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Western and Northern Europe, and many braces: “Skizzen aus der vornehmen Welt" parts of the United States, and the reinvigora- (Sketches from the World of Quality, 1842tion of those in China and elsewhere; while 45), “ Count Chala" (1845), “ Esther" (1854), through his plans the annual contributions "Clotilde” (1855), and “Die Literaten ” (The were increased from $100,000 to $600,000. Literati, 1863)-romances of society; "NarIn 1867 he visited Europe in the interest of garet of Valois and her Times” (1817), and missions. Besides numerous contributions to Antonio Foscarini (1850)-historical roperiodical literature, Dr. Durbin published mances ; a volume of poems entitled "Für * Observations in Europe, principally in France Dich” (For Thee, 1855); “Amimone, a Fairy and Great Britain” (2 vols. 12mo, New York, Tale in Verse" (1852); “Böhmische Rosen” 1844), and “ Observations in Egypt, Palestine, (Bohemian Roses, 1851)-translations from the Syria, and Asia Minor” (2 vols. 12mo, 1845). Czech language; “ Lieder aus Toscana” (Songs

DÜRINGSFELD, Ida von, a distinguished from Tuscany, 1855)-translations from the poetess and writer of romances, born November Italian ; " Aus Dalmatien” (Out of Dalma12, 1815, at Militsch, in Lower Silesia; died tia, 1855–57), and “ Von der Schelde bis October 22, 1876, at Canstatt, Würtemberg. zur Maas ” (From the Scheldt to the Meuse, Her father was a military officer in the Prussian 1861)—sketches of travel. She and her husservice, but afterward settled on an estate. band together prepared a work, entitled "Das She enjoyed only limited opportunities for ed- Sprichwort als Kosmopolit” (The Proverb as a ucation in her youth. She began to write Cosmopolite), which was published in 1863. verses in her fifth year. In her fourteenth Her husband committed suicide by poison the year she spent a short time at Breslau, where day after her death. she studied the Italian and English languages. DUSSARD, HIPPOLYTE, a French writer on She afterward became distinguished for her political economy, born September 4, 1798 ; talents in mastering the idioms of foreign lan- died January 26, 1876. In 1839 he was one of guages, and using them almost with the facility the editors of the Répertoire de l'Industrie of a native. Her first poems were published Étrangère, which contained a description of in the Abendzeitung, at Dresden, and soon all the most important machines invented in attracted the attention of other journals. In foreign countries. Afterward he wrote on 1835, during a residence in Dresden, she be- economic subjects in the Revue Encyclopédique

, came acquainted with Tiedge and other dis- the Bulletin de Ferrusac, and the Temps." In tinguished literary men, and secured recog- 1842 he published a work on "The Financial nition in literary society. She published in Condition of England, and the Measures proDresden a collection of poems, under the sig- posed by the Whigs and the Tories.” The nature of Thekla. This was followed by following year he became the editor-in-chief “ Der Stern von Andalusien " (The Star of of the Journal des Économistes, which position Andalusia), a collection of romantic poems he held for three years. He worked with in 1838, and "Schloss Goczyn" (Castle Go- M. Eugène Daire in the revision and annotaczyn) in 1841. In 1845 she was married to the tion of the works of Turgot, in the “ CollecBaron Otto von Reinsberg, a gentleman of tion of the Principal Economists." In 1848 high literary culture, with whom she resided he was named prefect of the department of by turns in Italy, Switzerland, Germany, the Seine-Inférieure, and was elected a memFrance, and Belgium. In these countries she ber of the Council of State by the Constituent made the acquaintance of the people, studied Assembly. Retiring from that body, he was the language, literature, history, and customs, intrusted with a mission to England by M. and thereby acquired a diversity of gifts, thé Dufaure, and, while there, made a particular evidence of which is shown in her numerous study of the charitable institutions of that works. The catalogue of her writings em- country.


EARTH, TAE. Comparative Statistics.- Roon, Berghaus, Dieterici, and the estimates In the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA of 1875 for the by Behm and Wagner in the former volumes first time there are presented some comparative of the Geographisches Jahrbuch and the Bestatistics relating to the area and population völkerung der Erde. In the present article we of the world. A reference is made to that confine ourselves to presenting some comparavolume for an account of many statements to tive statistics relating to the earth as a whole which, this year, no later information can be which are either later than thoso published added, especially to an account of former esti- last year, or belong to subjects which had not mates of the total population of the globe, be- been referred to in the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA ginning with Isaac Vossius, who, in 1685, esti- of 1875. mated it at 500,000,000, and embracing, among I. Present Area and Population of the Earth. others, the estimates of Malte-Brun, Balbi, Von - Behm and Wagner, in volume iv. of their

No. of Females to 1,000 Males.

No. of Females

43. Hamburg (1875)..

periodical, Die Bevölkerung der Erde (The CITIES.

Population. Population of the Earth, Gotha, 1876), give

5. Vienna (without the military) (1876).

1,001,999 6. Canton ....

1,000,000 the following estimates of the area and popu 7. Siangtan (Hunan)..

1,000,000 lation of the large divisions of the world: 8. Siangfoo (Shensi).

1,000,000 9. Tchantehowfoo (Fokien).

1,000,000 10. Tientsin (Chihli).


11. Philadelphia (1876).

817,448 Square Miles. 12. Tchingtoofoo (Szechuen)

800,000 1875. 1876. 13. Calcutta (India) (1871).

794,645 14. Tokio (Japan) (1872)..

674,447 America. 15,882,600 84,392,000 85,519,800 15. St. Petersburg (1869).

667,968 Europe, 8,823,870 802,973,000 809,178,300 16. Bombay (India) (1871)...

644,405 17,291,890 798,907,000 824,548,500 17. Moscow

601,969 Africa. 11,557,600 | 206,007,000 199,921,600 18. Constantinople.

600.000 Australia and Poly

19. Fokien

600,000 Desia.. 3,423,200 4,563,000 4,748,600 20. Hang-chowfoo (Chihkiang)

600,000 21. Hankow (Hupeh)

600,000 Total.... 51,978,160 1,896,842,000 1,423,917,000 22. Shoohing (Chihkiang).

600,000 23. Glasgow (1876)..

515,144 The estimate of the total population in 1876 24. Liverpool (1876).

521,544 25. Brooklyn (1875).

507,000 is an increase of over 27,000,000 on the esti 26. Bangkok (Siam)...

500,000 mate of 1875. In Europe the augmentation is 27. Peking .

500,000 chiefly due to the excess of births over deaths, 29: Wanchow (Chihkiang).



500,000 both of which are now officially registered in

Manchester (1876).

857,917 most of the European countries. In the other

Salford (1876)..

188,425 81. Nangking (Kwangsi).

450,000 large divisions of the world the changed figures 82. St. Louis (1876)..

450,000 are the result of more accurate information on 83. Naples (1871).

415,549 regions hitherto but little known.

84. Chicago (1875)...

410,000 35. Tachan (Kwangtung).

400,000 II. Statistics of Sex.—The numeric relations 86. Madras (India) (1871)..


874,496 of the sexes in the different countries of the 37. Kioto (Japan) (1872)

88. Ozaka (Japan) (1872).

878,000 earth were as follows:

89. Birmingham (England) (1876).

371,889 40. Yangchoo (Kiangsu)


858.700 41. Brussels {{without suburbs) (1874).

182,785 COUNTRIES.

42. Cairo (Egypt) (1872)..


848,447 (without suburbs) (1875)

264,675 44. Boston (Mass ) (1875)..

841,919 45. Madrid (1875)..

382,024 Canary Islands.. 1,208 Brazil...

46. Lyons (1872)..

823,417 Sweden.. 1,064 St. Pierre and Mi806 47. Warsaw (1876).

320,186 Finland.. 1,006 quelon 48. Dublin (1872)

814,666 Switzerland. 1,045 49. Marseilles (1672)..

812,864 Great Britain and


50. Buda-Pesth (1875)

809,208 Ireland..

51. Amoy (Fokien)

800,000 Portugal 1,038 52. Kumamotoo (Japan).

300,000 Germany. 1,087 " Lagos

08. Leeds (1876),

1,036 St. Helena.
1,081 54. Amsterdam (1975)

289,982 Denmark. 1,026 Egypt.. 1,025 65. Lucknow (India) (1871).

284,779 Austro-Hungary. 1,024 Cape Colony.

56. Shanghai (Kwangsi).


57. Lienkong (Fukien).

275,000 Setherlands. 1,022 Mayotte and Nossi Bé 778 58. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) (1872).

274,972 Spain.... 1,016 Mauritius..

69. Sheffield (1876). .

274,914 France. 1,007 | Réunion...

60. Baltimore (Md.) (1870)

267,854 Italy 989 61. Rome (1876)..

264,280 Luxemburg.


62. San Francisco (Cal.) (1875).

250,000 Belgium.. 985 63. Taijuenfoo (Szechuen).

250,000 Roamanis

64. Tchungkingfu (Szechúen)..

250,000 dertia.. 946 Samos...

65. Weihien (Shangtung).

250,000 Greece


244,980 British India

(without Corpi Santi) (1871).

199,009 Europe....... 1,021 Siberia....

67. Breslau (1875)..

French colonies in
918 68. Copenhagen (1876).

280,000 Paraguay 2,079 India 69. Havana (Cuba)..

280,000 Russian Central Asia. 909 Dateh West Indies. 1,203

70. Mexico..

280,000 Ecuador..


71. Lisbon (1864).

224,068 Greenland.

1,181 Ceylon.
72. Bucharest (1873).

221,805 Martinique

78. Cincinnati (Ohio) (1870)

216,289 Colombia. 1,061

Straits Settlements
74. Edinburgh (1876)..

215,146 Guadaloupe 1,049 | Hong-Kong....

75. Melbourne (Australia) (1874).

76. Alexandria (Egypt) (1872).

212,084 United States,

Asia ....

77. Leipsic (1875)..

209,407 Canada.. 976 78. Gwalior (India)..

200,000 Surinam.. 966 Australia, New Zea79. Hyderabad (India)

200,000 817 Argentine Republie... 942 land, and Tasmania

80. Yongping (Fokien).

200,000 81. Kajosina (Japan).

200,000 III. The Largest Cities. The population of

82. Tchangtuko0 (Chihli).

200,000 88. Tchoo-yang (Kwangtung)

200,000 the principal cities of the earth was as follows, 84. Tsinanfoo (Shangtung)

200,000 according to the latest accounts:

85. Woochang (Hupeh)

200,000 CITIES

Population. 1. London (1876)


IV. The Railroads of the World.- The 2. Paris (1872).

1,851.792 length of the railroads in 1875 was as fol& New York (1875)..

1,023,622 lows (in kilometres, 1 kilometre = 0.62 Eng(without suburbs) (1875).

966,868 lish mile):




66. Milan (1871)..

4. Berlin (1875)..

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Great Britain.
Switzerland (1576)..
Portugal (Oct. 1, '76)
Roumania (1876)....

British India
Asia Minor
Japan (Sept. 1, 1876)
China (1876)....


The average increase per year was as fol

185,678 lows:

3,499 Chili.....

991 278 Uruguay (1876).. 376 26,818 Argentine Republic 2,120 2,807 Peru..

1,582 27,980 Costa Rica..

59 1,602 Canada..

6,719 21,761 Honduras

90 1,260 Paraguay...

72 16,812 British Guiana.

96 7,704 Mexico.

595 5,796 Brazil

1,660 967 Colombia.

103 1,233 Venezuela (1876)...

3,636 Bolivia....

Ecuador (1874)..


876 America...


1,528 142,689 || Algeria..

543 Tunis

10,456 Cape Colony..


Africa...... 2,438


New Zealand (1574) 886 8.5

Tasmania (1874).... 72

Australia (1874).... 2,296 12,870

Australasia...... 2,708



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United States..

V. Postal and Telegraph Statistics of the World.The postal and telegraph statistics of the world, embracing post-offices and letters, telegraph lines, wires, stations, and telegrams, were as follows:


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1875 Denmark

1874 Germany.

1875 France.

1874 Greece.

1874 Great Britain..

1875 Italy.

1874 Netherlands.

1875 Norway.

1872 Austro-Hungary

1875 Portugal

1876 Roumania.

1875 Russia .. Caucasus

1875 Yinland

1675 Sweden

1875 Switzerland.

1875 Servia....

1872 Spain..

1874 Turkey. United States

1875 Canada..

1875 Mexico.

1874 Argentine Republic..

1875 Brazil..

1874 Chili..


Costa Rica.
British India.

1875 Dutch India.

1875 Japan..

1874 Egypt.

1873 Algeria...

1875 Tunis...

1875 Australia, with New Zealand and Tasmania.... 1873

6,000,000 66,200,000

2,000,000 16,200,000 69,100,000

1,200,000 75,300,000


1,691 8,800,000

521 1,010,000 1,002 2,965,000

87 165.000 225 988.000 444 1,911.000 7,218 18,780,000 829 1,142.000 194


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1875 7,959 19,877

1874 1,461 2,146
1874 12,020 27,114
1875 25,282 48,650
1875 122,776 803,000
1871 16,121 26,142

1875 7,650 15,392
1875 6,151 8,528
1875 4,265


1,542 ()
1876 8,966 7,646
1574 26,451
1875 6,504 (?)
1875 2,832 ()
1878 6,486 13,750
1874 5,849

1874 644 700




16 46

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(?) 2,160


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ECUADOR (REPÚBLICA DEL ECUADOR), an bounded on the north by the United States of independent state of South America, lying Colombia and Brazil, on the east by the empire between latitude 1° 5' north and 5° 30' south, just named, on the south by Peru, and on the and longitude 69° 52' and 80° 35' west. It is west by the Pacific Ocean.




Los Rios,


The territory of the republic is divided into ported to stand as follows: * Foreign debt thirteen provinces, including the Galápagos (£1,824,000, British loan of 1855), $12,845,000; Islands, the capital of which is Albemarle.* home debt, $7,250,000; total $20,095,000 pesos.

The following table shows the population of In the first quarter of 1876 an arrangement eleven of the provinces, according to an offi- for the reduction of the debt, by the convercial return published in 1875:

sion of the one per cent. stock into new six

per cent. bonds, was authorized by the LegisPROVINCES. Population. Capitals. lature.

No official statistics of the commerce of Azuay..

110,860 Riobamba.

Ecuador were published in 1876; and the

8,000 Esmeraldas. latest concerning the imports are still those Guayas.

87,427 Guayaquil.

of 1871.

76,140 Latacunga. With such a spirit of jealousy between two Loja....

60,784 Loja. important sections of a country as that reigning

61,922 Babahoyo. Mapabi..

59,098 Portoviejo.

between the inhabitants of the coast-region

102,281 Quito. and those of the elevated plateaus of Ecuador, Tunguragua.

78,148 Ambato. Total...

866,137 In the return above referred to no mention was made of the provinces of Oriente (capital Archidona) and Galápagos.

Of the 866,137 inhabitants given in the foregoing table, 461,254 were females; and to the total should be added some 200,000 uncivilized Indians.

The population of Quito, the capital, was set down at 76,000 for the year already alluded to.

The President of Ecuador is Dr. Antonio Borrero, inaugurated on December 8, 1875.

The cabinet is composed of the following ministers: Interior and Foreign Affairs, -; Treasury, Señor Francisco P. Icaza; and War and the Navy, General Julio Saenz. The commandants-general of Quito and of Guayaquil are Señor José Martinez de Aparicio and Colonel Teodoro Gomez de la Torre, respectively, both of whom received their appointments simultaneously with the members of the cabinet.

The armed force comprises some 1,200 men, and the navy is composed of three small steamers,

Public instruction is still under the exclusive control of the clergy, and the Christian Brothers, whose zealous efforts have already been productive of excellent results. The number

CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR. of schools goes on steadily increasing in the various continental provinces ; large numbers the most insignificant elements of discord are, of text-books have been procured, mainly not infrequently, magnified into pretexts for from New York; and neither pains nor money open violence. The administration of Garcia will

, it is promised, be spared in order to the Moreno gave rise to murmurings which, while completest possible organization and develop- they were easily stifled in the Alpine valleys ment of the school system now introduced.

on a level with that in which stands the capiof the national revenue, which in 1875 tal, found fresh vent at Guayaquil, and on amounted to 3,650,510 Ecuadorian pesos (= many occasions swelled into turbulent pro$2,591,862), nearly one-half was derived from tests. the custom-house receipts.

His successor, Dr. Borrero, does not seem The national expenditure in the same year to have as yet succeeded in conciliating the amounted to 3,985,560 pesos (= $2,829,747), sympathies of the people of the littoral reconstituting a deficit of 335,050 pesos (= $237,- gions; so far from it, indeed, that a serious at885).

tempt has already been made to overthrow his In January, 1875, the national debt was re- government.

Interesting particulars concerning the debt will be found * For the area, see the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1873. in the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1876.

VOL. XVI.-16 A


The speech delivered br Dr. Borrero on the cesses of power, nor any means of exploring the occasion of his inauguration, on December 8, public sentiments; there is nothing to guide the 1876, presents his views of public policy. The finally, anything to lead public opinion in the direcfollowing is a translation:

tion of true scientific, literary, and political progThe oath which I have taken to-day is not, sir, as ress. Under my administration, then, there will be you have well said, a mere formula, but a solemn in Ecuador full liberty of election, a legally free compromise made to my God and my country. As press; and, moreover, all legitimate freedoin will be a sincere Catholic, I will protect the religion of our real and effective. fathers-a religion which bas civilized the whole Raised without title or merit to supreme power, world, and which I think has not an enemy in all by the popular vote, and not by any party or facEcuador. To attack the Catholic religion would be tion, I do not see, in my fellow-countrymen, to treason to the country, because, if Ecuador is now a whom I owe so much, and from whom I have recivilized and cultivated nation, she owes it entirelyceived the most splendid mark of distinction and to the light received from the Evangelical Church. confidence, one party of oppressors, and another of The Ecuadorian Church will be therefore really in- oppressed people; but I see a nation of brothers, dependent, and the Government will protect that strongly interested in working together for the independence, respecting it, and making it respected honor and advancement of the

country. A governby all. A church which is not free is not the church ment which has its origin in revolution and violence, established by Jesus Christ, nor is it the most powe and not in the popular will, needs to sustain itself erful element of social civilization and progress, but by tyrannical and oppressive measures; but a gov. on the contrary an instrument of oppression and ernment raised up by the force of justice, which is tyranny.

the only legitimate and respectable force; a governThe duties which I have contracted with my ment whose origin is not vitiated or corrupted, becountry are set forth in the Constitution; but as cause it is born of the genuine will of the people; that Constitution is vicious, it is natural that we a government, in fact, which has been placed at the should reform it; and the reform has already been head of the destinies of the nation which it is called begun by the honorable Senators and Deputies. upon to rule, by assuredly providential circumUpon this point I think it well to indicate to you stances, has nothing to fear, and needs nothing but what are my ideas. The political world, if we may the coöperation of good citizens, the aid of our loyal say so, is divided into two principal schools of gov- and disciplined army, and of its worthy and honernment. According to one, the permanent subjec- orable generals like yourself. I assure you theretion of a nation to tutelage, under a strong and re- fore, sir, that the authority with which I am now, pressive government, is the best

and most convenient against my own will, invested, and to which I never system for the political, social, and material progress for one moment aspired, will not be used for an evil of a nation. According to the other, the govern- end, to plot against public liberties, nor to enthrone ment ought to hold, for the rule of its conduct, the despotism, but to guarantee the reign of justice, of luissez faire dejad hacer), so much recommended by order, and of liberty, and to render practical and that class of politicians. I think, sir, that a tutor effective the popular, elective, alternative, and regovernment is unacceptable equally for governor and sponsible republic—á republic which, until to-day, governed: for the first, because, if the tutorship

of has only existed

in writing, in the eight constituà minor is a heavy duty, that of a nation must be tions which we have had in Ecuador. To bring to an insupportable task; and for the second, because a good end the programme which I have indicated, the dignity of man, without which he becomes a I do not count upon my weak powers, I count only mere machine, is incompatible with a government upon the protection of the All-Powerful, which which does all and directs all for him. Popular never fails for him who, like myself, is animated by suffrage, the free press, public opinion, and moral the purest patriotism, and the most upright and just sanction, etc., are not required, when the govern- intentions. ment believes itself omnipotent and onniscient, and consequently infallible. I do not hold, therefore,

The revolution already alluded to broke out with a tutor-government, for that government means in September, headed by General Veintemilla, only a permanent dictatorship, and the degradation military commandant of Guayaquil, and who As little do I hold with a government of the lais- pose of maintaining

order and peace in the dis

had been appointed to that post for the purbecause such a government is incapable of fulfilling affected district. All the available forces disthe daties imposed by God on those who direct pub- pensable from the capital were placed at his lic affairs. If liberty is sacred, authority

is not

less disposal, as the Government placed implicit so; if the first has its rights, so also has the latter; confidence in his loyalty. By the end of the but if liberty wishes to overstep its bounds, and be- month the insurrection was gaining adherents justice and right, then authority is called,

on its part, in the neighboring provinces; yet Borrero, to restrain this license, and to withhold the ad-spite of the imminence of the peril, had not vances of that anarchy which is far more dangerous retired from the presidency. He declared his

The two principal public liberties which are the intention to stay in Quito and oppose the inessence of the republican system, and which con- surgents. tribute more than any others to the culture and the ÉGGERT, FRANZ XAVER, a German painter progress of a nation, are the liberty of election and on glass, born in 1802 ; died in October, 1876. the freedoin of the press. The first is the exercise He studied decorative painting in Augsburg, of the most iinportant of political rights; the second attended the Art Academy in Munich in 1824, and the opinions, of the governed. 'Without liberty and was afterward employed in the Royal of election, the republic would have no solid, legiti- Glass-painting Establishment. He was enmate base on which to erect the political and social gaged on the windows in the church at Aue, edifice; because a government which does not de- and in the cathedral in Cologne, where he exrive its origin from this pure fount is contrary to ecuted the greater part of the ornamentation. reason, destitute of all authority. Without a free In 1837 he published several folios of Gothic press, there are no means of restraining the ex- ornaments, which he had engraved on stone

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