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himself, and from 1841 to 1849 the glass-paintings of the church at Aue, for which he received from King Frederick William IV. first the small and then the large gold medal for art. In 1852 he published fifteen illustrations of the Salvator church in Kilndown, England. After the Royal Glass-painting Establishment was broken up, he established his own, and furnished numerous beautiful works, among them the windows of the cathedral at Basel, the cathedral at Constance, the Protestant churches at Baden-Baden, at Burgdorf in Switzerland, and others.

EGYPT,” a country of Northeastern Africa, nominally a pashalik of the Turkish Empire, but virtually an independent state since 1811. The ruler of Egypt, who has the name of Khedive, is Ismail Pasha, born at Cairo, December 31, 1830, second son of Ibrahim, the son of Mehemet Ali; succeeded to the Government at the death of his uncle, Said Pasha, January 18, 1863. The eldest son of the Khedive, Mohammed Tefwick, born in 1852, is President of the Privy Council; his eldest son, Prince Abbas Bey, was born July 14, 1874. The second son of the Khedive, Prince Hussein Kamil, born in 1853, is member of the Privy Council, and Minister of War and Colonies. The third son, Hassan, also born in 1853, is lieutenant d la suite in the Prussian army. By the annexation of Darfour and other territories, Egypt has largely increased in both area and population. At the beginning of 1875, the area and population of the large divisions of which Egypt is now composed were as follows:

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*For latest statistics of foreigners, of population of large titles, of of commerce of Alexandria, of movement of shipping in the principal ports, etc., see ANNUAL CycloProla for 1874.

embrace the land of the Baris, of which Colonel Baker took possession on May 26, 1871; of Darfour, annexed in 1874; of Shegga and the neighboring districts, which, in 1874, were transferred by their ruler to the Khedive; the Basen or Kunama country; the Danakil coast as far as Bab-el-Mandeb, with Berbera (occupied in 1873), and other points on the coast near Berbera. The area and population of these territories, according to the latest estimates,” were as follows:

Territories. Square Miles. | Population. Land of the Bari................. 6,378.20 120,000 our------- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106,803.35 5,000,000 Shegga and neighboring districts...| 85,042.68 400,000 Land of the Basen............... 6,208.11 150,000 Danakil coast, with Berbera 6,378.20 | ........ New acquisitions 210,810.54 5,670,000 Former possessions.......... 112,681.55 5,000,000 Total........................ 822,992.09 || 10,670,000

The revenue of Egypt for the financial year ending September 10, 1875–year 1591 of the Coptic calendar—was calculated in the official budget estimates at 2,108,493 purses (1 purse = $24.75), and the expenditure at 2,105,295 purses, leaving a surplus of 3,198 purses.

The public debt of Egypt is divided into two classes, the funded debt of the state and the personal debt of the Khedive. There is, besides, a floating debt. In October the funded debt was estimated at £49,000,000, the floating debt at £7,000,000; total state debt, £56000,000. The personal debt of the Khedive was estimated at £13,000,000. The real amount of his debt is, however, not yet fully known. On August 1, 1875, an English authority estimated the floating debt at £15,900,000, or, including the floating debt of the Khedive, se. cured on his personal property, the daira, at £22,000,000.

Egypt is bound to pay an annual tribute of £700,000 to Turkey. She has also to furnish a contingent of 15,000 men to the Turkish army. She cannot make treaties other than those of a commercial character, name embassadors at foreign courts, or build iron-clads; but she raises and expends her own revenue, appoints her own officials, from ministers down to policemen, and, in fact, in all that relates to her home Government, she is entirely free.

In 1875 the aggregate length of railways which were in operation was 1,528 kilometres (1 kilometre = 0.62 mile). The telegraphlines had, in 1873, a length of 6,486 kilometres, and the telegraph-wires of 13,750 kilometres.

The aggregate number of letters and newspapers received and dispatched by the Egyptian, Austrian, Italian, and Grecian mails, was as follows:

o: Behm and Wagner's Bevölkerung der Erde, iii. p


MAIL. Letters. Newspapers. Egyptian. 1,696.857 878,957 kiss. 'goles | ...... Italian .... 824,500 186,100 Grecian........ . . . . . . . . . 58.212 27,272

The movement of shipping, from 1870 to 1875, was as follows:

YEAR. Wessels. Tonnage. 486 485,911

765 761,467

1,082 1,439,169

1,173 2,085,073

1,264 2,428,672

1,494 2,940,708

The total expenditures for the construction of the Suez Canal and the first arrangements amounted, up to the close of the year 1873, to 471,769,980 francs. The value of the buildings and the inventory belonging to the company was estimated, in 1874, at 21,795,545 francs. The income of the company was, in 1871, 13,276,000 francs; in 1872, 18,325,000; in 1873, 24,831,127; in 1874, 26,726,145; in 1875, 30,844,636. The expenditures were, in 1871, 15,918,000 francs; in 1872, 16,253,000; in 1873, 17,346,109; in 1874, 18,667,568; in 1875, 17,946,547. Surplus in 1872 (the first year which showed a surplus), 2,071,279 francs; in 1873, 7,485,077; in 1874, 8,059,577.

Mr. Cave, who was sent to Egypt by the British Government at the close of 1875 (see ANNUAL Cyclopædia for 1875) to examine the financial condition of the country, finished his examination and made his report in March. The report began with a criticism of the past administration of Egyptian finances, and an inquiry into the causes which had brought about the state of things then existing. The country had suffered much from the dishonesty and wastefulness of its officials. The Khedive's Government, with the intention of raising enough capital to pay off the floating debt, had made a law enabling land-owners to commute the land-taxes on terms which entailed the sacrifice of half the revenues from this source for all time, for the sake of obtaining eleven times the annual amount for the period of twelve years. The result was disastrous, in that the sum at present only sufficed to pay the interest on the floating debt, while, after 1886, the Egyptian revenue, which now produced $53,445,350, would by the operation of the above law lose an annual sum of $12,250,000. The normal expenditure of the Government was about $45,403,405, more than half of which was devoted to the service of the debt. Every available portion of the revenue was pledged as security for the loans. The present pressure arose from the Khedive's inability to meet the bonds of the floating debt, which were continually falling due, and were estimated to amount to at least $91,215,380. The second part of the report re

ferred to the possibility of combining and consolidating the whole debt, in the event of British credit taking the place of Egyptian credit, in which case a diminution of the rates of interest, resulting from the guarantee by England, would allow of the entire repurchase of the Suez Canal without imposing fresh burdens on the country. This combination was, however, rendered impossible through the opposition of other governments. In the third part of his report, Mr. Cave suggested the conversion of the whole Egyptian debt into a stock bearing seven per cent. interest, and the appointment of a person who should inspire confidence at the head of a Board of Control to supervise the collection of taxes. Mr. Cave thought that if the present debt were replaced by one bearing a moderate rate of interest, there was no reason why the country should not quickly recover, as its revenues were deemed sufficient, if properly managed, to meet its liabilities. In the course of the debates in the British Parliament, March 31st, on Egyptian finances, a statement by Mr. Disraeli, that the Khedive was opposed to the publication

of the report, excited some question; but the

explanation was made that the report contained statements concerning the transactions between the father of the Khedive and the great powers which were not suitable for publication, but that the practical results of the report, as well as the statement of the present condition of Egyptian finances, would be made ublic at an early day. The report was actualy laid before the Parliament on the 7th of April. At the beginning of the year the Italian Government sent Signor Scialoja to Egypt to effect a financial management with the Khedive in the interest of the Italian creditors. In May he was appointed by the Khedive president of a newly-constituted Chief Council of Finance, and shortly afterward made a report substantially agreeing with that of Mr. Cave. and advised the Khedive to adopt a plan of settlement very similar to that recommended by the English agent. Negotiations were opened in April with French parties proposing to relieve the most pressing necessities of the Khedive, and undertake the settlement of affairs, to the defeat of the English plan, but they were very soon broken off. On the 25th of May the Khedive issued his decree for the unification of the public debt. It provided for the issue of seven per cent. bonds, with interest from the 15th of July, 1876, to be redeemable at par within sixty-five years, with halfyearly drawings; to be issued to bearer, in amounts of 500, 2,500, 12,500, and 25,000 francs each ; coupons not to be subject to any tax by the Egyptian Government, and both coupons and bonds to be paid in gold, without deduction, at Cairo, Paris, or London. Messrs. Von Kremer, DeBlignières, and Caravalli, foreign commissioners, were appointed directors of the commission for liquidating the public debt, to begin their work on the 10th of June. This arrangement was not satisfactory to all the holders of Egyptian obligations. Private holders of securities, in England and France, held that their interests had been sacrificed to those of a few head establishments, and refused to accept the sixty-fiveyear bonds as a fair payment for the securities they held. Accordingly, another commission, consisting of Mr. Goschen, M.P., as a representative of the English, and M. Joubert, as a representative of the French bondholders, visited Egypt in September, upon the invitation of the Khedive, to agree upon further and more definite measures for securing their loans. In November they effected an arrangement which was deemed as satisfactory as could be expected under the circumstances. It was

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agreed that the daira, or private debt of the Khedive, be separated from the unified public debt, and that the income occurring from the moukahalah be applied to the loans effected on short time in such proportion that the payment should amount to eighty per cent. of the nominal sum; that the rate of interest on the treasury bills should be reduced to ten per cent., and that a loan of £15,000,000 at five per cent. should be issued, to be secured by the receipts of the railways and the port dues at Alexandria, the proceeds of which should be applied to the payment of the loans of 1862, 1868, and 1873. After the cancellation of these loans, the consolidated debt would be reduced from £91,000,000 to £59,000,000. This amount should for the future till 1885 bear six per cent. interest, and be yearly liqui


dated in the amount of one per cent. The appointment of a controller-general of revenue, and a controller-general of the public debt and audit, was provided for, who should be an Englishman and a Frenchman, and to whom should be given the nomination of the general tax-collectors of the whole land, in entire independence of the Egyptian Finance Minister. The Finance Minister, Ismail Sadyk Pasha, opposed this plan, and endeavored to awaken the religious prejudices of the people against it. He accused the Khedive of selling the land to foreigners, in disregard of the religious feelings of the native population. For this offense he was arrested, deprived of his office, and banished to Dongola. He died suddenly while on the way to that place. Prince Hussein, son of the Khedive, was appointed to succeed him. The International Court of Appeal was constituted in Alexandria, January 30th, under

the supervision of President Zulsicar Pasha. Dr. Lapennu, the Austrian representative in the court, was unanimously chosen first vicepresident for the transaction of business. Provision was then made for the establishment of three inferior courts, to sit at Alexandria, Cairo, and Ismaïlia. The Belgian representative, Janssen, was chosen vice-president of the court at Alexandria; the Dutch representative, Stopelaer van Middleberg, of the court at Cairo; and the Dutch representative, Van Bemmalen, of that at Ismaïlia. The courts began their functions on the 1st of February, with a large amount of business. More than 1,400 suits were transferred to them from the so-called mixed tribunals of commerce, which had hitherto existed in Alexandria and Cairo. Besides these were carried up numerous cases from the consular tribunals, and suits which had been for a year awaiting the opening of the new court. About 400 claims and complaints of Europeans against Egyptians, or against the administration of the Khedive's estates and the members of his family, which hitherto had been prosecuted diplomatically, were awaiting final decision by commissioners to be appointed by the European members of the court, May 23d. While the court at Alexandria was engaged in hearing complaints against the daira, or private estate of the Khedive, its proceedings were interrupted by the appearance of persons claiming to be counsel of the viceroyalty. They protested that, while the Khedive recognized the authority of the court, he had not surrendered the function of making the laws, and asserted that the court was pledged to recognize every decree of his as of legal force. In the category


A street in Cairo.

of such decrees were the new financial convention and the arrangements made in connection with it for the consolidation of the floating debt, both of the state and of the daira. They therefore protested against the court taking proceedings or entering judgment against the daira which should not be in accordance with his decrees in reference to these matters. The Court of Appeal, May 24th, asserted its jurisdiction in the case of the daira, and ordered judgment to be issued against the

defendant (the Khedive). The Khedive, however, refused to permit the judgment to be executed against him, whereupon Mr. Hackman, president of the Court of Summary Justice at Alexandria, refused to hear any more cases, closed the court, and resigned his office. Mr. Antoniadis was appointed to succeed him., IL November the judges of the Court of Appeal, by a majority of three-fourths, dismissed Mr. Hackman. The vice-president of the court, Mr. Lapennu, and Mr. Scott, the English judge, however, declined to take part in this proceeding. On the 4th of January, Rhazeb Pasha was appointed Minister of Commerce. The appointment was in effect the creation of a new office, as this bureau had previously been joined with that of Foreign Affairs. At the same time Nubar Pasha resigned, or was dismissed from, the office of Minister of Foreign Affairs. The causes of the retirement were not known. A number of reasons were assigned for it, some of which were contradictory to each other, and all of them speculative. Nubar Pasha had proved himself to be one of the most far-sighted men in the country, and a valuable servant and adviser to the Khedive. He was progressive in his views. He had been largely instrumental in the production of the plans for the reform of justice by the institution of regular courts, which went into actual operation almost simultaneously with his retirement from office. Sherif Pasha was appointed to succeed him as Minister of Foreign Affairs. The ports of Zanzibar seized by the Egyptians in November, 1875 (see ANNUAL CycloPAEDIA for 1875), were collectively known as Bemader, or “the ports.” They would be of great service if they were in the hands of some strong power, but the hold of the Sultan of Zanzibar upon them was very weak. The object of the Egyptian operations against the district was to connect the country in which Colonel Gordon was operating with the sea, by means of the river Juba, the only navigable river on the east coast of Africa between Capes Guardafui and Delgado. On the 13th of January the Egyptians had evacuated Kismayo and the Juba River country, and eventually withdrew their entire force. Mention was made in the ANNUAL CyclopæDIA for 1875 of the occupation of Harrar by the Egyptians. Subsequently to this act the Sultan of that country formed a conspiracy with the Gallas to surprise the Egyptian garrison at the capital, put them to death, and free the city from foreign occupation. The Sultan had a brother whom he }. kept in prison for fifteen years, on account of some former opposition against him, but had released him and sought reconciliation with him, and had informed him of this plan to deliver the city. The brother, in revenge for the Sultan's former treatment of him, informed the commander of the Egyptian garrison of the plot, whereupon the Sultan was seized and beheaded in the presence of his brother, and the chiefs, his fellow-conspirators, about 100 in number, were also put to death. Up to the 15th of December, 1875, Colonel Gordon, of the Egyptian expedition to the country of the Upper Nile, had formed military stations at Lardo, Rogerts, Bedden,


Moogi, and several other places. He had met with much hostility from the Moogi sub-tribe of the Baris, and had had several conflicts with them, in one of which his companion Linant had been killed. He finally subdued the Moogi tribe. The rapids of the river offering impassable obstructions to his boats, he had a steamer and two boats taken overland and set afloat again. While this work was going on, he undertook a journey overland from Fatiel to Anfino, on the left bank of the Victoria Nile, and thence to M'ruli, the capital of the chief Kaber Reger. Colonel Gordon affirmed in his reports that during his whole expedition he i. striven to avoid hostility, and to exercise the kindest demeanor toward all the natives with whom he came in contact. July 22d Ishmael Pasha Ajub, Governor-General of Soodan, arrived in Cairo in the unprecedentedly short time of twenty lays from Khartoom, bringing dispatches from Colonel Gordon's headquarters at Lado, on the Upper White Nile, dated only six weeks Previously. On the 2d of August Colonel Gor§on reported that, at the request of King MTera. he had left a garrison of 150 men in his capital. He had also established military stations at Urodogani aid Kasitza, and had oached Maynugo, July 19th, in seven days from Duffi. He found the river navigable, the *hores well peopled, and the soil tillable. Colohel Gordon returned to Cairo early in Detember, after an absence of three years in *quatorial Africa. He was cordially received of the Khedive, and was decorated with the grand cross of the order of the Medijie.

The grant asked by the British Government for the payment for the purchase of the shares of the Khedive in the Suez Canal was voted by the Parliament early in the year, with but little opposition, and without a division.

The general meeting of the shareholders of the Suez Canal was held in Paris, May 28th. M. de Lesseps presented a report showing that the total receipts of the company for 1875 had been 30,827,194 francs, and its expenditures, including all the charges of the undertaking, and the payment of the interest on the capital stock, had been 29,727,047 francs, leaving the sum of 1,100,147 francs to be distributed as dividends. Fourteen hundred and ninety-four ships, of an aggregate of 2,940,708 tons real measurement, had passed through the canal. The work of improving the canal had been carried on to a certain extent during the year. The British Government had been given a representation on the board of the company of three directors. M. de Lesseps stated, in a communication made to the French Academy of Sciences in May, that the work of the dredging-machines on the canal had been attended with good and permanent effects. The Serapis, a vessel of 4,582 tons, which had brought the Prince of Wales back from India, and her consort, the Raleigh, drawing twenty-six feet of water, had passed through the canal without any difficulty. A merchant of Marseilles, M. Amelin, in a pamphlet advocating the neutralization of the canal, publishes the following estimate of the relative proportion in which each country is represented in the Suez mari


time traffic: Germany, 1.64 per cent; England, 74.16; France, 9.21; Italy, 2.63; Holland, 4.35; Austria, 3.47; Spain, 2.9; Russia, 0.50; Sweden, 0.27; Norway, 0.56: Turkey, 0.56; Greece, Egypt, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, and Japan, only furnish together a total traffic of 0.66 per cent. The viceregal library of the Darb-el-Gemamiz was founded in 1870, in pursuance of a decree addressed by the Khedive to Ali Pasha

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