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himself, and from 1841 to 1849 the glass-paint- embrace the land of the Baris, of which Colonel ings of the church at Aue, for which he re- Baker took possession on May 26, 1871; of ceived from King Frederick William IV. first Darfour, annexed in 1874; of Shegga and the the small and then the large gold medal for neighboring districts, which, in 1874, were art. In 1852 he published fifteen illustrations transferred by their ruler to the Khedive; the of the Salvator church in Kilndown, England. Basen or Kunama country; the Danakil coast After the Royal Glass-painting Establishment as far as Bab-el-Mandeb, with Berbera (occuwas broken up, he established his own, and fur- pied in 1873), and other points on the coast nished numerous beautiful works, among them near Berbera. The area and population of the windows of the cathedral at Basel, the these territories, according to the latest esticathedral at Constance, the Protestant church- mates,* were as follows: es at Baden-Baden, at Burgdorf in Switzerland, and others.
Square Miles. Population. EGYPT,* a country of Northeastern Africa, nominally a pashalik of the Turkish Empire, Land of the Bari..
6,878.20 120,000 but virtually an independent state since 1811. Darfour...
106,803.35 5,000,000 The ruler of Egypt, who has the name of Shegga and neighboring districts.. 85,042.68 400,000 Khedive, is Ismail Pasha, born at Cairo, De- Danakil coast, with Berbera.
6,878.20 cember 31, 1830, second son of Ibrahim, the son of Mehemet Ali; succeeded to the Govern
210,810.04 5,670,000 Former possessions,
112,681.05 6,000,000 ment at the death of his uncle, Saïd Pasha, January 18, 1863. The eldest son of the Khe Total....
822,992.09 | 10,670,000 dive, Mohammed Tefwick, born in 1852, is President of the Privy Council; his eldest
The revenue of Egypt for the financial year son, Prince Abbas Bey, was born July 14, ending September 10, 1875-year 1591 of the 1874. The second son of the
Khedive, Prince Coptic calendar-was calculated in the official Hussein Kamil, born in 1853, is member of budget estimates at 2,108,493 purses (1 purse the Privy Council , and Minister of War and
= $24.75), and the expenditure at 2,105,295 Colonies. The third son, Hassan, also born in purses, leaving a surplus of 3,198 purses. 1853, is lieutenant à la suite in the Prussian
The public debt of Egypt is divided into two army.
classes, the funded debt of the state and the By the annexation of Darfour and other personal debt of the Khedive. There is, beterritories, Egypt has largely increased in sides, a floating debt. In October the funded both area and population. At the beginning
debt was estimated at £49,000,000, the floatof 1875, the
area and population of the large ing debt at £7,000,000; total state debt, £56divisions of which Egypt is now composed 000,000. The personal debt of the Khedive
was were as follows:
estimated at £13,000,000. The real amount
On August 1, 1875, an English authority esti-
mated the floating debt at £15,900,000, or, in
cluding the floating debt of the Khedive, se1. Egypt proper......
212,606.7 5,252,000 cured on his personal property, the daira, at 2. Nubia.
888.792.52 1,000,000 & Egyptian Soodan..
Egypt is bound to pay an annual tribute of Total....
869,891.82 16,922,000 £700,000 to Turkey. She has also to furnish The population of that part of Soodan which a contingent of 15,000 men to the Turkish belonged to the
Khedive previous to the re- army. She cannot make treaties other than rent annexation was estimated, in 1874, by those of a commercial character, name embasManzinger Bey, the Governor of the coasts sadors at foreign courts, or build iron-clads; of the Red Sea, at 5,000,000, divided as fol- but she raises and expends her own revenue, lows:
appoints her own officials, from ministers
down to policemen, and, in fact, in all that Khartoom.... 750,000 mostly Arabs. Farsboda... 250,000 mostly negroes.
relates to her home Government, she is en500,000 Arabs and negroes.
tirely free. Fasogi. 500,000 Arabs and negroes. Kontofan... 1,000,000 one-half Arabs and one-ball negroes. which were in operation was 1,528 kilometres
In 1875 the aggregate length of railways Berbera, Dongols...... 250,000 Arabs and Barabra.
(1 kilometre = 0.62 mile). The telegraphTaks.....
three-fourths Hadendoa, one-fourth
lines had, in 1873, a length of 6,486 kiloBankin.. 250,000 Hadendoa.
metres, and the telegraph-wires of 13,750 kiloVassowah. 250,000 mostly Tigré ; a few Dankali.
The aggregate number of letters and newsThe new acquisitions of Egypt in Soodan papers received and dispatched by the Egyp
tian, Austrian, Italian, and Grecian mails, was * For latest statistics of foreigners, of population of large as follows: cities, of exports, of commerce of Alexandria, of movement of shipping in the principal ports, etc., 8ce ANNUAL CYCLO * See Behm and Wagner's Bevölkerung der Erde, lil, PEDIA for 1874.
ferred to the possibility of combining and Newspapers. consolidating the whole debt, in the event of
British credit taking the place of Egyptian Egyptian..
1,696,357 378,957 credit, in which case a diminution of the rates Austrian..
of interest, resulting from the guarantee by Grecian..
27,272 England, would allow of the entire repurchase
of the Suez Canal without imposing fresh burThe movement of shipping, from 1870 to dens on the country. This combination was, 1875, was as follows:
however, rendered impossible through the op
position of other governments. In the third Tonnage.
part of his report, Mr. Cave suggested the con
version of the whole Egyptian debt into a 1870...
485,911 stock bearing seven per cent. interest, and the 1871..
1,439,169 appointment of a person who should inspire 1878.
2,085,073 confidence at the head of a Board of Control 1,264
2,423,672 1,494 2,940, 708
to supervise the collection of taxes. Mr. Cave
thought that if the present debt were replaced The total expenditures for the construction by one bearing a moderate rate of interest
, of the Suez Canal and the first arrangements there was no reason why the country should amounted, up to the close of the year 1873, to not quickly recover, as its revenues were 471,769,980 francs. The value of the buildings deemed sufficient, if properly managed, to meet and the inventory belonging to the company its liabilities. In the course of the debates in was estimated, in 1874, at 21,795,545 francs. the British Parliament, March 31st, on EgypThe income of the company was, in 1871, 13,- tian finances, a statement by Mr. Disraeli, that 276,000 francs ; in 1872, 18,325,000; in 1873, the Khedive was opposed to the publication 24,831,127; in 1874, 26,726,145; in 1875, 30,- of the report, excited some question; but the 844,636. The expenditures were, in 1871, 15,- explanation was made that the report con. 918,000 francs; in 1872, 16,253,000; in 1873, tained statements concerning the transactions 17,346,109; in 1874, 18,667,568; in 1875, 17,- between the father of the Khedive and the 946,547. Surplus in 1872 (the first year which great powers which were not suitable for pubshowed a surplus), 2,071,279 francs ; in 1873, lication, but that the practical results of the 7,485,077; in 1874, 8,059,577.
report, as well as the statement of the present Mr. Cave, who was sent to Egypt by the condition of Egyptian finances, would be made British Government at the close of 1875 (see public at an early day. The report was actualANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875) to examine the ly laid before the Parliament on the 7th of financial condition of the country, finished his April. examination and made his report in March. At the beginning of the year the Italian The report began with a criticism of the past Government sent Signor Scialoja to Egypt to administration of Egyptian finances, and an effect a financial management with the Khedive inquiry into the causes which had brought in the interest of the Italian creditors. In about the state of things then existing. The May he was appointed by the Khedive presicountry had suffered much from the dis- dent of a newly-constituted Chief Council of honesty and wastefulness of its officials. The Finance, and shortly afterward made a report Khedive's Government, with the intention of substantially agreeing with that of Mr. Care. raising enough capital to pay off the floating and advised the Khedive to adopt a plan of debt, had made a law enabling land-owners to settlement very similar to that recommended commute the land-taxes on terms which en- by the English agent. Negotiations were tailed the sacrifice of half the revenues from opened in April with French parties proposing this source for all time, for the sake of obtain- to relieve the most pressing necessities of the ing eleven times the annual amount for the Khedive, and undertake the settlement of afperiod of twelve years. The result was disas- fairs, to the defeat of the English plan, but trous, in that the sum at present only sufficed they were very soon broken off. On the 25th to pay the interest on the floating debt, while, of May the Khedive issued his decree for the after 1886, the Egyptian revenue, which now unification of the public debt. It provided for produced $53,445,350, would by the operation the issue of seven per cent bonds, with interof the above law lose an annual sum of $12,- est from the 15th of July, 1876, to be redeem250,000. The normal expenditure of the Gov- able at par within sixty-five years, with halfernment was about $45,403,405, more than yearly drawings; to be issued to bearer, in half of which was devoted to the service of amounts of 500, 2,500, 12,500, and 25,000 the debt. Every available portion of the rev- francs each; coupons not to be subject to any enue was pledged as security for the loans. tax by the Egyptian Government, and both The present pressure arose from the Khedive's coupons and bonds to be paid in gold, without inability to meet the bonds of the floating deduction, at Cairo, Paris, or London. Messrs. debt, which were continually falling due, and Von Kremer, De Blignières, and Caravalli, forwere estimated to amount to at least $91,- eign commissioners, were appointed directors 215,380. The second part of the report re- of the commission for liquidating the public
debt, to begin their work on the 10th of agreed that the daira, or private debt of the Jane. This arrangement was not satisfactory Khedive, be separated from the unified public to all the bolders of Egyptian obligations. debt, and that the income occurring from the Private holders of securities, in England and moukahalah be applied to the loans effected France, held that their interests had been on short time in such proportion that the paysacrificed to those of a few head establish- ment should amount to eighty per cent. of the ments, and refused to accept the sixty-five- nominal sum; that the rate of interest on the year bonds as a fair payment for the securities treasury bills should be reduced to ten per they held. Accordingly, another commission, cent., and that a loan of £15,000,000 at five per consisting of Mr. Goschen, M. P., as a repre- cent. should be issued, to be secured by the sentative of the English, and M. Joubert, as a receipts of the railways and the port dues at representative of the French bondholders, vis- Alexandria, the proceeds of which should be ited Egypt in September, upon the invitation applied to the payment of the loans of 1862, of the Khedive, to agree upon further and 1868, and 1873. After the cancellation of more definite measures for securing their loans. these loans, the consolidated debt would be In November they effected an arrangement reduced from £91,000,000 to £59,000,000. which was deemed as satisfactory as could be This amount should for the future till 1885 expected under the circumstances. It was bear six per cent. interest, and be yearly liqui
dated in the amount of one per cent. The ap- the supervision of President Zulsicar Pasha. pointment of a controller-general of revenue, Dr. Lapennu, the Austrian representative in and a controller-general of the public debt the court, was unanimously chosen first viceand audit, was provided for, who should be an president for the transaction of business. ProEnglishman and a Frenchman, and to whom vision was then made for the establishment of should be given the nomination of the general three inferior courts, to sit at Alexandria, tax-collectors of the whole land, in entire in- Cairo, and Ismaïlia. The Belgian representdependence of the Egyptian Finance Minister. ative, Janssen, was chosen vice-president of The Finance Minister, Ismail Sadyk Pasha, op- the court at Alexandria; the Dutch representposed this plan, and endeavored to awaken the ative, Stopelaer van Middleberg, of the court religious prejudices of the people against it. at Cairo; and the Dutch representative, Van He accused the Khedive of selling the land to Bemmalen, of that at lemailia. The courts foreigners, in disregard of the religious feel- began their functions on the 1st of February, ings of the native population. For this offense with a large amount of business
. More than he was arrested, deprived of his office, and ban- 1,400 suits were transferred to them from the ished to Dongola. He died suddenly while on so-called mixed tribunals of commerce, which the way to that place. Prince Hussein, son of had hitherto existed in Alexandria and Cairo. the Khedive, was appointed to succeed'him. Besides these were carried up numerous cases
The International Court of Appeal was con- from the consular tribunals, and suits which stituted in Alexandria, January 30th, under had been for a year awaiting the opening of
the new court. About 400 claims and com- defendant (the Khedive). The Khedive, howplaints of Europeans against Egyptians, or ever, refused to permit the judgment to be exagainst the administration of the Khedive's ecuted against him, whereupon Mr. Hackman, estates and the members of his family, which president of the Court of Summary Justice at hitherto had been prosecuted diplomatically, Alexandria, refused to hear any more cases, were awaiting final decision by commissioners closed the court, and resigned his office. Mr. to be appointed by the
European members of Antoniadis was appointed to succeed him. , IL the court, May 23d. While the court at Al- November the judges of the Court of Appeal, exandria was engaged in hearing complaints by a majority of three-fourths, dismissed Mr. against the daira, or private estate of the Hackman. The vice-president of the court, Khedive, its proceedings were interrupted by Mr. Lapennu, and Mr. Scott, the English the appearance of persons claiming to be judge, however, declined to take part in this counsel of the viceroyalty. They protested proceeding. that, while the Khedive recognized the author On the 4th of January, Rhazeb Pasha was ity of the court, he had not surrendered the appointed Minister of Commerce. The apfunction of making the laws, and asserted that pointment was in effect the creation of a new the court was pledged to recognize every de- office, as this bureau had previously been cree of his as of legal force. In the category joined with that of Foreign Affairs.
At the same time Nubar Pasha resigned, or was dismissed from, the office of Minister of Foreign Affairs. The causes of the retirement were not known. A number of reasons were assigned for it, some of which were contradictory to each other, and all of them speculative. Nubar Pasha had proved himself to be one of the most far-sighted men in the country, and a valuable servant and adviser to the Khedive. He was progressive in his views. He had been largely instrumental in the production of the plans for the reform of justice by the institution of regular courts, which went into actual operation almost simultaneously with his retirement from office. Sherif Pasha was appointed to succeed him as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
The ports of Zanzibar seized by the Egyptians in November, 1875 (see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875), were collectively known as Bemader, or “the ports." They would be of great service if they were in the hands of some strong power, but the hold of the Sultan of Zanzibar upon them was very weak. The object of the Egyptian operations against the district was to connect the country in which Colonel Gordon was operating with the sea, by means of the river Juba, the only navigable river on the east coast of Africa between Capes Guardafui and Delgado. On the 13th of January the Egyptians had evacuated Kismayo and the Juba River country, and eventually withdrew their entire force. Mention was made in the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875 of the occupation of Harrar by the Egyptians. Subsequently to this act the Sul
tan of that country formed a conspiracy with of such decrees were the new financial con- the Gallas to surprise the Egyptian garrison vention and the arrangements made in con- at the capital, put them to death, and free the nection with it for the consolidation of the city from foreign occupation. The Sultan had floating debt, both of the state and of the a brother whom he had kept in prison for daira. They therefore protested against the fifteen years, on account of some former oppocourt taking proceedings or entering judgment sition against him, but had released him and against the daira which should not be in ac- sought reconciliation with him, and had incordance with his decrees in reference to these formed him of this plan to deliver the city. matters. The Court of Appeal, May 24th, as The brother, in revenge for the Sultan's forserted its jurisdiction in the case of the daira, mer treatment of him, informed the comand ordered judgment to be issued against the mander of the Egyptian garrison of the plot,
whereupon the Sultan was seized and be The grant asked by the British Government headed in the presence of his brother, and the for the payment for the purchase of the shares chiefs, his fellow-conspirators, about 100 in of the Khedive in the Suez Canal was voted number, were also put to death.
by the Parliament early in the year, with but Up to the 15th of December, 1875, Colonel little opposition, and without a division. Gordon, of the Egyptian expedition to the The general meeting of the shareholders of country of the Upper Nile, had formed mili- the Suez Canal was held in Paris, May 28th. tary stations at Lardo, Ragerts, Bedden, M. de Lesseps presented a report showing that
the total receipts of the company for 1875 had been 30,827,194 francs, and its expenditures, including all the charges of the undertaking, and the payment of the interest on the capital stock, had been 29,727,047 francs, leaving the sum of 1,100,147 francs to be distributed as dividends. Fourteen hundred and ninety-four ships, of an aggregate of 2,940,708 tons real measurement, had passed through the canal. The work of improving the canal had been carried on to a certain extent during the year. The British Government had been given a representation on the board of the company of three directors. M. de Lesseps stated, in a communication made to the French Academy of Sciences in May, that the work of the dredging-machines on the canal had been attended with good and permanent effects. The Serapis, a vessel of 4,582 tons, which had brought the Prince of Wales back from India, and her con
sort, the Raleigh, drawing twenty-six feet of RUINED MOSQUE OF TULUN, CAIRO.
water, had passed through the canal without Moogi, and several other places. He had met any difficulty. A merchant of Marseilles, M. with much hostility from the Moogi sub-tribe Amelin, in a pamphlet advocating the neutraliof the Baris, and had had several conflicts with zation of the canal, publishes the following them, in one of which his companion Linant estimate of the relative proportion in which had been killed. He finally subdued
the each country is represented in the Suez mariMoogi tribe. The rapids of the river offering impassable obstructions to his boats, he had a steamer and two boats taken overland and set afloat again. While this work was going on, he undertook a journey overland from Fatiel to Anfino, on the left bank of the Victoria Nile, and thence to M'ruli, the capital of the chief Kaber Reger. Colonel Gordon affirmed in his reports that during his whole expedition he had striven to avoid hostility, and to exercise the kindest demeanor toward all the natives with whom he came in contact. July 22d Ishmael Pasha Ajub, Governor-General of Soodan, arrived in Cairo in the unprecedentedly short time of twenty days from Khartoom, bringing dispatches from Colonel Gordon's headquarters at Lado, on the Upper White Nile, dated only six weeks previously. On the 2d of August Colonel Gordon reported that, at the request of King M'Tera, he had left a garrison of 150 men in his capital. He had also established military time traffic: Germany, 1.64 per cent; England, stations at Urodogani and Kasitza, and had 74.16; France, 9.21; Italy, 2.63 ; Holland,
4.35; reached Maynugo, July 19th, in seven days from Austria, 3.47; Spain, 2.9; Russia, 0.50; SweDuffli
. He found the river navigable, the den, 0.27; Norway, 0.56 ; Turkey, 0.56; Greece, shores well peopled, and the
soil tillable. Colo- Egypt, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, and Janel Gordon returned to Cairo early in De- pan, only furnish together a total traffic of 0.66 cember, after an absence of three years in per cent. squatorial Africa. He was cordially received The viceregal library of the Darb-el-Gemabg the Khedive, and was decorated with the miz was founded in 1870, in pursuance of a grand cross of the order of the Medijie. decree addressed by the Khedive to Ali Pasha