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jecting cantilevers outside will be suspended Hirondelles," which attracted but little attentwo walks for pedestrians. Upon an upper tion. This was followed by two novels, “ Le boom, 15 feet above the street-car track, will Magicien” (1837), and "Charlotte Corday be the railway track, and on each side of it a (1840). At the same time he published, under roadway for carriages. The height of the upper the title of " Evangile du Peuple" (1840), a floor will be 200 feet above the water. The philosophical and radical commentary on the estimated cost is $5,000,000. The maximum life of Jesus, for which he was sentenced to load which the bridge is calculated to bear is eight months' imprisonment and a fine of 500 12,500 pounds per lineal foot.
francs. During his imprisonment he wrote The Gilbert Elevated Railroad Company, another volume of poems, “Les Chants d'un after long contentions in the courts, is now Prisonnier,” and 1841–42 published three in a position to complete its line of elevated small socialistic works. After the Revolution steam-railway for rapid transit in New York of 1848 he was elected to the Legislative City. The route is from the Battery, through Assembly from the department of Saône-etCollege Place, West Broadway, South Fifth Loire. Having made himself prominent by Avenue, Amity Street, and up Sixth Avenue. radical views, he was among those deputies Upon some portions of the line the supports who were expelled after December 2, 1851, have been erected for some time. The struc- when he went to England. In 1869, having ture consists of two rows of iron columns returned to France, he was elected to the standing in the street, supporting parallel gird- Corps Législatif from the department Bouchesers, which are connected at intervals by cross-du-Rhône, where he sat on the extreme Left. girders, and having longitudinal floor-beams. After September 4, 1870, he administered for The outer girders rise above the track so as to a time the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, be a protection in case of accidents; the upper but, having disagreed with the Government at surface of their top-beams being on about the Tours, he was removed from office. In 1871 same level as the car and landing platforms. he was elected to the National Assembly, and The Sixth Avenue columns will be 37 feet in 1876 a Senator from Bouches-du-Rhône, apart lengthwise, and 23 feet distant across, taking his place on both occasions with the from centre to centre. The parts of the col- extreme Left. Besides the works mentioned umns will be two channel-bars, 9 by 27 by above, he wrote “L'Histoire des Montainches; two plates, 12 by inches; a plate gnards” (1847), “L'Enule du XIXme Siècle," fastened to the foot; and four pieces of angle- "La Vie future au Point de vue socialiste" iron bars. The girders are pinned trusses, 6 (1857), "La Vie des Animaux," etc. feet deep, and 5 feet 6 inches distance between EUROPE. The area of Europe, according the centres of the pins; the upper and lower to the latest dates (see Behm and Wagner, Bechords are composed of two channel - bars, völkerung der Erde, iv., Gotha, 1876), was united by iron plates. Each span of the longi- estimated at 3,823,378 square miles (against tudinal girder has four panels. The cross- 3,824,456 in 1875), and the aggregate populagirders are made up of plates, 24 inches deep tion at 309,178,000, against 302,972,000 in 1875. by of an inch in thickness. At the junc- The transfer of 6.59 square miles from Switztion of Amity Street and Sixth Avenue there erland to Italy has changed the area of these will be a curve of 90 feet radius, and at South two countries, and new calculations have been Fifth Avenue and Amity Street another like made for several other countries. Gains of curve. Fifty-two feet in a mile will be the population are found chiefly in Germany, and steepest grade. In Amity Street, College Place, in Austro-Hungary, the Netherlands, Luxemand West Broadway the posts are to be placed burg, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, on the sidewalk, and in Sixth and South Fifth Belgium, Great Britain, Portugal, Italy, RouAvenues in the roadway. The cross-ties will be mania, and Servia, where new estimates were 19 feet 6 inches long, and will be placed 18 inches substituted. The figures of 1875 and 1876 apart. Outside each line of rails longitudinal compare as follows: timbers will be bolted, letting down upon the cross-ties on the outside. The total load which
Pop'n in 1875. Pop'a in 1876. the structure is calculated to support is 15,000 Germany,
42,723.242 pounds per foot on each track. The stations Austro-Hungary
85,904,485 87,700,000 will be situated at the intersections of streets Luxemburg..
197,528 to the number of two per mile. The station- Finland.
1,832,188 1,882,629 platforms will be level with the car-floors, and
1,802,589 160 feet at least in length. The station-build- Denmark,
1,861,000 1,903.000 ings will have iron frames, and will be roofed Belgium..
5.253.821 5,836,634 and sided with galvanized sheets of corrugated Portugal..
8,990,670 4.298,881 iron. The tracks are of steel, weighing 56 Italy.
Roumania.. poands per yard.
1,388,505 1,877,063 ESQUIRÓS, HENRI ALPHONSE, a French writer and politician, born in 1814; died May
165,289,971 '171,497,479 14, 1876. În 1834 he made his debut as a The area and population of the divisions of writer with a volume of poems, entitled “Les Europe were, at the latest dates, as follows:
DIVISIONS AND SUBDIVISIONS.
Square Miles ms
Square Miles of
Population of Subdivisions.
11,878 204,092 121,608
6,836,684 (1874) 86,102,921 (1872) 83,450,000 (1876)
10,500 (1874) 71,400 (1874)
The following tables exhibit the different states of Europe arranged according to their population and area, showing at the same time what per cent. the total population and area of each country are of those of Europe:
1. Russia (excl. of Finland).. 71,730,890 (1870) 2. German Empire.... 42,728,242 (1875) 8. Austro-Hungary.
87,700,000 (1876) 4. France....
86,102,921 (1872) 8. Great Britain and Ireland 88,450,000 (1876) 6 Italy.
27,482,174 (1875) 7. Spain
16,551,647 (1870) & Turkey
8,500,000 (1864) 9. Belgium.
6,836,634 (1874) 10. Roumania..
5,078,000 (1878) 11. Sweden..
4,888,291 (1875) 12. Portugal*
4,298,881 (1874) 18. Netherlands
8,809,527 (1875) 14. Switzerland.
2,669,147 (1870) 15. Denmark
1,908,000 (1876) 16. Finland.....
1,882,622 (1874) 17. Norway
1,802,882 (1875) 18. Greece
1,457,894 (1870) 19. Servia...
1,877,068 (1875) 20. Laxemburg
205,158 (1875) 21. Montenegro.
190,000 22. Andorra..
12,000 9. Liechtenstein.
8.060 (1868) 34. San Marino...
7.816 (1874) 2. Monaco...
5,714 (1878) Europe...
28.243 18.848 12.216 11.699 10.889 8.905 6.851 2.747 1.729 1.644 1.420 1.898 1.284 0.865 0.616 0.610 0.584 0.472 0.446 0.066 0.062 0.004
The area and population of the possessions 0.003 of European powers in other continents were
as follows in 1876 :
1. Great Britain...
discussed in the early part of the year were Square Miles. Population. the amnesty questions and the university bill
. 7,964,779 203,942,000 The latter, which provided that the state uni2. Turkey
versities should have the sole right of confer24,481,000
6,802,988 12,972.000 ring degrees, was adopted by the Chamber of 5. Spain.
8,881,000 Deputies, but was rejected by the Senate. In
872,997 5,998.000 7. Portugal.
the latter part of the year the interment ques8. Denmark
84,145 47,400 tion led to a ministerial crisis, in consequence 9. Sweden...
of which Jules Simon replaced M. Dufaure as Total, about....
18,165,100 292,820,000 prime-minister. With regard to the Oriental
question, the Duc Decazes, the Minister of ForThe Eastern war - cloud which hung over eign Affairs, declared on November 3d that it Europe during 1875 continued during the year was necessary for France to preserve peace, 1876, and at one time threatened to lead to a and it would not interfere in the Oriental general European war. The insurrection in question until its most vital interests dethe Herzegovina spread over the whole of Bos- manded it. nia in the early part of the year. All attempts In Anstro-Hungary the Oriental question at pacification failed, the insurgents steadily re- caused considerable trouble. On the one hand, fusing all propositions of the foreign powers as the Slavic subjects of Austria showed their well as of the Turkish Government. On July sympathy for their oppressed brethren in the 1st, Servia, which had for a long time threatened Turkish provinces in many ways. On the other to make the cause of the insurgents her own, hand, the Hungarians, partly on account of declared war against Turkey, and was shortly their hostility to everything Slavic, and partly afterward followed by Montenegro. But, al- through race-affinities (being besides the Turks though the Servians were aided by Russian the chief representatives of the Mongolian volunteers, and contributions of arms and mon- race in Europe), were entirely in sympathy ey, they were repeatedly defeated by the Turks, with the Turks. Several demonstrations to so that Servia was forced to invoke the aid of this effect occurred in Hungary, which were Russia to secure an armistice of two months. suppressed with considerable difficulty. The The Government of Turkey, in the mean while, conflict between the Government and the had undergone considerable changes. On May Catholic Church continued during 1876. The 30th the Sultan, Abdul-Aziz, was dethroned by marriage law which was passed by the Reichsthe Sheik-ul-Islam, and was succeeded by his rath was disliked by the bishops. The monasnephew, Murad V., who in turn was removed tic association law, after being passed by both by the Council of Ministers on August 31st, and Houses, was not signed by the Emperor, but was replaced by his brother Abdul-Hamid II. the ministry declared that the Government These proceedings had produced a deep im- would bring in a new bill in a different form. pression in the other countries of Europe, par. The differences between the two parts of the ticularly in England and Russia. In the for- empire were brought to a close in May by : mer country the excesses committed by the treaty in which all points except the bank Bashi-Bazouks, the irregular troops of Turkey, question were satisfactorily settled. The latter in Bosnia and Bulgaria, created a storm of in- continued to be a source of trouble, and was dignation, and called forth a decidedly hostile the cause of a panic. feeling to the Turks among all classes of the The Royal Title's Bill was, next to the Eastpopulation. Finally, in the latter part of the ern question, the most important subject disyear, the English Government proposed to the cussed in England in 1876. The object of this other powers of Europe that a conference be bill was to give to the Queen the additional held at Constantinople to settle all questions title of Empress of India, and thus strengthen arising out of the war. Russia, after having the English hold upon the natives of India. in every possible manner aided the Servians, The difficulties with China were brought to & and after a threatening speech from the Czar, close this year, after having threatened at a was obliged to accede to this proposition, and time to lead to a war, the Chinese Government the conference met at Constantinople on De- making some important concessions. An anicember 12th. The Governments of both Eng- mated discussion of the extradition treaty beland and Russia, however, had previously or- tween England and the United States threatdered the mobilization of parts of their ar- ened for a time to overthrow the Ashburton mies.
Treaty of 1842. In accordance with the provisions of the In Germany the war of the Government with new constitution, the elections in France for the Roman Catholic bishops continued during the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies took the year. The Bishops of Münster and Paderplace in the beginning of the year, the Repub- born, and the Archbishop of Cologne, were licans gaining a decisive victory in both. The removed from their offices, and only saved prime-minister, Buffet, resigned immediately themselves by flight from imprisonment. The after the election, as he had been defeated in Arnim affair, or rather the conflict between four different districts, and he was replaced Prince Bismarck and his former embassador by M. Dufaure. The most important questions in Paris, Count Harry von Arnim, came to an
end in 1876 by the total defeat of the latter. the public money appropriated to the support A plan of the Imperial Government to bring of their schools. all the railroads in the empire under its con A memorial addressed by the Alliance in trol, while being supported by Prussia, met 1874 to the Turkish embassador at Washingwith a bitter opposition in South Germany. ton, in behalf of persecuted Christians, and in
In Italy the financial condition of the coun- favor of religious liberty in the Turkish Emtry seemed to be improving, as, according to pire, had been brought to the attention of the the budget of 1876, there was to be a surplus Government at Constantinople. In behalf of of 2,000,000 lire. The plan of the ministry his Government, the embassador denied that to buy up the railroads led to a ministerial the Christian subjects of the Turkish Empire crisis, which ended in the resignation of the had any cause of complaint in the matter reMinghetti ministry in March, and the forma- ferred to. (The grievances of the Turkish tion of a new body under Depretis, the leader Christians are related in the ANNUAL CYCLOof the Left. The elections for the Chamber PÆDIA for 1875.), But, during the year, these of Deputies in November resulted in a decided complaints had been continued. The Sultan victory for the Government. In order to se- had lately promised important reforms, and, cure to the Liberal party a majority in the among them, better security for religious libSenate, the King created thirty-two new sen- erty. In accordance with the direction of the ators on November 17th.
executive committee, the secretary and treasIn Spain the Carlist War was brought to a urer of the Alliance had remitted, semi-anclose in February, and the country enjoyed fornually, to Mesdames Pronier, Carrasco, and the first time in many years internal peace. Cook (the widows of the three delegates to In the Cortes the new constitution was adopted the General Conference of the Alliance of 1873, in May. Although this document guaranteed who lost their lives by the sinking of the steamfull liberty of conscience, the restrictions of er Ville du Havre), the interest of the funds the Protestants continued to such a degree raised by the American friends of their dethat England and Germany were forced to ceased husbands. The funds were invested in interfere.
the following amounts : Cook fund, $7,000; In Denmark the old conflict between the Carrasco fund, $5,000; Pronier fund, $5,000. Government and the Lower House continued The “ Conference fund," or the surplus left during 1876, the House repeatedly refusing to from the sums contributed for the General Convote for the budget. The socialists caused ference of 1873, amounted to $6,000, and was considerable excitement, being very active, al- safely deposited. In view of the continued though in a considerable minority.
financial pressure, it was proposed to conduct EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE. The eighth the Alliance for the ensuing year without exannual meeting of the Evangelical Alliance pense for salary or office-rent. for the United States of America was held in The annual conference of the Evangelical New York City, January 31st. Mr. William Alliance (British branch) was held at SouthE. Dodge presided. A resolution was adopted port, beginning October 3d. The report of commending to the Branch Alliance in Phila- the secretary for the past year spoke of an indelphia “ the consideration of the expediency crease in the number of members and the forand practicability of special religious services mation of new branches. Mention was made during the time of the International Exposition of the interest which had been taken in the of 1876 in that city, illustrating the unity and Alliance by the Queen and the Empress of Gerpower of our evangelical Christianity, and the many. An address had been presented to the relations of the religion we teach to the prog- Prince of Wales on his departure for India. ress, perpetuity, and true glory of the Ameri- The Alliance had been very earnest in efforts can Republic, and the world's civilization and in behalf of the Christians in Turkey, and the salvation." The Philadelphia branch was also credit was claimed for its committee of hav" respectfully requested to embrace suitable op- ing been the first body—more than a year preportunities for acquainting distinguished vis- viously—to call the attention of the Governitors to the International Exposition with our ment to their condition. The Emperor of GerChristian and philanthropic institutions.” A many had offered a cordial welcome to the committee was appointed to coöperate with members of the Alliance, if they should dethe Philadelphia branch in carrying out this sire to hold a conference in Berlin, and it measure. Reports were read from the Wis- was suggested that the invitation might be acconsin, St. Louis, and Newbern branches. An cepted in 1878. During the sessions of the account was given of the proceedings of the Alliance a number of papers were read, prinfirst Biennial Conference of the Alliance, which cipally upon subjects bearing upon the condiwas held at Pittsburg, Pa., October 26 to 29, tion of Christianity on the Continent of Eu1875. (See ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875.) rope. An important paper was also read by
In March, 1875, a committee of the Alliance the Rev. James Stephenson, of Dublin, on had addressed a memorial to the Board of Edu- “ The Power of the Evangelical Alliance, and cation of the City of New York against a propo- how here to use it for Local Purposes." sition from the trustees of the Roman Catholic EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION. The parochial schools of the city to have a part of following is a summary of the statistics of
61 121 16 69 587
46 60 69 89 56 42
4 14 26 27
84 118 149
85 111 22
the Evangelical Association as they were pub- Europe was in a flourishing condition, and the lished in September, 1876:
number of members in the missions there had increased. This work extended over Würtem
berg, Baden, Alsace, Saxony, Switzerland, CONFERENCES
Churches. and a part of Prussia. Seven churches had
been built during the year in the European
district, giving an increase in valuation of East Pennsylvania...
church property of more than $38,000, in gold. Central Pennsylvania
11,157 1564 A building-lot had been bought at Stuttgart, New York.
and help was asked in building a church there.
This society was organized in 1839, and the Canada.
first four regularly-appointed missionaries were Michigan
sent out in that year. The first missionary 8,328
was sent to Europe in 1850. Now, the society Wisconsin.
had a very large mission-work in the United
States, employing more than 300 missionaries, Indiana (statis, of 1875).
and had in Europe one annual conference, a Germany
6,801 Pacific (statistics of 1875)
Sunday-school work, a branch publishing1,677
house, and a seminary for young preachers. Erie..
2,505 415 Des Moines...
The increase in the European missions was 25 South Indiana ..
per cent. annually, the number of members Total....
having doubled during the last four years. 526 104,302 1,3504
The annual meeting of the Board of PubliThe total number of children baptized was cation of the Evangelical Association was held 7,397; of adults baptized, 1,429; probable at Cleveland, Ohio, October 31st. The book value of churches, $3,619,468 ; number of par- agent reported that the amount of cash and sonages, 379}; probable value of the same, its equivalents in his hands on the 1st of Sep$465,935; amount of conference contributions, tember was $35,004.12, or $11,236.51 more than $4,787.75; of contributions for missions, $66,- the amount on hand during the same period of 300.57 ; of contributions for the Sunday-school the previous year. The total resources of the and Tract Union, $2,189.17; number of Sun- Board were $336,971.45, against $8,846.55 of day-schools, 1,743; of officers and teachers in liabilities, showing the net resources to be the same, 19,551; of Sunday-school scholars, $328,124.90. The net gains on the business 105,566. The Missionary Society of the Evan- of the year had been $21,916.40. The report gelical Association supported, according to the of the sixteen periodicals showed that they last annual report of the corresponding secre- had an aggregate circulation of 183,775 copies, tary, 289 missions, both home and foreign : or 69,567 more than were circulated in the 277 of these missions were supplied by the
re- previous year. spective annual conferences with 301 mission EXHIBITION, CENTENNIAL. The Inaries. The Sunday-school and Tract Union of ternational Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures, the Evangelical Association was organized in and Products of the Soil and Mine, to which 1869. It has published a number of Sunday- the citizens of the United States had been school books and tracts, and aids Sunday- looking forward with eager anticipations, was schools in procuring libraries.
opened in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, on The annual meeting of the Missionary Society the 10th of May, 1876. In the last volume of of the Evangelical Association was held at In- THE ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA was given an acdianapolis, Ind., October 27th. The treasurer count of the preparations for this, the sixth of reported that the receipts for the year had the great World's Fairs, and the first one held been $65,807.13; the total expenditures had in this country, which was also an anniversary been $82,000. The amount of the heathen- exhibition of the country's progress in the mission fund now in the treasury, after allow. hundredth year of its national existence. ing for $1,299.95 spent during the year, was The project of holding a World's Fair and $27,729.53. The standing fund amounted to Centennial National Exhibition was first pub$52,907.73, having increased $3,739.88 during licly proposed by an association of citizens of
The corresponding secretary re- Philadelphia in 1870. It was officially adopted ported that the heathen mission had been by Congress in the act of March 3, 1871, creestablished in Japan, and the first detachment ating the Centennial Commission, consisting of missionaries, three in number, had been sent of a delegate and alternate delegate from each out. The home-missionary work exhibited an of the States and Territories, intrusted with encouraging degree of prosperity; The num- the selection of a place and making of plans ber of missions had been increased, and all had and preparations for the Exhibition, and by the made some progress. The work on the Pacific act of June 1, 1872, appointing the Centennial coast was advancing steadily. The first camp- Board of Finance, empowered to raise a capimeeting over held on that coast had been held tal stock, which was fixed at $10,000,000, onein Oregon during the summer, and the Pacific quarter of which was readily taken up in subConference had been organized. The work in scription shares of $50, mostly by the citizens