flax, wool, ors erected special buildings. and millstones.

In a Turkish café, of true Oriental type, an The Netherlands exhibited seeds, grains, attractive Moresque pavilion, were dispensed plants, dye - woods, photographs of cattle, mocha, mastic, Samian wine, and Syrian tobacEdam cheese, flax, tobacco, liquors, beet-su A Tunisian bazaar and Algerine pavilion gar, a flour which does not spoil, chocolate, were less genuine speculative enterprises. Japfishing-implements, etc.

anese merchants had erected one of the most Norway exhibited leather, spirits, tobacco, tasteful structures on the grounds, much reessences, canned meats and fish, fishing-imple- marked as an example of Japanese architecture ments, and various sorts of preserved fish, and joinery, surrounded by a little garden stuffed birds, etc.

planted with curious specimens of their native Sweden made a similar exhibit of her fisher- vegetation, amid which were scattered quaint ies, and interesting displays of leather, woods, bronze figures of cranes and pigs : in this buildand grain, and one of dairy-utensils.

ing a vast quantity of Japanese products and Denmark had a small exhibit, embracing manufactures were sold by the brisk native punch, spirits, grain, pickles, fish, etc.

salesmen among the crowds which thronged Russia sent fine specimens of grain and hemp, the shop during the whole time of the Exhibiliquors, and food-preparations.

tion. A New England farmer's home and Japan made an interesting and curious ex- kitchen, designed to present in contrast the hibit of fishing and agricultural implements, furniture, domestic appliances, and mode of silk-cocoons, skins, tea, tobaceo, sauces, and living in a Yankee dwelling a hundred years all her native agricultural products and woods. ago and those of the present day, was fitted

Brazil had an extensive exhibit, in which out with many interesting relics in the ancient the principal classes were cotton, coffee, woods part of the double structure, and was eagerly of over one thousand varieties, sugar, tobacco, and curiously visited. rubber, beans, vegetable fibres, silk-cocoons, Twenty-six buildings were erected by the gums and resins, cocoa, rice, and starch. States as State headquarters, two or three of

Venezuela exhibited her coffees, oils, bal- them containing large exhibitions of State prodsams, rum and Angostura bitters, cochineal, ucts. The Ohio headquarters, constructed of and other tropical products.

all the varieties of building-stone quarried in The Argentine Confederation also made a the State, was solidly built after a neat design. large and interesting exhibit of woods, grains, New Jersey's building exhibited her brick and tobacco, skins, leather, silk, gums, barks, sugar, tiling products. The Mississippi headquarcoffee, chocolate, honey, etc.

ters was in the rustic style of her early setLiberia took part in the agricultural exhibi- tlers' cabins. The Connecticut building was tion, sending coffee of good quality, a newly- neatly designed in the English style of archiintroduced product in that country, with palm- tecture used in colonial days. Pennsylvania soap and palın-oil, arrow-root, indigo, ivory, erected a building for her educational exhibit, sugar, eto.

besides the State headquarters: it was perhaps A wagon annex to the Agricultural Build- the most complete educational exhibit made by ing contained a collection of farm wagons and any State. The other State buildings were those carts, milk-carts, ice and bakers' wagons, etc., of New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, New of American make.

Hampshire, Massachusetts, Virginia, West VirGreat Britain erected three buildings for the ginia (whose building contained an exhibit of use and entertainment of the commissioners; the vegetable and mineral products of the and Germany, Portugal, and Brazil, each had a State, her woods, ores, coal, tobacco, marls, commissioners' pavilion. The British build- mineral manufactures, etc.), Maryland, Delaings were beautiful examples of the later Tu- ware, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missoudor architecture. The Swedish Government ri, Tennessee, Wisconsin, and Arkansas (whose

headquarters likewise contained a collection duplex pumping-engines, which raised about of State products, including fine specimens of 2,000,000 gallons of water per day of twentycotton). Kansas and Colorado united in a very four hours to an average height of 200 feet, full exhibition of their extraordinary agricult- furnishing the water supply for the Exhibition. ural and mineral products, in a large frame The Shoe and Leather Building, erected by the structure: there were wheat-stalks from five shoe and leather trade, was a large and busy to six and a half feet high, with heads three to hall, in which all the processes connected with six inches long; corn thirteen and a half feet the leather-manufacture in all its branches high ; broom-corn over eighteen feet high ; were carried on in their fullest details, and rye and oats as luxuriant as the wheat; clover all the latest and most perfect mechanisms infour and five feet high ; blue-grass of over vented for the manufacture of shoes and other three feet growth; and fourteen different va- leather goods were seen in operation. The rieties of wild-grass, including the blue-stem Brewers' Industrial Exhibition Building illusprairie-grass, over ten feet high: there was trated quite as completely all the processes of also a fine display of the native woods of Kan- malting and brewing. A butter and cheese sas, one of the animals of both States, and a factory showed the processes and mechanical large exhibit of the gold-quartz, silver-ore, and appliances used in that industry. In the Campother mineral resources of Colorado. Califor- bell Printing-Press Building all the printing nia and Nevada also had a joint pavilion, con- for the Exhibition was done, and numerous taining an exhibit of their agricultural, forest, specialties in presses were exhibited. The faand mineral products.

mous Cook, of London, set up a pavilion in Thirty or more buildings were erected by which excursion-tickets to all parts of the private American exhibitors, some of them il- world were procurable. The process of drivlastrating processes and manufactures of great ing piles by gunpowder, and the automatic interest. The Telegraphic Building showed the railroad for unloading vessels, invented by practice of telegraphy and the appliances em- Charles W. Hunt, of New York, were exhibited ployed. The Empire Transportation Company in special buildings. The Starr Iron Works, of showed the methods used in oil transportation Camden, had a large exhibit, comprising several and grain transportation by the fast-freight novelties in gas-machines and steam-engines. system. The Bankers' Building exhibited the The Exhibition was open to visitors every forms and uses of coin and currency. The day, except Sundays, from May 10th to No. American Kindergarten and Froebel Kinder- vember 10th, six months. The total number garten illustrated that system of infantile in- of admissions was 9,910,966; of which numstraction, and exhibited the models and appa- ber 7,250,620 paid the regular fee of 50 cents, ratus employed. The Bible Society had a pa- and 753,654 the special rate of 25 cents; 1,906,vilion for the exhibition and sale of Bibles. An 692 admissions were free, representing the other building exhibited the processes of man- number of exhibitors', officers', and employés' ufacturing glass-ware. Others contained ex. tickets and complimentary passes to members hibits of stoves, glass, fusee-matches, chemical of the press and others, used during the Fair. paints, printing-presses, organs, water-proof The total admissions for the different months roofing, hollow-brick ventilated house-con- were as follows: May, 502,995; June, 952,struction, pressed fuel, sheet-metal, Singer's 177; July, 906,447; August, 1,175,314; Sepsewing-machines, burial-caskets, perforated tember, 2,439,689 ; October, 2,663,911; Nometallic window-shutters, and rubber roofing; vember, 1,037,840. and others exhibited the processes of baling These numbers include the admissions to the hay, of making tea and coffee extracts, and stock exhibition, which was contained in a sepof raising water by wind-power. An apiary arate inclosure. It consisted of about 20 acres, contained many varieties of bees and biving in which, for some weeks toward the close of apparatus. The newspaper-advertisement bu- the Exhibition, a large collection of farmreaus exhibited the current journals of the stock-sheep, goats, swine, and horned cattle, country and files of old papers. Henry R. horses and dogs, for the most part from the Worthington, of Brooklyn, exhibited 'two United States and Canada—was exhibited.


FENYES, ALEXIUS, an Hungarian geogra- pied a very prominent and respected position, pher and statistician, was born July 7, 1807, at becoming Director of the Society of ProtecCsokalj; died at New Pesth, July 23, 1876. tion and Industry, President of the Radical After studying at Debreczin, Grosswardein, and Club, President of the Society of AgricultPresburg, he became a lawyer in 1829, and in ure, and editor of the Ismerto, a journal of the following year was sent as a deputy to the agriculture, and of an industrial journal. His Hangarian Diet. He subsequently spent sev- first great work, “The Present Condition of eral years in traveling, and in 1836 took up Hungary and its Dependencies in a Geographihis permanent abode in Pesth. Here he occu- cal and Statistical Point of View” (Pesth,

1836-39, 6 vols.), was crowned with a prize Parliament every year, where he was known by the Hungarian Academy. The same dis- as a brilliant orator. In politics he was a detinction he received for his "Statistics of cided federalist, opposing the policy of anHungary” (Pesth, 1842–49, 3 vols.), which nexation of Count Oavour. Besides the works simultaneously appeared in a German edition, mentioned above, he wrote “La Chine et l'Euand for his “General Hand and School Atlas” rope, et leur Histoire et leurs Traditions com(1845), all of which works were published in parées ” (1867), - Storia della Rivoluzione the Magyar language. Subsequently he pub- d'Italia" (3 vols., 1871–73), and “Teoría dei lished, under the title "Description of Hun- Periodi politici” (1874). gary" (Pesth, 1847, 2 vols.), an abridgment of FINANCES OF THE UNITED STATES. his larger statistical works. In 1837 Fenyes The financial affairs of the country continbecame a member of the Hungarian Academy, ued through the year 1876 without change. in 1848 chief of the statistical section in the There was not only a lack of any improveHungarian Ministry of the Interior, and 1839 ment, but the effects of the general stagnation President of the Military Court of Pesth. In began to manifest themselves in quarters least consequence of his moderate attitude during anticipated. Wherever there was a large inthe Hungarian Revolution, after its suppression debtedness requiring the payment of heavy in. he was not persecuted by the Austrian Gov. stallments of interest which were to be derived ernment. After that time he lived partly in from income earned, embarrassment or insolPesth, and partly in his villa in Gödöllő, de-' vency generally ensued. voting his whole time to the compilation of a In the annual report of the Secretary of the geographical dictionary.

Treasury, made December, 1875, there were FERRARI, GIUSEPPE, an Italian philosophi- presented a statement of the receipts and excal writer, born in 1812 at Milan ; died there, penditures of the Government for the first on July 2, 1876. He studied in Pavia, and then quarter of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, as the heir of a large fortune devoted himself and an estimate of the same for the remaining entirely to his studies. He began his career three-quarters of the fiscal year. as an author with an essay on his teacher Ro The receipts of the first quarter above menmagnosi in the “ Biblioteca Italiana,” and with tioned, ending on September 30, 1875, which an edition of the complete works of Vico, is the first quarter of the fiscal year ending which he accompanied with an explanatory June 30, 1876, were as follows: volume. Owing to the reactionary state of Italy, he went to France, and after that pub- Internal revenue.


$44,283,626 25

28, 199,723 50 lished most of his works in French. Among Sales of public lands.

308, 641 78 his works of this period are “ Vico et l'Italie »

Tax on circulation, etc., of national banks.. 8,626,083 89 (1839), “De l’Erreur" (1840), and “De Reli- Customs fines, etc...

Repayment of interest by Pacific Railways, 262,202 87

28,521 75 giosis Campanellæ Opinionibus” (1840). In Consular, patent, and other fees.

510,497 19

104,278 63 1840 he was appointed Professor of Philosophy Proceeds of sales of Government property..

1,722,408 90 in the University of Strasburg, but was removed after a fortnight, as his

opponents had Preiniums on sales of coin..
Net ordinary receipts..

$78,995,869 67

2,160,275 47 succeeded in representing his teachings as communistic. The lectures that gave rise to Balance in Treasury, June 80, 1875.

Total net ordinary receipts...

$$1.156,145 14 these charges he published under the title of

144,702,416 41 “Idées sur la Politique de Platon et d'Aris Total available....

$225,858,561 65 tote" (1842). He also received appointments in other universities of France, but everywhere The expenditures during the same period for a short time only, as his liberal ideas made were as follows: him obnoxious. One of his most important Civil and miscellaneous expenses, including works appeared at this time, “Essai sur le public buildings, lighthouses, and collectPrincipe et les Limites de la Philosophie de ing the revenues...

$18.673,072 68 l'Histoire" (1843). In 1848 he returned to Pensions..

2.660,474 38

8,845,927 64 Milan, but he was soon forced to leave again Military establishment, including fortificafor France. There he wrote “Machiavel, Juge

tions, river and harbor improvements, and

arsenals. des Révolutions de notre Temps," and "Les Naval establishment, including vessels and

11,891,476 26 Philosophes salariés" (1849), and 'his most im machinery, and improvements at navyportant work as characterizing his own po, Interest on the public debt, including Pacific


7,959,087 99 Îitical views, “ Filosofia della Rivoluzione” Railway bonds

84,517,554 81 (1851; second editition, 1873). His political

Total ordinary expenditures.. views he laid down in “La Federazione republi- Redemption of the public debt..

$84,047,543 76

6,888 999 66 cana” (1859). After the War of 1859 he again Balance in Treasury, September 30, 1878.... 184,972,018 13 returned to Italy, and was elected by his native Total......

$225,858,561 55 town a deputy to the Italian Parliament. From this time on he remained in Italy, with the For the remaining three-quarters of the exception of a short period in 1860, when he same fiscal year, ending June 30, 1876, it was went to Paris to have his work “ Histoire de estimated that the receipts would be as folla Raison d'État” printed. He was reëlected to lows:


« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »