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feet wide and 18 inches deep, and, when cellent representation of modern English art. opened, taking up an horizontal space, 6 by 7 The American exhibition bore an equally hisfeet
, and affording accommodations for half a torical character, containing good examples dozen persons. Mrs. Mountain's life preserv- of all of our early painters. ing mattress has been adopted for general use There were in the American section portraits as a supplementary life-saving appliance by the and historical paintings by Gilbert Stuart, Cop['nited States Supervising Inspectors of Steam- ley, Washington Allston, Rembrandt Peale, boats. Mrs. Coston's telegrapbic night-signals, Waldo, Thomas Hicks, Wilson Peale the elder, an invention which originated with that lady's Colonel John Trumbull
, Prof. Morse, Smibert, husband, but which was practically perfected and Stewart Newton; and, in the modern porby her after the death of Mr. Coston, have tion, paintings by Boughton, Colman, Gray, been introduced into the United States Navy, Suydam, Irving, Hubbard, Wood, Loop, La and have found great popular approval. The Farge, Hamilton, Edward and Thomas Moran, Women's Pavilion was enlivened by the spec- Eastman Johnson, De Haas, Cropsey, Whitttacle of ladies engaged in weaving, candy- redge, Gifford, Kensett, Charles N. Miller, making, and other manufacturing processes. Healey, Huntington, Rosenthal, Thomas Hill
, The power was supplied by an engine managed Prof. Weir, Smilie, Bierstadt, Sonntag, Bridgeby a lady engineer, Miss Allison.
man, Charles Elliot, Harry Fenn, Winslow HoThe Art Building, which was called Memorial mer, Inman, Kendrick, Page, T. B. Thorpe, TifHall, was intended as a permanent monument fany, Jerome Thompson, and others of the bestand gallery of art. It occupies a commanding known artists. A large and striking painting
by Rothermel was only introduced after some opposition, on account of the subject, which was the battle of Gettysburg. Among the American statuary were pieces by Story, Margaret Foley, P. F. Conelly, Preston Powers, Palmer, Rogers, and Haseltine.
Io the English collections the most noteworthy works were Gainsborough's portrait of the Duchess of Richmond, a small scene of country - life by Constable, Sir Joshua Reynolds's portrait by him
self, two Wilkies, examMEMORIAL HALL.
ples of Turner, Calde
ron, Maclise, C. R. Lessite on the Lansdowne Plateau, 116 feet above lie, Mulready, Stanfield, Calcott, Creswick, Benthe river. It was built after a noble design in jamin West
, a painting by Fuseli, Sir James the modern Renaissance style, with a central Barry's "Temptation in Paradise," portraits tower rising 150 feet above the ground, sur- by Sir Thomas Lawrence and Opie, five small mounted by a great bell, on which stands a Landseers, and Frith's two most famous procolossal statue of America, and at the four cor- ductions; and among the more recent artists ners of whose base are four colossal figures of were represented Leighton, Alma Tadema, Milsmaller proportions representing the four quar- lais, Prinsep, Faed, Orchardson, George Leslie, ters of the globe. The building is 365 feet in Holman Hunt, Saut, Fildes, Cope, John Gilbert, length by 210 in width, and 59 in height. Its Louis Haghe, Knowles, Armitage, Crott, Northfloor is 12 feet above the ground, with broad cote, and Arthur Hughes. The only statues of stone stairways leading to it. The material is note in the English department were Gibgranite, with glass and iron. Connected with son's" Venus” and Chantrey's portrait of Benthe central portion by arcades at each end are jamin West. two pavilions parallel with it, with abutting, The French department contained hardly tower-like extremities.
a single painting of value, and not a name The art exhibition consisted for the greater of the first eminence. Rizpah protecting part of works of inferior merit. This was her Sons from the Vultures," by George Becknotably the case with the French, German, er
, was the most striking picture; other paintand Belgian exhibits. The English section, on ings which showed some imagination and the contrary, was a carefully-selected and ex- technical handling were Prion's “ School for
VOL. XVI.—18 A
Young Satyrs," a figure-piece by Sain, Cle- and ointment-boxes, combs, scrapers, etc., all ment's “Death of Cæsar," and several paint. elaborately ornamented, like the caskets. The ings from the nude. Some fine Gobelin tapes- Etruscan jewelry included ornaments in cutry and Sèvres porcelain were exhibited here. pulated and uncupulated gold, bronze, silver,
'The German exhibit was still more barren amber, glass, and precious stones. Some of and insignificant than the French. The best them belong to the earliest and rudest period pictures were an historical piece by Schrader of Tyrrhenian art, while many of them are inand one by Folingsby of Munich, portraits by comparably fine in their artistic taste and deliRichter and Begas, a sea-piece by Achenbach, cacy of finish. The engraved gems comprised genre paintings by Boser and Meyer von Bre- 270 specimens illustrating the entire history men, and a landscape by Wilberg.
of ancient glyptic art, and including some of Austria, however, sent specimens of her best the most famous examples extant. The rings art-productions, including one of the master numbered 350 articles, many of them of rare pieces of Makart, her most famous painter, types, while the collection in its completeness
Catarina Cornaro receiving the Homage of possesses great historical worth. Venice," a work of surpassing power and The art-collection embraced interesting prodbeauty; some good landscapes by Russ, Thoren, ucts of the engraver's art, decorative work in Lichtenfels, and Schaeffer; a piece of flesh- all kinds of material, good collections of waterpainting by Felix, and other paintings strong colors, particularly in the English and Ameriin color and conscientiously executed.
can departments, architects' designs, and ornaSpain sent one or two old masters and a mental devices for all purposes, and every vagood number of fairly-done modern paintings, riety of art-workmanship. showing the characteristics of the Spanish In' a photographic annex many of the best school in color and treatment.
photographers combined to make up a large Sweden also exhibited some fair work, strong- and fine exhibition. Several new processes ly tinctured with the German manner.
and styles of finish were shown. Norway sent some coast-scenes of moderate Next in size to the Main Building was the merit.
Machinery Hall, 1,402 feet long by 360 wide, The Netherlands made a considerable dis- covering with its' annex, 208 by 210 feet, an play of paintings, many of them carefully area of 12.82 acres, with about 14 acres of exexecuted, but none of them marked with any hibition-space. It was constructed of wood decided qualities.
with iron ties and struts in the roof trusses, Belgium, besides a very unsatisfactory dis- upon piers of solid masonry. The architectplay of mediocre paintings, exhibited some ural effect was plain, but it was an excellent good art-work on brass and faience, and some, structure for the purpose intended. Steam fine statuary.
and water power and shafting were provided Italy exhibited a number of insignificant by the Commission. Next the building was an paintings, and a large collection of marbles by annex intended for hydraulic machinery, conher best artists, mostly genre subjects, handled taining a water-tank with 10 feet of water, 60 with spirit and great technical knowledge in feet broad and 160 long. The double-acting many cases, and in a manner unfamiliar in this duplex vertical engine which furnished the country, which is more accustomed to the power for driving the machinery in Machinery earlier classical school.
Hall was erected and exhibited by George H. The Italian section contained also the note- Corliss, of Providence. The cylinders were 44 worthy collection of antiquities made by Ales- inches in diameter and 10 feet stroke, and it sandro Castellani, of Rome. This important was rated at 1,400-horse power. The gearcollection consists of marble statuary of Greek wheel, 30 feet in diameter, 24 inches face, and and Roman workmanship, artistic bronze uten- weighing 56 tons, making 36 revolutions per sils of Etruscan production, a large collection minute, had 216 teeth cut by special machinery of ancient jewelry, many wonderfully fine en- also exhibited by Mr. Corliss. "The crank-shaft graved gems, a collection of rings dating from was made of hammered iron. The cranks the earliest Tuscan period to the end of the weighed over 5 tons each. The beams were 9 sixteenth century, and one of the finest collec- feet wide in the centre, 27 feet long, and tions of early majolica ever got together. The weighed each 11 tons. The connecting-rods statues were seventeen portraits and busts were made of worn-out horseshoes, the best from the imperial epoch, à colossal Dionysius material. The piston-rods were of steel. The or Indian Bacchus, being a repetition of the weight of the entire machine was about 700 piece in the Vatican called the "Sardanapalus,” tons. a comic mask of Hercules, a mask of Bacchus, In Machinery Hall a conspicuous exhibit was and an exceedingly realistic treatment of the the sewing-machines, all the American houses subject of the boy with a thorn, the position taking part, together with French, English, being the same as that of the Spinario in Canadian, German, Russian, and Belgian makFlorence. The collection of bronzes included ers. The chief novelties were: a universal twelve of the caskets found in the ruins of feed-apparatus for embroidering, from France, Præneste, one of them containing all its fit- by which the cloth can be turned in any directings of mirrors and mirror - cases, oil-flasks tion without touching it; an automatic em
broiderer, of American device, for about a six-roller stop-cylinder, roller-drum, and perdozen special patterns; a machine with two fecting presses exhibited by Cottrell & Babneedles, capable of sewing or embroidering cock, of New York, with 0. E. Johnson's autowith different colored threads at the same matic paper-feeder ; and the various kinds of time; and the machines which sew from spools amateur hand-presses. A curiosity in this disdirectly, without requiring the thread to be play, which was much larger than that at reeled off. Ingenious knitting-machines were Vienna, was the original press used by Benjaalso exhibited. There was likewise a curious min Franklin. M. Alisoff, a Russian inventor, machine for engraving patterns for lace and exhibited an admirable type-writer, which ex
cels all other contrivances of its kind, in the variety of characters that can be used and in the neatness of the impression, and the mechanical adjustment, but does not admit of the rapidity of the American machines exhibited. The same inventor exhibited a rapid and ready process for photo-lithographing music. The process of setting up music-types was shown in the American department. A variety of American machines for paper - cutting,
book-binding, copperplate printing, lithMACHINERY HALL.
ographic printing, electrotyping and
stereotyping, and type - founding, was embroidery. In the Singer exhibit, which was shown. Howell & Brothers, of Philadelphia, contained in a separate building, the wax- exhibited a large machine for stamping paperthread lock-stitch, button-hole, and book-bind- hangings. Other manufacturing processes ilers' machines, and one capable of making 30,000 lustrated were those of cracker and candy different kinds of stitches, were among the nov- making by machinery; of envelope-making elties shown. Among the interesting manu- by an automatic machine, which cuts, folds, facturing processes was that of paper-making, and counts the envelopes at the rate of 120 the operation by the mechanical method being per minute; of envelope - printing, of glass shown in all its successive stages. The process cutting and engraving, of making paper collars of making rubber shoes was also exhibited. and of drying the stock by machinery, of brickMost interesting too was the exhibition of making by a machine which turns out ready for watch - making by the Waltham Company. baking 40,000 per diem, of paper-box making Numerous weaving processes were exhibited; by machinery, of cork-cutting, of cutting tacks several power-looms were kept at work weav- with the Weaver machines, which make 400 ing carpets, ingrain and Brussels; the opera- tacks per minute, and can produce 2,500 differtions of cloth, cotton, and silk mills were also ent sorts; of nail-cutting by an entirely autoillustrated by several different exhibitors; and matic machine, etc. A gang of Virginian ne
Jacquard loom, a corset-weaving loom, a groes showed the old-fashioned process of workjate loom, a Murkland carpet-loom, a suspend- ing up tobacco for the market. There were er-weaving loom, and the Lyall positive-motion butchers', bakers', and millers' machines; coffee loom, were seen in operation. Other mech- and spice grinding machines; French burr-millanisms used in texile industries were: the stones and meat-cleaning machines; washing, powerful and huge direct-acting steam and wringing, and mangling machines for hand and hydraulic cotton-press from the Taylor works steam power; a ditching and draining machine of Charleston, which works without pumps, for horse or steam power, exhibited by Ranand has but a single valve; apparatus for mak- dolph Brothers, of New Jersey, by which a pair ing and winding spool-cotton, exhibited by the of horses can be made to do the work of forty Willimantic and Hopedale Companies; the ma- men; machines for charging soda-fountains ; a chines for winding machine twist and spool- planing machine exhibited by W. Sellers & Co., silk and labeling spools; a variety of wool- of Philadelphia, of 81 tons' weight; a novel saw carding machines; the Garnett machine, which for cutting stone, with teeth formed of pieces Forks over the waste of woolen-mills; ma- of coal, sent from Pittsburg; an arrangement chines for drying dyed goods; the silk-thread for separating particles of iron-ore occurring spinning-machines from Paterson, N. J., and in gravel-banks; two kinds of machines for other interesting processes. A New Haven cutting through several folds of cloth for clothcompany showed a machine for putting pins ing-manufactories; a great variety of machininto the papers. The exhibition of printing- ists' tools, of saws, grindstones, files, nuts, machinery was an important and interesting bolts, screws, metal presses, and dies ; pianogroup, embracing the great Bullock presses making machinery exhibited by the Steinways; which printed off the New York Herald and a varied display of scales and balances; machine Sun in the building at the rate of 20,000 im- for bending heavy beams for ships' keels
, sent pressions per hour; the improved Hoe press, by J. W. Griffiths, of New York; flax-seed'chaswhich was working on illustrated work; the ing-mills; coal-breaking machines ; and a col
lection of gas-meters, another of steam-drills, which stood on a gold quarter-dollar, brought etc. The wood-working machinery formed an by Levi Taylor, of Indianola. The collection excedingly notewortly class, including a re of steam-motors was extensive and exceedmarkable set of machinery for making casks ingly interesting, embracing: capital automatic from Buffalo; an automatic shingle-maker cut-off and throttling engines, from Salem, which finishes 25,000 in a day; an intricate Ohio; a huge high-speed blowing-engine, from and ingenious dovetailing, carving, moulding, Lebanon, Pa.; five vertical engines from New and paneling machine; a novel apparatus for Haven and elsewhere; a boisting-engine and drying lumber, scroll-saw machinery, which other mining machinery; a Cornish steamwas kept busy cutting out delicate patterns; pump, from Scranton, Pa.; various meters for saws and moulding machines in the greatest registering the consumption of water, and a variety; lathes of every description, and other registering apparatus showing the speed of an mechanisms equally remarkable. A huge vac. engine; a boiler which prevents incrustations uum-pan, 35 feet in height and 10 in diame- of lime; the well-known Baxter engine; steamter, with the air-pump, sugar-moulds, and all ship and yacht engines, etc. The first engine the concomitant apparatus for clarifying sugar, ever used in the United States was a curious was exhibited by the Colwell Iron Works of relie. Cornell University sent a magnetoNew York; while the Laffertys, of Glouces- electrical machine, a steam-engine, and a measter, N. J., showed a large centrifugal sugar- uring-machine, the work of her pupils. The draining and drying machine in operation. In Backus water-motor seems excellently adapted Machinery Hall was also a varied display of to the sewing-machine. A novel hydraulic iron materials and manufactures: twisted and ram exhibited by the Dexter Spring Company cold-chilled bars, and forged steel axles and is a complete automatic pump. Albert Brisshafts, rollers of chilled iron for rolling brass, bane exhibited a pneumatic tube, in which the from Pittsburg; valves and steam fittings of articles to be dispatched are packed in a ball every kind, lap-welded wrought-iron pipes, which rolls swiftly through the tube while the exhibited by the National Tube Company. The air is exhausted in front; it is his ambition to Port Richmond Iron-Works set up a huge blast- see the invention applied to large tubes for the furnace. The different systems for extinguish- transportation of freight. The State of Nevada ing fires were all exhibited. The locomotive ex- set up a quartz-mill in a special building, conhibit was one of the most prominent groups. taining all the appliances for mining, and showA narrow-gauge road for mining purposes was ing the entire operation of crushing, amalgashown in its workings, and parts of railroads mating, etc. and cars were seen in great variety; the work Great Britain occupied about one-third of ings of the Wharton patent switch, of the the space covered by the foreign exhibits in Westinghouse air-brake, and of Henderson's Machinery Hall, and about one-ninth as much hydraulic brake, were fully exhibited. The room as the United States. The exhibit was marine exhibit was very complete, including highly interesting, comprising: Aveling & Pormodels of all the kinds of shipping, steering ter's well-known traction-engine; Siebe & gear, life-saving apparatus, diving-bells and Gorman's diving apparatus; steam-hammers, armor, etc., made or employed in Massachu- stamps, and saws for iron and steel, with samsetts, exhibited by the commissioners of that ples of their strongest armor-plating, exhibited State, contrasting the shapes now used with by the Masseys, of Manchester; fine cotton-mathose of a hundred years ago; models of the chinery, and a carding-machine; immense steamers of the American Line; a model of a steam-cranes, sent by the Applebys, of Lonmerchant- vessel rigged with the wire-rope don; cotton-looms, spool-winding machines manufactured by the Roebling Company, of from the Coates, and a calico-printing machine Trenton; models of the iron ships built by which uses several colors at once; a model of Roach & Sons, of New York; models of the a floating dry-dock; the Walter press, which American double life - boat, of the Monitor was running on the New York Times; á sngarrast, which made the voyage of the Atlantic, mill and air-pump for a vacuum-pan, from of an improved steam-yacht made by Baird & Glasgow; a model of an Inman steamer; and Huston, of Philadelphia, and a variety of other very interesting exhibits showing the operasea-craft, boats, shells, an ice-yacht, etc. One tion of the English system of switching and of the finest exhibits was the wire cables and block-signaling. bridge materials and plans made by the Roeb The British North American Colonies sent lings. George B. Grant of Boston's wonder- turbine-wheels, horizontal and radial boring fully ingenious difference-machine was exhib- machines, steam-engines of all types, seamless ited by the University of Pennsylvania; it con- lead-trap machines, quartz-crushers from Halistructs intricate logarithmic tables, and solves fax, boats, sewing-machines, wood-working maall the problems of the differential calculus, chines, and many other classes of machinery. preparing also a waxen mould from which France exhibited a Lyons silk-loom, a soapelectrotype plates can be taken. A calculat- machine, and bonbon and chocolate maehines ing-machine of the same inventor, of convenient in operation, lithographic printing-machines, size and moderate cost, was also on exhibition.including one with a movable bed, an apparaA curiosity was the infinitesimal steam-engine tus for making sugar from beet-roots, a fine
machine for making gas, an ice-making ma- Other rotary pumps, all kinds of steam and chine, a special arrangement for mountain-rail- hand pumps, pumps for miners, sugar-refiners, ways, a machine for making stearine-candles, etc., blowing-machines, ventilating apparatus, wood-working machinery, and machines for steam fire-engines, etc., were kept in constant sewing straw hats, embroidering, and other operation. Great Britain and other foreign processes.
nations participated in the exhibition. The German exhibit was defective. From the Krupp Works were sent two of the breechloading 1,200-pounder siege-guns, and smaller rifled steel cannon, and an exhibit of iron-ore and smelted metal. An admirable brick-making machine from Berlin was seen at work. There were also a railroad exhibit, one of copper and sulphur ores from Prussia, one of gasmeters, one of the needles of Aix, and a collection of steam-gauges, from Hamburg and Magdeburg, besides printing-presses from Leipsic, steam-engines from Bremerhaven, and other machinery of various kinds.
The Belgian section was not large, but was extremely interesting. A huge and intricate well-boring machine was sent from Brussels; wool carding, cleaning, and spinning machines
UNITED STATES BUILDING. from Verviers; embroidering and sewing machines, and a fat-extracting apparatus, also The United States Building was erected by from Brussels ; railway-stock from Louvain the Government for the purpose of exhibiting and Mariemont; Corliss engines built in Ghent; the functions and activity of the Government in besides models of a trip-hammer and steam- internal development, and the workings of the shears, and filters, rotary pumps, punching and different departments. The Departments of bolt-making machines, etc.
the Interior, of War, of the Treasury, the Sweden sent a locomotive of novel device, Navy, the Post-Office, of Agriculture, and the in which the weight of the engine is distributed Smithsonian Institution, alì took part in the over a number of coupled wheels, and the axle- display. The building was 504 by 306 feet, and box is so constructed that the axle is kept par- covered 102,840 square feet of ground. The allel to the radius of any curve passed over, to workings of the postal-service were practiprevent wrenching; the engine is a very pow. cally illustrated by the Centennial Post-Office, erful one for a narrow-gauge railroad. There whose appointments and organization were was a considerable variety of machinery ex- completely representative. All the equiphibited both in the Swedish and Norwegian ments of the mail service, of the local and gensections. The machines for working in wood eral offices, and the stamps and stationery, and metals were as perfect as any in the exhi- were shown, together with a special system of bition.
lock-boxes, and an envelope cutting, folding, Russia displayed some capital machinery and stamping, gumming, and counting machine. ordnance.
The Agricultural Department was very comBrazil made a large exhibit. A peculiar plete and extensive, including the statistics of stationary engine was constructed for both high agriculture and large maps showing the agriand low pressure; there were also several cultural condition of the country; the chemmodels of marine engines. There was a model ical constitution of the soils of all parts of the of the machine-shop of the arsenal at Bahia, country, with the vegetable, animal
, and minwith all its appointments and machinery, and eral fertilizers, and an exhibit of the manufactmodels of three vessels-of-war; the ordnance ure of agricultural products; and also a comand equipments of the Brazilian army and navy plete exhibit of the botanical products and were also exhibited by models. A variety of woods of America. There were also exhibits steam-power engines and gearing, brass pumps, of microscopical plants, and fibres and cells, etc., showed soine unusual forms but excellent and models of all the vegetable and horticultworkmanship. A hand pin-making machine ural products, stuffed specimens of poultry, and the stamping apparatus of the Imperial samples of tobacco, grain, textile products, etc., Mint were interesting. In three separate and illustrations of the different processes of buildings were exhibited boilers and quartz- cultivation. The Department of the Interior crushing machines.
showed as its principal exhibit the system of In the Hydraulic Annex a great variety of the Patent-Office, and exhibited 60,000 drawpumps and hydraulic machines discharged ings and 5,000 models of patents; a national steady streams of water. A cascade, for pro- museum consisted of relics of Washington and pelling the turbines and other water-power ap- other Continental antiquities. Besides these, paratus, flowed from the upper tank which was the Pension Office and General Land-Office prerefilled by two splendid rotary steam-pumps. sented their reports and documents. The In