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of Philadelphia. The President formally pro- missioners appointed by the foreign governclaimed the Exhibition on the 3d of July, 1873, ments were the following gentlemen : Argenand on the 5th of the same month the rep- tine Confederation, Carlos Carranza; Austria, resentatives of foreign governments were duly Rudolph Isbary ; Belgium, Baron Gustave de advertised. On June 5, 1874, an act was Woelmont; Brazil, the Conde d'Eu; Chili
, passed declaring that the Exhibition would be Rafael Lorrain ; China, Edward B. Drew; held under the auspices of the Government, Denmark, Jacob Holmblad ; Ecuador, Edward and requesting the President to invite foreign Shippen; Egypt, Prince Mohammed Tawfic governments to be represented and take part Pasha ; France, M. M. Ozenne; German Emin the International Exhibition.” By a special pire, Dr. Jacobi; Great Britain and colonies, provision permission was granted to convey the Duke of Richmond; Canada, Senator Lue articles to the exhibition-grounds without pay- Letellier de St. Just; New South Wales, Sir ment of import duties, to be held there in James Martin Knight ; Victoria, Sir Edmund bond ; duty was to be collected only on articles Barry; South Australia, A. Musgrave; Honsold and delivered in this country, except upon duras, Governor Don Francisco Bardales ; articles imported for sale during the Exhibition; Italy, Baron Blanc, minister to Washington the other class, comprising the exhibits proper, Japanese Empire, Okubo Toshimichi ; Liberia, most remain on exhibition until the day ap- J. S. Payne; Mexico, Romero Rubio; Netherpointed for the close of the Exposition, which lands, Dr. É. H. von Baumhauer ; Norway, was the 10th of November.
Herman Baars; Orange Free State, Charles The Centennial Commission was appointed W. Riley ; Peru, J. C. Tracy; Russia, Privyby the President from nominations made by Councilor Butovsky; Sandwich Islands, S. Ğ. the Governors of the several States and Ter- Wilder; Siam, J. H. Chandler; Spain, Coloritories. The officers chosen were the follow- nel Lopez Fabra; Sweden, P. A. Bergstrom; ing gentlemen : General Joseph R. Hawley, Switzerland, Colonel H. Rieter; Tunis, Sidí of Connecticut, for president; Orestes Cleve- Houssein; Turkey, G. d'Aristrarchi, minister land, John D. Creigh, Robert Lowry, Thomas to Washington; Venezuela, Leon de la Cova. H. Coldwell, John McNeil, and William Gur An area of 236 acres was inclosed for exhiDey, vice-presidents; Alfred T. Goshorn, di- bition purposes. By the beginning of the year rector-general; John L. Campbell, secretary; 1876 the Exhibition Buildings were erected and and John L. Shoemaker, counselor and solici- ready for the reception of exhibits. The cost tor. An executive committee of thirteen was of the five main structures was about $4,500,appointed, with Myer Asch as its secretary, 000. At the opening of the Exposition 190 and several bureaus of administration were buildings had been erected within the inclosconstituted under the following chiefs: for- ure, and before its close there were more eign, A. T. Goshorn, Myer Ash ; installation, than 200. The city of Philadelphia went to a Henry Pettit; transportation, Dolphus Tor- great expense in improving the avenues leadrey; machinery, John S. Albert; agriculture, ing to the grounds, and in building a handsome Burnet Landreth; horticulture, Charles H. iron truss-bridge over the Schuylkill, costing Miller; fine arts, John Sartain. The corpo- over $1,000,000. The chief railroad-lines of rators of the Board of Finance consisted of the country entered into special agreements to two from each congressional district, and four convey visitors to the Centennial at special from each State and Territory at large. This reduced rates of fare. body was organized with John Welsh as presi The applications for space exceeded the exdent; William Sellers and John S. Barbour, pectations of the commissioners. It was found as vice-presidents; Frederick Fraley, secretary necessary to erect a large annex to the Art and treasurer; William Bigler, financial agent; Building, as the wall-space in Memorial Hall Henry Pettit, Joseph M. Wilson, and II. J. was found far from sufficient to accommodate Schwarzmann, engineers and architects; and the applicants. France began early to bestir a Board of Directors of twenty-two members. herself in preparing for the Exposition. Rus
The city of Philadelphia was decided upon sia was backward in responding to the inas the place of the Exhibition, a beautiful site vitation, questioning the official character of in the spacious Fairmount Park being selected. the Exhibition, but at a late hour decided to Besides the private subscriptions, appropria- send a large representative display of her arts tions of $500,000 in 1875 and $1,500,000 in and products, selected and managed under the following session were made by Congress governmental auspices, which formed when
as an advance loan, while the city of Phila- opened, somewhat more tardily than the other |delphia appropriated $1,500,000, the State of national exhibits, one of the most interesting
Pennsylvania, $1,000,000, and other States and sections of the fair. Spain also was dilatory Territories various lesser amounts. The States in dispatching her exhibits, and also sent à made active preparations, appointing local fine representation of her productions, under managers to aid and organize the efforts of patronage of the government. The British their citizens. The foreign nations also, to exhibitors seemed to comprehend best the which the invitation had been presented, ac- spirit and requirements of the Exhibition, and cepted it promptly in most cases, and bespoke took a pride in sending samples of the best space for their exhibits. The chief com- art-work of their country, as well as of her
finest industrial products; yet her latter ex- fine as at Vienna. The German and Austrian hibition, owing to the questionable commer- exhibitors, and the French in their art exhibit, cial advantage of competing with American evidently labored under a false appreciation of protected manufactures, was not so large and the taste of the American public, which was a
Main Exhibition Building,
little indignant at being credited with so little foreign exhibitors frankly declared, after seeartistic understanding as was inferred by many ing the American displays, that, if they had of the art and ornamental exhibits. Several known what they had to compete with, they
would have made a difference in the character mind that the exhibitors were actuated mainly of the articles exhibited. In the American de- by commercial motives, and that it was an partment the exhibition was unexpectedly full American market which they sought to gain in and rich, although many novel manufacturing exposing their manufactures at the Philadelprocesses remained unexhibited, owing to the phia Exhibition. Those industries in which jealousy of the proprietors lest their methods the Americans are weakest and those which might be copied. The European colonies and are not practised in this country would natudistant nations were, in the main, better rep- rally be the best represented in the foreign exresented than in any of the former expositions; hibitions, while those in which American manand it is one of the best results of international ufacturers, under the protection of import fairs that countries far removed from the usual duties, have driven foreign producers out of tracks of commerce bave greeted them as a the home market, could not be exhibited with means of opening up intercourse with the com- any advantage by foreigners. mercial world. The British colonies and the The Main Building, designed for the exhiSouth American nations, with the pardonable bition of the manufactured products, and prodvanity and ambition which are common to new ucts of the mines and metallurgy, as well as countries, sent most extensive and interesting the condition of science and education, in all collections of their products. In judging of nations, covered an area of twenty acres, with the different displays it should be borne in a length of 1,880 feet, east and west, and a
breadth of 464 feet, and having projecting Hawaiian Islands, 1,575; Italy, 8,943; Japan, wings in the centres of the sides, 416 feet in 17,831; Luxemburg, 247; Mexico, 6,567; Nethlength, and in the centres of the ends, 216 feeterlands, 15,948; Norway, 6,959; Orange Free in length. The exhibition-space was on one State, 1,058; Peru, 1,462; Portugal, 5,988; floor. The roof of the main part was 70 feet Russia, 11,141 ; Spain and colonies, 11,253; high. In the centre of the main portion Sweden, 17,799 ; Switzerland, 6,693 ; Tunis, was an elevated square, with 184 feet sides, 2,015; Turkey, 3,347. The space reserved for having towers 120 feet high and 48 feet square the United States' exhibits was 136,684 square at the corners. At the four corners of the feet. The total exhibition-space of the buildbuilding were towers 75 feet high; and the ing was 363,102 square feet. The space was projecting wings, through which led the main distributed in parallelograms between the main entrances, were fronted with façades 90 feet longitudinal aisle, 120 feet broad and 1,832 feet in height. The building was constructed long, and two side-aisles 100 feet broad, and with wrought-iron roof-trusses supported by the numerous cross-aisles. Connecting the two wrought-iron columns, 672 in number, and side-entrances was a transept of the same width sided mainly with glazed sash, with a substruct- as the central nave. ure of brick 7 feet high, upon a foundation of Two remarkably large organs, one built by massive masonry. There was a tier of res- Roosevelt, of New York, with two other organs taurants and withdrawing-rooms at the sides which were played by electric connections of the building, and above them, in an upper with the large one, and the other set up by story, a gallery of chambers occupied by the Hook & Hastings, of Boston, occupied portions Centennial authorities, and by the educational of the galleries, and were playing almost conexhibits of several of the States. The space stantly. The Maine cotton-mills made a collecwas apportioned for the collective displays of tive exbibit. Nearly all the large New Engthe different nations as follows, in square feet: land cotton and cloth factories participated in Argentine Republic, 2,861; Austro-Hungary, an extensive exhibit of American textiles. The 24,727; Belgium, 15,598; Brazil, 6,899; Cana- collection of American carpets was very large. da, 24,118; Chili
, 3,424, China, 6,628; Den- The new floor-cloth called linoleum was also mark, 2,562; Egypt, 5,026; France, 45,460; exhibited. The cutlers and hardware manufactGermany, 29,625; Great Britain and Ireland, urers also made a fine exhibit. A new kind of 54,155; India and British colonies, 24,193; veneering for interiors was sent from Boston.
The display of porcelain and pottery was ex- houses were not represented. Not a single pretensive. The iron-masters of the country made cious stone or piece of jewelry of value was sent. a good representative display. The watch-coin- Artchison, of Edinburgh, made a large display panies exhibited their watches, and all the of Cairngorm stones, Scotch pebbles, among principal gun, scale, safe, scientific instrument, them the largest one ever found, and fancy arclock, telegraphic' instrument, railroad-car, ticles. A new description of cutlery, in which glassware, furniture, piano-forte, organ, paint, the silver plating is made to penetrate the subchemical, paper, book, and stationery manu- stance of the steel
, was exhibited, with a confacturing houses, and all the largest industrial- siderable variety of jewelry, by John Neal. ists in every branch did credit
to themselves and The most interesting portion of the British to their country. The gas-fixtures were spe- section was the very fully represented class of cially admired; and the displays of silver-ware artistic manufactures, pottery, furniture, and and jewelry and precious stones by the leading domiciliary ornamentation, illustrating the exNew York and Philadelphia jewelers were the traordinary revival of art-feeling and good largest and in some respects the finest collec- taste which has been going on in England for tions of the kind in the fair.
many years. The English exhibition of ceThe British exhibition was the strongest in ramics, ornamental metal-work, and furniture, textile fabrics, embracing a great variety of probably engrossed the attention of the visitors dress-goods, of woolens, the broadcloths, che- more than any other separate collections in the viots, kerseymeres, and all the well-known Exposition. Doulton, of Lambeth, sent a vast materials for men's apparel; of poplins and variety of his famous earthenware and terralinens, lawns and laces, from Ireland; of cur- cotta fabrics. The Lambeth faience presented tain brocades, from Morris & Co., of London, all the rich soft bues of blue, green, brown, and and made-up ladies' garments from Hitchcock buff, which are peculiar to it, and all the quaint & Co., which were behind the French display in and graceful forms, and the brilliant glaze, by the same line in taste, rather than in richness of which it is also distinguished. Many of the material. There was a very extensive display objects were covered with raise, and painted of Axminster carpets, imported Indian carpets, devices, human and animal figures, flowers, oil-cloths, etc., which contrasted favorably fruits, leaves, and conventional ornaments, of with the still larger but cheap and badly-de- artistic conception, and spiritedly treated. In signed collection of American floor-coverings. terra-cotta, there were a pulpit and font, manThe display of chemical products represented tels, etc.; of the use of encaustic tiles in fireeighty-five houses, and contained crystallized place decoration, there was a striking exhibit; inasses of caffeine, aloin, codetac sulphas, two tiled hearths had fenders of the same machlorate and bichromate of potassium, the es- terial, and were covered with clocks, vases, sence of egg, a novelty, a new indelible ink, plaques, etc., one of Doulton ware, the other soda, soaps, paints, inks, etc. The metallur- of Lambeth faience. One set of chimney-tiles gists and iron and steel workers of England represented scenes from Shakespeare. A series made a very slender exhibit of her principal of plaques, painted by George Tinworth, conindustry; there were only nineteen exhibits, tained child-scenes of the Bible. The two the chief of which were models of Dr. Sie- Mintons and Maw & Co. had not less profuse mens's regenerating furnaces for iron and displays of painted tiling; conspicuous among glass, wire ropes, and a single exhibit of ores, the designs, which often covered a number of pigs, rails, and steel. The gunsmiths' exhibit blocks combined, were & water-view with was fine, seventeen exhibitors taking part; cranes and lily-buds, a large domestic scene, and there was a good display of the only two allegorical and grotesque figures, falcons, and of the Sheffield cutlers who thought it worth a series of genuine canine portraits. Many of while to exhibit. In literary manufacture, the figures were colored, some in outline, on Bradbury, Agnew & Co. had a good exhibit; grounds of all colors, but oftenest white, drab, Dickman & Higham showed a hexaglot Bible; or buff'; there were hand-painted, printed, enand the Illustrated London Neros and London ameled, and majolica, glazed and unglazed tiles, Graphic made showy displays, the latter paper and ceramic tessera for coarse mosaic, in having a pavilion hang around with the origi- which work there was a copy of an ancient nal drawings of hundreds of its best engrav- fresco, and other examples. Daniel & Son exings, and a private office for the use of its hibited a good collection of finer porcelain, inartists and correspondents. There was a fine cluding a splendid Prometheus vase, and imitashow of scientific and philosophical instru- tions of antique vases decorated in påte sur ments by the best English makers. The first påte, by L. Solon; also copies of Henry II. London and Liverpool watchmakers combined, ware, and of Limoges enamel, panels representto the number of fourteen, in a fine display; ing Shakespeare's seven ages, by H. S. Marks, M. F. Dent exhibited different systems of com- and a gorgeous display of table-ware richly pensating balances. Other articles exhibited decorated with Oriental and floral patterns, etc. were Aberdeen and Beesbrook granite, roof- The exhibition of the cabinet-makers was varied tiles, Portland cement-blocks, fire-brick retorts, and fine; specimens of fully-furnished apartchalk, whiting, emery, etc. British jewelers ments were shown in many exhibits; the Eastmade a very scanty show. The largest London lake style was prominent. Other styles ex
hibited were the Queen Anne, Jacobean, and materials for ladies' wear, and of dress-ornaAnglo-Indian. The materials were mahogany, ments and finished garments. The richest oak, satin-wood, ebonized wood, etc., heavily point-lace shawls and trimmings, beautiful carved, or lightly constructed, of uniform or embroideries, satin dresses richly trimmed, combined woods, inlaid or trimmed with wood, dresses with Oriental patterns combined in porcelain, or metal. It was the most solid and beautiful color - effects, daintily - embroidered tasteful exhibition of furniture in the Fair. A satin shoes, fans, ribbons, artificial flowers, great centre of attraction in the British section silk stockings with lace insertions, rich browas the regal display of silversmith's work, cades and heavy velvets, and all the sumptuous and electroplating, made by the famous house products of the Lyonnaise silk-industry, were of the Elkingtons. Thę Milton shield and grouped and combined, with such a masterly magnificent vase exhibited at Vienna, a row of understanding of effects of color and symelaborate dessert-sets, and a hundred other metry, that their beauties were enhanced by pieces, showed what wonderful work they can the arrangement. Forty Lyons silk-manuiarn out in repoussé, metallic inlaying, and en- facturers made a joint display, filling a large amel, and exhibited an immense wealth of court with their exhibits. One house exhibartistic ideas.
ited fifty varieties of silk-cocoons. The French The Australian colonies made a large and bronze-founders_made the finest show of ambitious display, revealing a vigorous and bronzes in the Exhibition, though few new solid development, fine public buildings, and works were shown in the Main Hall
, and sevgreat works of engineering, a fine system of eral of the most celebrated dealers were not education, and the establishment of all the represented. Among the finest pieces were chief manufacturing industries on a firm basis. Grégoire's “Rape of Hersilia,” exhibited by The immense production of the precious metals Susse, and Pradier's "Atalanta" and "Sappho, was exhibited, and the excellent grain and fine Jules Moignier's “ Pointer and Pheasant" and wool produced in most of the colonies. The the Comte de Nieuwekerke's “Duke of Olarindustrial exhibit showed that the colonists can ence in Combat with a French Knight" in sapply themselves with nearly all the comforts brass and nickel, exhibited by the same house, of English life. The woolens exhibited were which also had fine salvers and clock-cases of of admirable material and texture. Cocoons beaten brass, and handsome objects ornaand skein-silk showed that the silk-worm has mented with Mexican onyx. Still finer was been naturalized here. Excellent manufactures the Marchand exhibit, embracing Bourgeoise's of leather were exhibited. Wine exhibits of “Snake-Charmer," and his “ Kabylean Washover a hundred kinds showed that all the best erwoman," Schönewerk's “Boy and Tortoise,” Farieties of the European grape will grow in and two figures of Egyptian dancers, besides a that friendly climate of interest were the large mantel of black marble, elaborately orcollections of stuffed birds, minerals, orna- namented with verd-antique and figures in ments made from the great eggs of the emu, gilt bronze, and a circular settee, with a bronze Weapons and tools of the natives, and the candelabrum in the centre, surmounting a photographs of towns and scenery.
fountain in red antique marble, and having a The Indian exhibit included the grains, cot- silver-gilt frame and green satin upholstery. ton, and natural productions of the great Kaffel, of Paris, had a large variety of fancy British dependency; its dyes, and silk, in the bronzes. A great variety of fancy articles of all cocoon, threads, and in the finished textures, kinds, materials, and uses, came from France. some of which were of rich patterns, and The largest Paris jewelers contributed no more some splendidly embroidered; also, a few fine than the great jewelers of Regent Street; yet Indian carpets, a curious collection of jewelry there were exquisite specimens of enamel and from Bombay, some furniture elaborately other curious ornamental work sent by makers carved, elegant fans inlaid with jewels and who are alone in their specialties. Of French ivory, gold and silver cloth, native pottery and furniture there was a slender collection, though metal-work, and a collection of antiquities. three or four gorgeous articles were sent. Of
Canada made a very large and comprehen- porcelain there was a much weaker exhibit sive exhibit. Among the prominent classes of than in the English and German sections. products shown were cotton and woolen cloths, The Sèvres factory was not represented, exhosiery, leather goods, chemicals, sewing-ma- cept by a couple of splendid vases and one or chines
, hardware, earthenware, marbles, and two other articles in the Art Hall, and a few made-up garments. The models of ships, and plaques in the collection of the bronzeur specimens of ores, petroleun, plumbago, and Kaffel. A large variety of Palissy ware was building-stones, were also exhibited. The dis- brought by Barbizet, the grandson of the Barplay of furs was prominent and fine.
bizet who rediscovered the process of Palissy Each of the other colonies of the British about fifty years ago. Montagnon, of Nevers, Empire sent a contribution of its products and exhibited fine copies of the Nevers faience of peculiar native industries, all of them curious, the seventeenth century. Faience de Gien, attractive groups of good industrial promise. table-sets, etc., consisted of imitations of an
The prominent feature of the French exhi- cient French and majolica faience. The Libition was the very extensive display of textile moges makers exhibited porcelain, decorated