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of Philadelphia. The President formally proclaimed the Exhibition on the 3d of July, 1873, and on the 5th of the same month the representatives of foreign governments were ii; advertised. On June 5, 1874, an act was For declaring that the Exhibition would be eld under the auspices of the Government, and requesting the President to invite foreign governments “to be represented and take part in the International Exhibition.” By a special provision permission was granted to convey articles to the exhibition-grounds without payment of import duties, to be held there in bond; duty was to be collected only on articles sold and delivered in this country, except upon articlesimported for sale during the Exhibition; the other class, comprising the exhibits proper, must remain on exhibition until the day appointed for the close of the Exposition, which was the 10th of November. The Centennial Commission was appointed by the President from nominations made by the Governors of the several States and Territories. The officers chosen were the following gentlemen: General Joseph R. Hawley, of Connecticut, for president; Orestes Cleveland, John D. Creigh, Robert Lowry, Thomas H. Coldwell, John McNeil, and William Gurney, vice-presidents; Alfred T. Goshorn, director-general; John L. Campbell, secretary; and John L. Shoemaker, counselor and solicitor. An executive committee of thirteen was appointed, with Myer Asch as its secretary, and several bureaus of administration were constituted under the following chiefs: foreign, A. T. Goshorn, Myer Ash; installation, Henry Pettit; transportation, Dolphus Torrey; machinery, John S. Albert; agriculture, Burnet Landreth; horticulture, Charles H. Miller; fine arts, John Sartain. The corporators of the Board of Finance consisted of two from each congressional district, and four from each State and Territory at large. This body was organized with John Welsh as president; William Sellers and John S. Barbour, as vice-presidents; Frederick Fraley, secretary and treasurer; William Bigler, financial agent; Henry Pettit, Joseph M. Wilson, and H. J. Schwarzmann, engineers and architects; and a Board of Directors of twenty-two members. The city of Philadelphia was decided upon as the place of the Exhibition, a beautiful site in the spacious Fairmount Park being selected. Besides the private subscriptions, appropriations of $500,000 in 1875 and $1,500,000 in the following session were made by Congress as an advance loan, while the city of Philadelphia appropriated $1,500,000, the State of Pennsylvania, $1,000,000, and other States and Territories various lesser amounts. The States made active preparations, appointing local managers to aid and organize the efforts of their citizens. The foreign nations also, to which the invitation had been presented, accepted it promptly in most cases, and bespoke space for their exhibits. The chief com

missioners appointed by the foreign governments were the following gentlemen: Argentine Confederation, Carlos Carranza; Austria, Rudolph Isbary ; Belgium, Baron Gustave de Woelmont; Brazil, the Conde d'Eu; Chili, Rafael Lorrain; China, Edward B. Drew; Denmark, Jacob Holmblad: Ecuador, Edward Shippen; Egypt, Prince Mohammed Tawfic Pasha; France, M. M. Ozenne; German Empire, Dr. Jacobi; Great Britain and colonies, the Duke of Richmond; Canada, Senator Lue Letellier de St. Just; New South Wales, Sir James Martin Knight; Victoria, Sir Edmund Barry; South Australia, A. Musgrave; Honduras, Governor Don Francisco Bardales; Italy, Baron Blanc, minister to Washington; Japanese Empire, Okubo Toshimichi; Liberia, J. S. Payne; Mexico, Romero Rubio; Netherlands, Dr. E. H. von Baumhauer; Norway, Herman Baars; Orange Free State, Charles W. Riley; Peru, J. C. Tracy; Russia, PrivyCouncilor Butovsky; Sandwich Islands, S. G. Wilder; Siam, J. H. Chandler; Spain, Colonel Lopez Fabra; Sweden, P. A. Bergstrom; Switzerland, Colonel H. Rieter; Tunis, Sidi Houssein; Turkey, G. d’Aristrarchi, minister to Washington; Venezuela, Leon de la Cova. An area of 236 acres was inclosed for exhibition purposes. By the beginning of the year 1876 the Exhibition Buildings were erected and ready for the reception of exhibits. The cost of the five main structures was about $4,500,000. At the opening of the Exposition 190 buildings had been erected within the inclosure, and before its close there were more than 200. The city of Philadelphia went to a great expense in improving the avenues leading to the grounds, and in building a handsome iron truss-bridge over the Schuylkill, costing over $1,000,000. The chief railroad-lines of the country entered into special agreements to convey visitors to the Centennial at special reduced rates of fare. The applications for space exceeded the expectations of the commissioners. It was found necessary to erect a large annex to the Art Building, as the wall-space in Memorial Hall was found far from sufficient to accommodate the applicants. France began early to bestir herself in preparing for the Exposition. Russia was backward in responding to the invitation, questioning the official character of the Exhibition, but at a late hour decided to send a large representative display of her arts and products, selected and managed under governmental auspices, which formed when opened, somewhat more tardily than the other national exhibits, one of the most interesting sections of the fair. Spain also was dilatory in dispatching her exhibits, and also sent a fine representation of her productions, under patronage of the government. The British exhibitors seemed to comprehend best the spirit and requirements of the Exhibition, and took a pride in sending samples of the best art-work of their country, as well as of her

finest industrial products; yet her latter ex- fine as at Vienna. The German and Austrian hibition, owing to the questionable commer- exhibitors, and the French in their art exhibit, cial advantage of competing with American evidently labored under a false appreciation of protected manufactures, was not so large and the taste of the American public, which was a

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little indignant at being credited with so little foreign exhibitors frankly declared, after see: artistic understanding as was inferred by many ing the American displays, that, if they had of the art and ornamental exhibits. Several known what they had to compete with, they


would have made a difference in the character of the articles exhibited. In the American department the exhibition was unexpectedly full and rich, although many novel manufacturing processes remained unexhibited, owing to the jealousy of the proprietors lest their methods might be copied. The European colonies and distant nations were, in the main, better represented than in any of the former expositions; and it is one of the best results of international fairs that countries far removed from the usual tracks of commerce have greeted them as a means of opening up intercourse with the commercial world. The British colonies and the South American nations, with the pardonable vanity and ambition which are common to new countries, sent most extensive and interesting collections of their products. In judging of the different displays it should be borne in

mind that the exhibitors were actuated mainly by commercial motives, and that it was an American market which they sought to gain in exposing their manufactures at the Philadelphia Exhibition. Those industries in which the Americans are weakest and those which are not practised in this country would naturally be the best represented in the foreign exhibitions, while those in which American manufacturers, under the protection of import duties, have driven foreign producers out of the home market, could not be exhibited with any advantage by foreigners. The Main Building, designed for the exhibition of the manufactured products, and products of the mines and metallurgy, as well as the condition of science and education, in all nations, covered an area of twenty acres, with a length of 1,880 feet, east and west, and a


breadth of 464 feet, and having projecting wings in the centres of the sides, 416 feet in length, and in the centres of the ends, 216 feet in length. The exhibition-space was on one floor. The roof of the main part was 70 feet high. In the centre of the main portion was an elevated square, with 184 feet sides, having towers 120 feet high and 48 feet square at the corners. At the four corners of the building were towers 75 feet high; and the projecting wings, through which led the main entrances, were fronted with façades 90 feet in height. The building was constructed with wrought-iron roof-trusses supported by wrought-iron columns, 672 in number, and sided mainly with glazed sash, with a substructure of brick 7 feet high, upon a foundation of massive masonry. There was a tier of restaurants and withdrawing-rooms at the sides of the building, and above them, in an upper story, a gallery of chambers occupied by the Centennial authorities, and by the educational exhibits of several of the States. The space was apportioned for the collective displays of the different nations as follows, in square feet: Argentine Republic, 2,861 : Austro-Hungary, 24,727; Belgium, 15,598; Brazil, 6,899; Canada, 24,118; Chili, 3,424; China, 6,628; Denmark, 2,562; Egypt. 5,026; France, 45,460; Germany, 29,625; Great Britain and Ireland, 54,155; India and British colonies, 24, 193;

Hawaiian Islands, 1,575; Italy, 8,943; Japan, 17,831; Luxemburg, 247; Mexico, 6,567; Netherlands, 15,948; Norway, 6,959; Orange Free State, 1,058; Peru, 1,462; Portugal, 5,988; Russia, 11,141; Spain and colonies, 11,253; Sweden, 17,799; Switzerland, 6,693; Tunis, 2,015; Turkey, 3,347. The space reserved for the United States' exhibits was 136,684 square feet. The total exhibition-space of the building was 363,102 square fect. The space was distributed in parallelograms between the main longitudinal aisle, 120 feet broad and 1,882 feet long, and two side-aisles 100 feet broad, and the numerous cross-aisles. Connecting the two side-entrances was a transept of the same width as the central nave. Two remarkably large organs, one built by

Roosevelt, of New York, with two other organs which were played by electric connections with the large one, and the other set up by Hook & Hastings, of Boston, occupied portions of the galleries, and were playing almost constantly. The Maine cotton-mills made a collective exhibit. Nearly all the large New England cotton and cloth factories participated in an extensive exhibit of American textiles. The collection of American carpets was very large. The new floor-cloth called linoleum was also exhibited. The cutlers and hardware manufacturers also made a fine exhibit. A new kind of veneering for interiors was sent from Boston. The display of porcelain and pottery was extensive. The iron-masters of the country made a good representative display. The watch-colnpanies exhibited their watches, and all the principal gun, scale, safe, scientific instrument, clock, telegraphic instrument, railroad-car, glassware, furniture, piano-forte, organ, paint, chemical, paper, book, and stationery manufacturing houses, and all the largest industrialists in every branch did credit to themselves and to their country. The gas-fixtures were specially admired; and the displays of silver-ware and jewelry and precious stones by the leading New York and Philadelphia jewelers were the largest and in some respects the finest collections of the kind in the fair. The British exhibition was the strongest in textile fabrics, embracing a great variety of dress-goods, of woolens, the broadcloths, cheviots, kerseymeres, and all the well-known materials for men's apparel; of poplins and linens, lawns and laces, from Ireland; of curtain brocades, from Morris & Co., of London, and made-up ladies' garments from Hitchcock & Co., which were behind the French displayin the same line in taste, rather than in richness of material. There was a very extensive display of Axminster carpets, imported Indian carpets, oil-cloths, etc., which contrasted favorably with the still larger but cheap and badly-designed collection of American floor-coverings. The display of chemical products represented eighty-five houses, and contained crystallized masses of caffeine, aloin, codetac sulphas, chlorate and bichromate of potassium, the essence of egg, a novelty, a new indelible ink, soda, soaps, paints, inks, etc. The metallurgists and iron and steel workers of England made a very slender exhibit of her principal industry; there were only nineteen exhibits, the chief of which were models of Dr. Siemens's regenerating furnaces for iron and glass, wire ropes, and a single exhibit of ores, pigs, rails, and steel. The gunsmiths' exhibit was fine, seventeen exhibitors taking part; and there was a good display of the only two of the Sheffield cutlers who thought it worth while to exhibit. In literary manufacture, Bradbury, Agnew & Co. had a good exhibit; Dickman & Higham showed a hexaglot Bible; and the Illustrated London News and London Graphic made showy displays, the latter paper having a pavilion hung around with the original drawings of hundreds of its best engravings, and a private office for the use of its artists and correspondents. There was a fine show of scientific and philosophical instruments by the best English makers. The first London and Liverpool watchmakers combined, to the number of fourteen, in a fine display; M. F. Dent exhibited different systems of compensating balances. Other articles exhibited were Aberdeen and Beesbrook granite, rooftiles, Portland cement-blocks, fire-brick retorts, chalk, whiting, emery, etc. British jewelers made a very scanty show. The largest London


houses were not represented. Not a single precious stone or piece of jewelry of value was sent. Artchison, of Edinburgh, made a large display of Cairngorm stones, Scotch pebbles, among them the largest one ever found, and fancy articles. A new description of cutlery, in which the silver plating is made to penetrate the substance of the steel, was exhibited, with a considerable variety of jewelry, by John Neal. The most interesting portion of the British section was the very fully represented class of artistic manufactures, pottery, furniture, and domiciliary ornamentation, illustrating the extraordinary revival of art-feeling and good taste which has been going on in England for many years. The English exhibition of ceramics, ornamental metal-work, and furniture, probably engrossed the attention of the visitors more than any other separate collections in the Exposition. Doulton, of Lambeth, sent a vast variety of his famous earthenware and terracotta fabrics. The Lambeth faience presented all the rich soft hues of blue, green, brown, and buff, which are peculiar to it, and all the quaint and graceful forms, and the brilliant glaze, by which it is also distinguished. Many of the objects were covered with raised and |. devices, human and animal figures, flowers, fruits, leaves, and conventional ornaments, of artistic conception, and spiritedly treated. In terra-cotta, there were a pulpit and font, mantels, etc.; of the use of encaustic tiles in fireplace decoration, there was a striking exhibit; two tiled hearths had fenders of the same material, and were covered with clocks, vases, plaques, etc., one of Doulton ware, the other of Lambeth faience. One set of chimney-tiles represented scenes from Shakespeare. A series of plaques, painted by George Tinworth, contained child-scenes of the Bible. The two Mintons and Maw & Co. had not less profuse displays of painted tiling; conspicuous among the designs, which often covered a number of blocks combined, were a water-view with cranes and lily-buds, a large domestic scene, allegorical and grotesque figures, falcons, and a series of genuine canine portraits. Many of the figures were colored, some in outline, on grounds of all colors, but oftenest white, drab, or buff; there were hand-painted, printed, enameled, and majolica, glazed and unglazed tiles, and ceramic tesserae for coarse mosaic, in which work there was a copy of an ancient fresco, and other examples. Daniel & Son exhibited a good collection of finer porcelain, including a splendid Prometheus vase, and imitations of antique vases decorated in páte sur pâte, by L. Solon; also copies of Henry II. ware, and of Limoges enamel, panels representing Shakespeare's seven ages, by H. S. Marks, and a gorgeous display of table-ware richly decorated with Oriental and floral patterns, etc. The exhibition of the cabinet-makers was varied and fine; specimens of fully-furnished apartments were shown in many exhibits; the Eastlake style was prominent. Other styles exhibited were the Queen Anne, Jacobean, and Anglo-Indian. The materials were mahogany, oak, satin-wood, ebonized wood, etc., heavily carved, or lightly constructed, of uniform or combined woods, inlaid or trimmed with wood, porcelain, or metal. It was the most solid and tasteful exhibition of furniture in the Fair. A great centre of attraction in the British section was the regal display of silversmith's work, and electroplating, made by the famous house of the Elkingtons. The Milton shield and magnificent vase exhibited at Vienna, a row of elaborate dessert-sets, and a hundred other pieces, showed what wonderful work they can turn out in repoussé, metallic inlaying, and enamel, and exhibited an immense wealth of artistic ideas. The Australian colonies made a large and ambitious display, revealing a vigorous and solid development, fine public buildings, and great works of engineering, a fine system of education, and the establishment of all the chief manufacturing industries on a firm basis. The immense production of the precious metals was exhibited, and the excellent grain and fine wool produced in most of the colonies. The industrial exhibit showed that the colonists can o themselves with nearly all the comforts of English life. The woolens exhibited were of admirable material and texture. Cocoons and skein-silk showed that the silk-worm has been naturalized here. Excellent manuftctures of leather were exhibited. Wine exhibits of over a hundred kinds showed that all the best Varieties of the European grape will grow in that friendly climate. Of interest were the collections of stuffed birds, minerals, ornaments made from the great eggs of the emu, weapons and tools of the natives, and the Photographs of towns and scenery. e Indian exhibit included the grains, coton, and natural productions of the great British dependency; its dyes, and silk, in the cocoon, threads, and in the finished textures, some of which were of rich patterns, and some splendidly embroidered; also, a few fine Indian carpets, a curious collection of jewelry from Bombay, some furniture elaborately arved, elegant fans inlaid with jewels and isory, gold and silver cloth, native pottery and mal-work, and a collection of antiquities. Canada made a very large and comprehen* exhibit. Among the prominent classes of products shown were cotton and woolen cloths, hiery, leather goods, chemicals, sewing-mathines, hardware, earthenware, marbles, and made-up garments. The models of ships, and *imens of ores, petroleum, plumbago, and oiling-stones, were also exhibited. The disP's of furs was prominent and fine. Each of the other colonies of the British *Present a contribution of its products and ouliar native industries, all of them curious, *Active groups of good industrial promise. The prominent feature of the French exhition was the very extensive display of textile

materials for ladies' wear, and of dress-ornaments and finished garments. The richest point-lace shawls and trimmings, beautiful embroideries, satin dresses richly trimmed, dresses with Oriental patterns combined in beautiful color-effects, daintily-embroidered satin shoes, fans, ribbons, artificial flowers, silk stockings with lace insertions, rich brocades and heavy velvets, and all the sumptuous products of the Lyonnaise silk-industry, were grouped and combined, with such a masterly understanding of effects of color and symmetry, that their beauties were enhanced by the arrangement. Forty Lyons silk-manufacturers made a joint display, filling a large court with their exhibits. One house exhibited fifty varieties of silk-cocoons. The French bronze-founders made the finest show of bronzes in the Exhibition, though few new works were shown in the Main Hall, and several of the most celebrated dealers were not represented. Among the finest pieces were Grégoire's “Rape of Hersilia,” exhibited by Susse, and Pradier's “Atalanta” and “Sappho,” Jules Moignier's “Pointer and Pheasant” and the Comte de Nieuwekerke's “Duke of Clarence in Combat with a French Knight" in brass and nickel, exhibited by the same house, which also had fine salvers and clock-cases of beaten brass, and handsome objects ornamented with Mexican onyx. Still finer was the Marchand exhibit, embracing Bourgeoise's “Snake-Charmer,” and his “Kabylean Washerwoman,” Schönewerk’s “Boy and Tortoise,” and two figures of Egyptian dancers, besides a large mantel of black marble, elaborately ornamented with verd-antique and figures in gilt bronze, and a circular settee, with a bronze candelabrum in the centre, surmounting a fountain in red antique marble, and having a silver-gilt frame and green satin upholstery. Kaffel, of Paris, had a large variety of fancy bronzes. A great variety of fancy articles of all kinds, materials, and uses, came from France. The largest Paris jewelers contributed no more than the great jewelers of Regent Street; yet there were exquisite specimens of enamel and other curious ornamental work sent by makers who are alone in their specialties. Of French furniture there was a slender collection, though three or four gorgeous articles were sent. Of porcelain there was a much weaker exhibit than in the English and German sections. The Sèvres factory was not represented, except by a couple of splendid vases, and one or two other articles in the Art Hall, and a few laques in the collection of the bronzeur }. A large variety of Palissy ware was brought by Barbizet, the grandson of the Barbizet who rediscovered the process of Palissy about fifty years ago. Montagnon, of Nevers, exhibited fine copies of the Nevers faience of the seventeenth century. Faience de Gien, table-sets, etc., consisted of imitations of ancient French and majolica faience. The Limoges makers exhibited porcelain, decorated

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