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Church of England, instead of disappearing, of a gathering of bishops from all parts of the seemed to be magnified. Then, across the At- world, this subject should be brought before lantic, anxious as he should be to unite with them. He had also received a letter from the the three million persons who belonged to the Bishop of Pittsburg, suggesting that comProtestant Episcopal Church in America, still, mendatory letters be given to emigrants to the as a Christian man who desired the diffusion United States, introducing them to the pastors of the Lord's word, he could not shut his eyes of Episcopal churches in the towns where they to the fact that there were some thirty million might settle. By this means many would be persons, speaking, too, the English tongue, and prevented being drawn away from the influwho were Christians, but not members of any ences of their church. The principal subject Episcopal Church, with whom union might be considered was that of providing a service of sought. On the Continent of Europe, their burial for those who died unbaptized. The forefathers had cooperated with vast numbers Lower House adopted a resolution that it was of persons who were now, from one circum- not advisable to provide for such cases by any stance or another, more or less estranged. rubric in the Book of Common Prayer, but The Swedish and Danish Churches were ex- suggested that a service of consolation and inamples of these. And, if he could not un- struction for the friends of the deceased might derstand why no union was sought with these be used immediately after the interment, the churches, still less could he understand why service being selected from the
Holy Scripture the great church of Luther, to which England and the Book of Common Prayer. Both owed so much, was to be considered as less Houses finally agreed to a resolution providing connected with England than it was considered that in the cases of persons who die unbappossible for the English Church to be connect- tized or excommunicate, or in the commission ed with the Eastern Church. He should be of any grievous crime, “it shall be lawful for very sorry to have it supposed that, while the the minister, at the request or with the conChurch of England desired to coöperate with sent of the kindred or friends of the deceased, Christians of the far East, she was neglectful to permit the corpse to be committed to the of her more intimate relations with her fellow- grave in the churchyard or chapel-yard of the Christians of the West. The resolution of the parish without any services," and that “in Bishop of Winchester was adopted. His grace such cases the incumbent may permit the use the President was requested by resolution to at the grave of such hymns as may be approved appoint a joint committee of both Houses "to by him.” A petition was received from 14,000 consider what steps can be taken toward mak- working-men, asking for liberty for the clergy ing provision for clergymen who, from age and to conduct the services of the church without infirmity, are desirous of resigning their bene- obedience to the Privy Council. A committee fices, and retiring from the active duties of the was provided for to inquire into the law auministry.” In the course of the debate on thorizing clergymen to repel persons from the this resolution, the statement was made that Holy Communion on the ground of their holdthe number of benefices in England and Wales ing false doctrines or leading immoral lives, was 13,000, and the number of clergymen, of and to report if any further legislation was all degrees, was 23,000. Estimating the num- necessary. A committee was also appointed ber of clergymen having no care of souls, as to inquire into and report upon the ancient masters of schools, etc., at 2,000, there were rites and ceremonies appertaining to the Chrisleft 21,000 clergymen proper, beneficed and tian burial of the dead, and the discipline atunbeneficed; showing that 7,000 clergymen, tached to the use of thém. or one-third of the whole, were unbeneficed. The Convocation of Canterbury met for the In the Lower House, the report of the com- third time during the year, July 18th. The mittee on “ The Law of Burials” was made. Lower House adopted a resolution to have the It suggested an outline of the procedure to be synodical declaration respecting the import of adopted in case Parliament should pass a law the “damnatory clauses” of the Athanasian declaring the churchyards open for interment Creed, which was passed at a previous session without religious services, or with services of the Convocation, appended to that creed in other than that of the Church of England. the Prayer Book. The following rubric in ref
The Convocation of Canterbury met again erence to the communion service was adopted : May 9th. A petition, numerously signed, was " When there is a communion a pause shall presented in the Upper House, asking that their here be made, during which those who desire lordships would take such measures as they may withdraw, and the communicants may be deemed best to attest the soundness of the conveniently placed for receiving the comagreement or scheme of concord arrived at at munion.” It was left to the discretion of the the Bonn Conference in August, 1875, and, if minister whether the pause should be made bepossible, to promote further friendly relations fore the offertory services or after the prayer and closer intercommunion with the Orthodox for the Church militant. In the Lower House Churches of the East. The archbishop stated a resolution was passed in reference to the that he had received a letter from the presid- burial service, providing that "it shall be lawing bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church ful for the minister, at the request or with the in the United States, asking that, in the event consent of the kindred or friends of the de
ceased, to permit the corpse to be committed wrote the minister a letter of protest. Mr. to the grave in the churchyard of the parish Cook then gave Mr. Jenkins warning that he without hymn, anthem, or address of any would consider a depraver of the Book of kind." The Upper House had voted that Common Prayer a hinderer and slanderer of hymns should be permitted at the grave. A God's word, and “open and notorious evil conference of the two houses was held, with liver,” and would refuse to administer the a view to the adjustment of the difference be- communion to him. Mr. Jenkins, after having tween them on this point, but without success. been refused the communion several times, A gravamen was signed by members of both brought suit against Mr. Oook in the ecclesiashouses deploring the barbarities alleged to have tical courts. The lower courts sustained the been exercised by the Mohammedans toward vicar, and Mr. Jenkins appealed to her Majesty the Christians in Bulgaria, and the asserted in Privy Council. The judgment of the latter sale of Christian children into slavery, and pray- court was given February 15th, and reversed ing " that effectual steps will be taken by the the decisions of the lower courts. Their lordGovernment, in conjunction with the Porte ships held that the evidence did not sustain and others, to prevent, as far as possible, such the allegation that the appellant entertained grievous scandal and offense to Christendom the doctrines attributed to him, and expressly and the civilized world.” The Committee on declared that they did not mean to decide that Intemperance presented a supplementary re those doctrines were otherwise than inconport to the effect that the time had come when sistent with the formularies of the Church of Parliament might properly be urged to take England. into consideration the further regulation of
The only cause, they said, which will warrant a the traffic in intoxicating drinks, and suggest- minister under the rubric in repelling a parishioner ing that new legislation ought to embrace some from the Holy Communion is that he is an open or all of the following points :
and notorious evil liver," who thereby gives offense The extinction of grocers' excise licenses; the warrant his repulsion under the 27th canon is that
to the congregation; and the only cause which will gradual suppression of houses for the sale of beer to be consumed on the premises ; the gradual reduc- Book of Common Prayer.” It became necessary,
he is a common and notorious depraver of the tion of the number of public-houses until a limit therefore, to consider whether the appellant came shall have been reached which shall correspond to under both or either of these descriptions. As to the wants of a temperate population; a large restric- the first, there was absolutely no evidence whatever tion of hours for Sunday traffic, together with some that the appellant was an evil liver, much less an measure for country places for earlier closing at night and earlier opening in the morning; and the liver,” according to the natural use of the words,
open and notorious evil liver. The term "evil to give the inhabitants of any locality some voice in between conduct and belief was clearly recognized the question of granting new licenses, of reducing in the canons, especially in the
contrast between the the number of houses, of Sunday closing, of earlier 109th and 110th. As to the charge against the apor later opening, and of earlier closing on week- pellant of being a depraver of the Book of Common days.
Prayer, this was founded on the fact of his having The Convocation of York met in York Ca- published a book of selections from the Bible for thedral, February 15th. It considered the reading at family prayer, from which certain parts fourth report of the Ritual Commission. The doctrine which they teach; and it was argued that,
were omitted, as was alleged, on the ground of the Upper House rejected the addition to the
as some of the parts so omitted were either found Athanasian Creed in the form of a synodical in the Book of Common Prayer or were the support declaration which had been agreed to in 1874 of doctrines found in that book, omission of them by the Convocation of Canterbury and the was equivalent to rejection, and rejection of them Lower House of the Convocation of York.
to depravation of the Book of Common Prayer. In
none of these propositions nor in their logical con(For the text of this declaration, see the An- nection could their lordships concur. Omission was NUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1874.)
not rejection, otherwise the lectionary in the Prayer At the Judicial Committee of the Privy Book would be open to the grave charge. Nor was Council, January 19th, a special court was
it possible to establish the charge of depravation constituted for the hearing of an appeal from written by the appellant to the respondent in justifi
upon these omissions, even coupled with the letter the Arches Court of Canterbury, in the case cation of them. For even if there were anything of Jenkins vs. the Rev. Flavel Smith Cook, in the letter which amounted to a depravation of the rector of Christ Church, Clifton. In this case Book of Common Prayer, which their lordships did the question was raised whether a parishioner not suggest or think there was, it would be still imcould be legally refused the Holy Communion answer to one addressed to him by the respondent
possible to hold that the writing of such a letter in because he did not believe in the personality in other words, not an open and spontaneous, but a of Satan and evil spirits, and the doctrine of private, friendly, and solicited communicationeternal punishment. Mr. Jenkins had several could make the appellant a "common and notorious years before compiled a book of selections depraver of the Book of Common Prayer.” They
would therefore advise her Majesty to reverse the from the Bible for devotional uses, from which sentence of the Dean of Arches, and in remitting were omitted all allusions to the doctrines of the cause to admonish the respondent, the Rev. the existence of the devil and eternal punish- Flavel Smith Cook, for having without lawful cause ment. On July 5, 1874, Mr. Cook preached a refused to deliver to the appellant, or permit the sermon on “Rationalism,” to which Mr. Jen- munion; and further, to monish him to refrain from kins took exceptions, and against which he committing the like offense in future.
In May, 1874, a daughter of the Rev. Henry case, February 2d, against the defendant. He Keet, a Wesleyan minister at Owston Ferry, decided that the incumbent had offended county of Lincoln, died, and was buried in the against the law in officiating in the chasuble parish churchyard. Mr. Keet ordered a tomb- and alb; that he had also offended in adminstone set up over her grave, to bear an in- istering the communion without having asscription, “In loving memory of Annie Au. sured himself that the number of persons regusta Keet, the younger daughter of the Rev. quired by the rubric, "four, or three at least," H. Keet, Wesleyan minister, who died at Ow- would participate in it; that the so-called ston Ferry, May 11, 1874, aged seven years Stations of the Cross, which were described and nine months. Safe sheltered from the as consisting of fourteen groups of "figures in storms of life.” The vicar of the parish for- colored relief, a plastic figure attached to the bade the erection of the stone on the ground walls of the church, purporting to represent that in the inscription the term “Rev.” was scenes of our Lord's Passion, and such as are improperly assumed by Mr. Keet, a person not commonly used in Roman Catholic churches,” in the orders of the Church of England, and were decorations forbidden by law; and that having therefore no right to bear it. Mr. Keet the erection of the crucifix, " or figure of the appealed to the Bishop of Lincoln. The bish- Saviour on the cross in full relief," was unlawop sustained the vicar. Mr. Keet then broughtful. The judgment of the court on the points suit in the court of the chancellor of the as to the position at the communion-table, and diocese for a faculty for the erection of the as to the vestments, was modified by the adtombstone. The chancellor gave a judgment mission that the decisions of the superior refusing to issue the faculty, and sustaining courts on these points were conflicting, and the decision of the vicar, that Mr. Keet had an appeal to the Judicial Committee of the no right to use the title Reverend. Mr. Keet Privy Council might be necessary. An appeal then appealed to the Court of Arches. This was taken by the defendant to the Judicial court reaffirmed the decision of the diocesan Committee of the Privy Council on the four court. The case was then carried by appeal points of the eastward position of the minister to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Coun- at the communion service, the vestments to be cil. The judgment of this court was delivered worn, the form of bread to be used, and the by the Lord Chancellor, January 21, 1876. It exhibition of the crucifix in the communion reversed the decisions of the lower courts, and service. ordered a faculty issued for the erection of the The eighteenth annual session of the Church tombstone. The case was remitted to the Congress was held at Plymouth, beginning OcCourt of Arches.
tober 3d. The opening sermons were preached The first proceedings taken under the Public by the Bishop of Winchester and the Rev. Worship Regulation Act, 1874, were had in Canon Miller. The opening address was the case of a complaint brought by three pa- delivered by the Bishop of Winchester. He rishioners of St. Peter's, Folkestone, against spoke of the character of the Congress, as in the Rev. C. J. Ridsdale, incumbent of the no sense representing the whole Church, but parish. The complainants charged the defend- consisting rather to a disproportionate extent ant with violations of ecclesiastical order in of men of extreme views; of the peculiar the following points: Using lighted candles on dangers to which it was exposed by reason of the communion-table during the time of the such men occupying its attention; and of the celebration of the Holy Communion when safeguards against such dangers, which lay in their use was not necessary for giving light; the Congress itself. If they were avoided, the the mixing of water with the wine for the ser- meetings might be made productive of great vice of the communion; the use of wafer benefit. Papers were read, and discussions had, bread in the communion; standing during the during the meetings of the Congress, on the administration of the communion in the east- following topics: "The Bonn Conference and ward position, with his back to the people; the Old Catholic Movement” (Bishop Perry, kneeling during the prayer of consecration, late of Melbourne, the Dean of Lichfield, and and singing the hymn Agnus Dei; walking in the Rev. Lord Plunkett); “The Formation and processions with ornaments and observances Management of Parochial Temperance Socienot sanctioned by the rubrics of the Book of ties;” “The Causes and Influences of UnbeCommon Prayer; wearing illegal vestments, lief in England” (Dean Cowie, of Manchester, as the chasuble and the alb; the use of the Archdeacon Reichel, the Rev. G. Greenwood, erocifis; the adoption in the church of the Dean Lake, of Durham, Archdeacon Denison, representations called the “Stations of the the Bishop of Winchester); “Central Africa, Cross ; " and administering the communion to in Relation to Mission-Work, the Slave-Trade, only one person. Mr. Ridsdale made no de- and Commerce" (Sir Bartle Frere, the Rev. W. fense to any of the charges except that of ad- S. Price, Lieutenant Cameron, Arthur Mills, ministering the communion to fewer than three M.P., Archdeacon Badnall, and others); “How or four persons. In regard to this, he said to increase the Number and improve the Trainthat he had entered upon the service “with- ing of Candidates for Holy Orders” (the Rev. ont any positive expectation one way or the w. s. Smith, Archdeacon Earle, Archdeacon other.” Lord Penzance gave judgment in the Emery); “The Best Means to be adopted for
recovering the Classes alienated from the tions may issue in greater peace and strength and Church” (Canon Murray, for Canon Ryle, J. energy to the whole Church of Christ. Anxiously G. Talbot, M. P., Lord Forbes, the Rev.' T. awaiting your answer, 1 remain your faithful brother
and servant in Christ, A. C. CANTUAR. Hugo, Dean Fremantle, the Rev. J. F. Kitto, Earl Nelson, Mr. Paterson, of Bradford); “Aids The General Synod of the Irish Church met to Spiritual Life” (Prebendary Clark, Canon in Dublin, April 20th. The Rev. Lord PlunBell," the Hon. Charles Wood, and others); ket offered a motion directing that an alter“The Due Relations of Church and State
native form of the service for the ministration (the Earl of Devon; the Rev. J. Bardsley, on of baptism to infants, shorter than that now the special topic of "The Court of Final Ap- in use, be added to the present baptismal peal; ” Dr. Phillimore, “The Supremacy of the formularies. The motion was supported by Sovereign over the Church;” Arthur Mills, nearly all the laity, but failed to receive the M.P.; the Rev. Bradmore Compton, and others). requisite inajority among the clergy. The folPapers were also read on "Church-Bells ” (in lowing declaration on the subject of baptism which competitions for prizes and ringings on was inserted in the new preface to the Prayer secular occasions were deprecated), the “Pe Book: riodical and Daily Press of the Country” (in which ideal journals were delineated by which made no substantial change, though some have de
In the formularies relating to baptism, we have the Church was to attract all readers toward sired to alter or omit certain expressions touching herself), and "Ministrations to the Sick.” Res- which diversities of opinion have prevailed among olutions were adopted declaring “that the faithful members of our Church. At the same time, promotion of the reunion of their Noncon- we desire fully to recognize the liberty of expoundformist brethren with the Church is a duty eral practice of the Church, affirmed on occasion, by
ing these formularies hitherto allowed by the genbinding on all faithful churchmen," and com- judicial interpretation of law. And as concerning mending to hearty sympathy and active sup- those points whereupon such liberty has been al port the "Home Reunion Society," an organi- lowed, we hereby further declare that no minister zation having for its object the promotion of of this Church is required to hold or teach any doc
trine which has not been clearly determined by the unity without compromise of the faith or con- Articles of Religion. stitution of the Church. The Archbishop of Canterbury in September,
The rubric which required the reading of 1876, sent the following letter to the Colonial the Athanasian Creed on certain occasions was Bishops, in relation to the calling of a Pan- removed, but, in connection with this act, a Anglican Synod, to meet in 1878:
declaration was passed, that in removing the
rubric the Church did not withdraw its witness Right REVEREND BROTHER: A wish has been ex to the truth of the articles of the Christian pressed by many bishops of the Protestant Episco- Faith contained in the creed. pal Church in the United States of America, by the bishops of the Canadian Dominion, and by the West
The annual meeting of the Church MissionIndian bishops, that a second Conference of our ary Society was held in London, May 2d. The brethren should be held at Lambeth. Before I de- Earl of Chichester presided. The ordinary incide upon the important step of inviting the bishops come of the society for the year, from asof our communion throughout the world to assemble sociations, benefactions, legacies, and other at Lambeth, I have thought it right, after consultation with the bishops of England,' to give all our sources, had amounted to £189,457 178. 1d.; brethren an opportunity of expressing their opinion the society had also received funds for special upon the expediency of convening such a Confer- objects, sufficient to make the total income ence at this time, and upon the choice of the subjects £195,116 88. 1d. The expenditures had been I therefore beg leave to intimate to you our readi- £191,237. The report of missionary operaness to hold & Conference at Lambeth in or about tions showed that the society had at present the month of July, 1878, if it shall seem expedient 170 stations, 211 European clergymen, 181 after the opinions of all our brethren have been as- native clergymen, 38 European schoolmasters certained; and I need scarcely assure you that your and lay agents, 11 European women-teachers considered... May I ask for our guidance whether (exclusive of missionaries' wives), 2,411 native you are willing and are likely to be able to attend Christian catechists and teachers, and 24,550 the Conference yourself? Those who were present communicants. The society had withdrawn at Lambeth in `1867 thankfully acknowledge that, from 78 stations, which had been added to of the various branches of the Anglican Communion parochial establishments in the West Indies, were drawn together in closer bonds of brotherly or transferred to the native Church in Sierra love and sympathy. The help and comfort which Leone, containing 10 native clergy, 4,356 comare due from the branches of Christ's Church to municants, and 12,866 scholars. New missions each other are more readily rendered the more fully had been opened in Persia, and in the Nyanza course between all parts of the world, there is greater Japan, to certain classes of the population in In this time of religious activity and increased inter- district, Africa; and the missions in China, need than ever of mutual counsels among the bishops India, on the west coast of Africa, in the transof our widely-extended communion. The bishops Jordanic districts of Palestine, and in the dioof England, therefore, earnestly ask you to join with them in prayer that we may all be guided to a wise cese of Saskatchewan, Northwest America, had decision on this important matter, and if it should been extended. At home a conference had be resolved to hold the Conference, that its delibera- been held on missions to Mohammedan people:
liberal gifts had been made for the establish- len W. Gardiner, son of Commander Gardiner, ment of new missions. The sum of £12,000 commenced in 1861 a mission at Lota, Chili, had been subscribed toward the establishment to the European population. The report gave of a mission near the Nyanza Lake. The so- accounts of the progress of the work in the ciety had determined not to interfere with the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, Uruguay, American missions to Mohammedan countries, Brazil, the Amazon River district, and Chili. but to confine its operations in those regions An important branch of the work was that to Palestine. A largely-increased number of which addressed itself to Roman Catholics. candidates for the society's college at Isling ANTONELLI, Giacomo, cardinal deacon of ton was reported, and the institution was now the title of St. Agatha della Suburra, and subquite full. Forty-six candidates had been ac- sequently of Santa Maria, in Via Lata (born at cepted during the year, of whom eleven were Sonnino, States of the Church, April 2, 1806; prepared to go forth at once.
died at Rome, November 7, 1876). His family The one hundred and seventy-fifth anniver- was an ancient one in the Romagna, and had sary of the Society for the Propagation of the produced many priests and historians. He was Gospel in Foreign Parts was held in London, educated at the Roman Seminary and UniversiApril 27th. The Archbishop of Canterbury ty, and at twenty-one took the degree of Doctor presided. The report stated that the collec- in the Canon and Civil Law. At twenty-four tions and subscriptions during the year had he passed the examinations and showed the patamounted to £125,294, and that 528 mission- rimony requisite to enter the Prelature of Jusaries were engaged in various fields of mission- tice. After filling minor judicial offices, he was ary work. Among the speakers was Sir Bartle in turn delegate at Orvieto, Viterbo, and MaceFrere, who spoke of the impressions which rata. After the accession of Gregory XVI. he had been made upon him during a recent visit baffled the insurrection in which the subsequent to India. He could give a great amount of Napoleon III. and his brother took part. Antoencouragement to those who were interested nelsi was then made Secretary-General of the in the spread of Christianity in India, for he Department of the Interior, and subsequently had just traveled over parts of that country Minister of the Treasury. He was made carwhere, when he first went to India, it would dinal deacon by Pius IX., June 12, 1847, and have been dangerous to send a missionary or immediately afterward President of the Conany white man at all; now, in these districts sulta of State, and to his death was the masterhe had found teachers of all denominations of spirit of the administration of the Pope. He Christianity, busily employed in spreading the ceased to be minister during the year 1848, betruths of the gospel. No doubt could be en- ing replaced by Mamiani and Rossi. After the tertained of the glorious results which would fall of the latter, Cardinal Antonelli advised follow this increase of missionary institutions, and carried out the flight of the Pope to Gaeta. for wherever he had traveled in India he had As minister of Pius IX. he appealed to France, found communities of Christian people living Spain, Austria, and Naples, and represented under the ægis of the British Government with- the Pope at the conference at Gaeta. When out exciting any feelings of jealousy or ill-will the Pope was restored to Rome, after the on the part of the native population. The French conquest of the city, Cardinal Antogreat safeguard of missionary enterprise was, nelli, as prime-minister, set to work to reform that there was no compulsion, or any use made the civil administration, and encourage agriof the temporal sword to enforce the ob- culture and industry. The revolutionary party servance of the principles of the religion dis- was, however, active, and an attempt to asseminated. He found, everywhere, that the sassinate the cardinal, in June, 1815, showed missions were in the most flourishing condi- how obnoxious he was to them. When, in tion, although the cry was still for more hands 1859, revolts began, and Piedmont evidently to assist in the work. The Archbishop of Can- aimed at seizing the Papal States, the task of terbury spoke of the appointment of two new Cardinal Antonelli became cne of great diffbishops in the diocese of Madras, which had culty. All admit the consummate ability with been made during the year, and said that steps which as a statesman and a diplomatist he enwere being taken with a view to the founda- deavored to avert the blow. When, with the tion of other bishoprics.
capture of Rome, the last of the ten poral posThe annual meeting of the South American sessions of the papacy was wrested ficm Pius Missionary Society was held in London, April IX., Cardinal Antonelli remained as Secretary 24th, the Earl of Shaftesbury presiding. The of State to the Pope, but, of course, chiefly ensociety is constituted for the purpose of making gaged in the management of the difficult relaknown the gospel to the inhabitants of South tions forced upon the Holy See by the new America, and it is conducted in conformity order of things. In these he manifested great with the doctrine and discipline of the Estab- ability and skill. His appeals to the various lished Church of England. A mission was powers for a restoration of the Pope's authorfounded in Patagonia, in 1844, under Com- ity failed to effect the result. He died after a mander Allen Gardiner, R. N., but it did not brief illness. Though holding so high a posucceed after the death of its founder. The sition in the papal court, and a cardinal, he society was reformed in 1852. The Rev. Al. never was ordained a priest, or was named to