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former session, both with respect to the amount in the taxes and of other reforms important to of the sum to be granted for purposes of de- the country which affected the Treasury would fense, and to the manner in which it should have to be postponed. With regard to the be raised. The ministry replied, declining to amount to be expended in the works, the comentertain any further consideration of the sub- mittee were of the opinion that 30,000,000 ject upon the basis of the method of defense crowns was the maximum sum which the counapproved by the Folkething; stating that they try would be willing to allow to be applied to regarded the imposition of new taxes as un this purpose. The statements of the minis
try gave no guarantee that their expenditures would stop with the 33,000,000 crowns which they now asked. It was apprehended that this would be only a part of much larger sums which would be demanded in the future to complete works once undertaken. The committee then addressed several questions to the ministers: Did they consider the sum of 33,000,000 crowns sufficient for the completion of the extraordinary works of defense which they thought desirable ? Had the ministry definitely given up the completion of the works for
merly proposed, which necessary; that they judged that the usual were not included in the drafted bills, which surplus of revenues would afford sufficient were to provide for the security of Copenhagen means not only for the purposes of defense, by means of fixed forts on the side of the land but also for other objects, as for the improve as well as of the sea? If this were the case, ment of the means of communication; and re- would the ministers lay before the committee marking that the difference between the ap- the grounds on which they could assure them propriation asked by the Government and that the application of the designated sum that voted by the House only amounted to the of 33,000,000 crowns would be made most
judiciously in the manner prescribed in the bill, if these works were no longer regarded as parts of a greater whole, but as complete in themselves, and requiring no further additions? The committee asked also to have communicated to them the reports which the military experts had made upon the plans of the Government. To these questions the ministry replied that the appropriations designated by the Chamber, if applied upon the plan of defense favored by it, would, no less than the sum demanded by the Government, and applied upon its plan, demand supplementary appropriations; on the other hand, the plan of the Government could be quite as well regarded as a completed whole as that adopted by the Folkething, that it would be found entirely
useful even if no further defenses were added inconsiderable sum of 3,000,000 crowns. In to it, and that the ministry were constrained answer to this the committee remarked that to adhere to their plans in any event. The reits views on both points of difference were un- ply was regarded as evasive, but the commitchanged. With regard to the subject of the tee construed it as an answer in the negative method of raising the money, it was true that to their questions. The committee reported the sums needed could be provided out of their correspondence to the Folkething, with funds in the Treasury; but, if provision was a review of some of the details of fortificamade in this manner, the questions of reform tions, which they regarded as needful, and
closed with the statement that they could not The chief point of difference in the dispute advise the Chamber to continue a discussion between the Government and the Folkething wbich under present circumstances offered no concerns the plan upon which the defenses of prospect of a practical result. The minority the country shall be constructed. Both parties of the committee considered that a basis of agree that defenses are necessary, and should adjustinent could still be had, and advised that be provided, but cannot agree upon any measa positive proposition be made, with a view ure as to details. This disagreement has opto securing an agreement. For this end they erated as a check upon the most important proposed a measure combining some of the legislation for several years. During the former features of both the measures which had al- half of the present century the naval force was ready been considered. This was not accept- held in high regard as the most important and able to either side. After hearing the re- efficient instrumentality for defense, while the ports, the Folkething, June 12th, by a vote of army was given a subordinate position. In 62 to 26, reiterated its adherence to its previ- different view has prevailed since the War of ous positions, and passed to the order of the 1848. The fleet played an inferior part in the day. It afterward adopted a vote of want of campaigns of that period, and suffered severe confidence in the policy of the ministry, in losses, while the army showed itself strong which 71 members agreed.
and effective; consequently, since that time The regular session of the Rigsdag was the army has received particular attention, opened on the 2d of October, without a speech while no more than was necessary has been from the throne. With 60 members present, done for the fleet. In 1867 the army had been the Folkething elected its former president given a thorough organization, but no specific and vice-presidents, Krabbe, Hagsbro, and Han- plans were thought necessary for the care and sen, giving to each 57 votes. The budget was increase of the navy, and no new ships were submitted. It estimated the revenues of the built. In 1872 the Government began to entercountry at 47,000,000 crowns, the expenses at tain the apprehension that the country might 45,000,000, and the increase of revenues at become involved in a war with a great power, 8,000,000 crowns. A bill for the alteration of as Germany, and to give attention to the prepthe tariff by the reduction of duties in soine aration, against such an event, of stronger items, and increase in others, and a bill offered defenses. It formed plans for the improveby the Minister of Instruction for the building ment of the army, for such an increase of the of a Polytechnic School, were rejected by the feet as would place it in a condition to endure Folkething. No progress having been made in a conflict on the open sea, and for building the consideration of the budget, the King, at fortifications at different points. It especially the beginning of December, authorized a pro- contemplated works to defend the capital longation of the session for two months, or against a capture from the side nearest the till February 2d. The discussion on the second mainland. For these works it sought at first reading of the budget was opened on the 15th an appropriation of 40,000,000 marks. Its of December, on the presentation of the reports plans were disapproved by the Legislature. of the majority of the committee proposing Nevertheless it presented them again the next amendments, and of the minority supporting year, in the same form as before. The Folkethe measures submitted by the Government. thing answered them with other plans, in which The first division took place on the 18th, on a considerable sum was allowed for the imthe statement of the finance minister. All of provement of the fleet, but nothing for the the amendments proposed by the Opposition fortification of the capital from the land-side. were adopted, by votes of 60 against 15 or 18. In 1874 the Government succeeded in obtainThe propositions offered by the Opposition in ing an appropriation to begin the building of amendment of the statements of the Ministers an iron-clad vessel. In 1875 the Government of the Interior and of Justice were also ac- again submitted its plans to the Chambers, in cepted, while an appropriation asked by the a form differing from the original plans, and Government for the building of a mail-steamer calling for larger expenditures. The Landswas denied. The discussion became very thing made some slight modifications in the heated over the estimate of the Minister of plans, and approved them as modified. The Instruction. Berg, a leader of the Opposition, Folkething again rejected them, and adhered said that the Government would commit a to the plans which it had previously approved. breach of its oath if it framed a provisional The plans were again submitted to the Cham. finance law, as it was proposed to do if the bers in 1876, in the form in which they had two Houses failed to agree upon a measure. been approved by the Landsthing, and formed An appropriation was granted for finishing the the subject of debate during the whole year, Royal Theatre. Before adjourning for the holi- without the two Houses being able to come to days, the Folkething had approved the amend- any agreement upon them. The original plans ments proposed by its committee to the marine of defense submitted by the Government conbudget, and denied the appropriations asked templated the building of fortresses, to be so by the Government. The Landsthing, having arranged as to afford a degree of protection nothing to act upon, had taken a recess from to all parts of the country. They were open the 19th of December to the 9th of January. to the objection that such a disposition of forts
would compel a scattering of the military pearance in 1831, with several landscape forces. In the later plans the defense of the sketches, and afterward brought out “The whole country was given up, and attention was Surroundings of Saragossa" (1834), " The directed to making secure only Seeland, or Battle of Medina Cæli" (1835), and "The Old rather the capital. The plans included, indeed, Ben - Emek." “ The Nymphs of Calypso " shore-batteries to be built along the shores of (1840), and “The Dream” (1841), showed a the Little Belt as well as of the Great Belt, but change in his style; and in 1844 his “View of these were intended especially to secure com- Bas-Bréan,” “ The Oriental," and " Bohemians munication with the mainland. To defend the going to a Festival,” displayed those effects of capital against bombardment from the side of light which formed his characteristic. In 1851 the sea, the old sea-forts were to be strength- he finished his two paintings, "The Bathing. ened and new ones built. Works to prevent the Woman” and “Love disarmed.” He sent irruption of small hostile forces from the side to the Universal Exhibition of 1855 several of of the land could be built after the other works his older works, among them “The Presents were finished. Great stress was laid upon the of Love,” “The Rival," "The Close of a Fine strengthening of the fleet, which it was desired Day," " Sleeping Nymph," "The Nymph torto put in such a condition as to be capable of mented by Love,” and “The Last Tears," of preventing the landing of an enemy's force, of which the dull coloring called forth considerdestroying his transports, and even of engag- able criticism. About this time he undertook ing in battle on the open sea. A fortified naval a journey to the East, and in 1859 exhibited station on the west side of Seeland was pro Galathea," “Venus and Adonis," and other posed, to furnish a place of retreat and a point paintings. Recently his older works were of support for the fleet.
sold at very high prices, while his later works The Governor of the Danish West India Isl- were not valued so highly. His son, Eugène ands visited Copenhagen early in February, in Diaz, has gained considerable renown as a order to attend to the legislation to be had musical composer. respecting those islands, and especially to DIDOT, AMBROSE FIRMIN, the head of the secure an advance from the Treasury of a sum celebrated French publishing-house of Firmin of money to help the sugar-planters in building Didot Frères, Fils et Cie., born December 20, refineries. The Folkething voted a loan of 1790; died February 22, 1876. He studied 2,000,000 crowns for this purpose.
particularly the ancient languages, traveled In July the King opened the exhibition of through the East, was attached for a time to the industries of Jutland at Aarhuus, and sub- the legation in Constantinople, and then ensequently visited the military exercise camp at tered his father's business, of which he took Hald.
charge with his brother Hyacinthe Firmin in A statue of the astronomer Tycho Brabe 1827. He published numerous works of Chamwas unveiled at Copenhagen on the 8th of pollion, Jacquemont, and others; a new ediAugust.
tion of the Dictionnaire de l'Académie Fran DESPOIS, EUGÈNE ANDRÉ, a French writer çaise," and a new revised edition of the and scholar, born December 25, 1818; died “Thesaurus Linguæ Græcæ " of Henricus SteSeptember 23, 1876. He studied at the Col- phanus. He wrote himself “Notes d'un Vor, lége Saint-Louis, entered the normal school in age dans le Levant en 1816 et 1817," and 1838, taught rhetoric during one year at gained considerable fame by translations of Bourges, and was called to Paris, where he Anacreon and Thucydides, and by excellent became Professor of Rhetoric at the Collége works on bibliography and other subjects, of Louis-le-Grand. After the coup-d'état of 1851 which the best known are: "Essai typohe devoted himself entirely to literary labors. graphique et bibliographique sur l'Histoire de He furnished to the “ Bibliothèque Latine- la Gravure sur Bois ” (1863), “Études sur la Française” of Panckoucke, the translation of Vie et les Travaux de Jean Sire de Joinville" “Rutilius Nunvatianus," of " Rufus Festus (1871), “ Études sur Jean Cousin " (1872), and Avienus,” and of "Aratus "—the two latter · Alde Manuce et l'Hellénisme à Venise » together with Saviot (1844). He contributed (1875). He also wrote several works on French to the publication in Latin of the works of orthography. In 1873 be was elected a member Abélard by Cousin (1819), and published of the French Academy. Among the more reseveral annotated editions of the classics. He cent works published by Didot are: “Collecbecame well known by his contributions to tions des Classiques Français," " Bibliothèque the Liberté de penser, the Revue des Deux des Auteurs Grecs," “ Glossarium Mediæ et InMondes, the Revue de Paris, the Revue Natio- fimae Latinitatis ” of Dufresne, and the “ Nounale, etc. He also published a number of his- velle Biographie générale” (1851, et seq.). The torical works, the best known of which are: house is one of the oldest in Europe, having "La Révolution d'Angleterre, 1603-1668" been established in 1713 by François Didot. (1861), "Les Lettres et la Liberté" (1865), and Under his successors it rapidly grew, occupy. Le Vandalisme révolutionnaire" (1869). ing at the present time a foremost rank among
DIAZ DE LA PENA, NARCISSE VIRGILE, a the publishing-houses of Europe. French painter, born in August, 1809; died DIEZ, FRIEDRICH CHRistian, the founder of November 18, 1876. He made his first ap- the philology of the Romance languages, died
May 29, 1876. He was born at Giessen, of Berlin, and to Haupt's Zeitschrift für March 15, 1794. He attended the gymnasium Deutsches Altherthum, and to other learned at that place, and entered the university at works. Giessen in 1811. Here he devoted himself es DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE AND pecially, under the care of F. G. Welcker, to FOREIGN RELATIONS. The relations of the the study of classical philology. In 1813' he United States with other nations have been joined as a volunteer the Hessian corps in the of a most peaceful and ordinary character campaign against Napoleon, and acquitted him- during the year. Only two or three points self with credit as a soldier. After the peace, appear to be of sufficient importance to dehe discontinued the study of philology, and serve a notice here. devoted himself to that of the law. He soon The immigration to California from China found that he had made a mistake in choosing has recently awakened so much interest as to this branch, which was not adapted to his attract the attention of Congress. It seems taste, and turned his attention to modern lan- that the Chinese immigrants of that State are guages and literature, which he studied at natives of the province of Kwangtung to such Göttingen with great zeal and energy. He was an extent that it is safe to refer more than nine. confirmed in giving this new direction to his tenths of the whole to it. The entire area of studies by his intercourse with Goethe, with this province is reckoned at about 80,000 square whom he became acquainted at Jena in the miles; but the largest portion of the emigrants spring of 1818. Goethe induced him to de- go from its most populous prefecture of Kwangvote himself especially to the Provençal lan- chow, in which the city of Canton and colony guages and literature, and Diez followed the of Macao lie. This prefecture, which contains advice, the more willingly as his own inclina- fourteen districts, may be roughly estimated at tion accorded with it. He became deeply en- one-tenth or more of the whole province, and gaged in his newly-chosen studies, and did not for population, resources, and energy of its ineven lose sight of them when circumstances habitants, is the leading division. They speak compelled him, in 1819, to accept a position as generally the same dialect, and as they have tator in Utrecht. The next year he lived pri- peculiar facilities for intercourse through the vately for a short time at Giessen, in order to great number of creeks and canals which interqualify himself to become a private tutor in sect it and connect with the Pearl River and Bonn. In 1823 he was made a professor-ex- the sea-coast, in their admirable boats, they traordinary, in 1830 a regular professor, in are very well acquainted with each other's the university at Bonn. Here he continued to movements, wants, and industries. It is from work and enjoy the fruit of his labors. Till the this region, one also more or less connected end of his life Diez displayed a stirring activ- with foreign trade for the last three centuries, ity. His earliest works-“Old Spanish Ro- that emigration has flowed to California and mances" (Berlin, 1821), and "Contributions to Australia more than from other parts; and to the Knowledge of the Poetry of the Romance this familiarity with that trade, by having Languages" (Berlin, 1825 ; republished in shared in its benefits, may partly be ascribed French under the title of " Essai sur les Cours the readiness with which its inhabitants have d'Amour,” Paris, 1842)—displayed a remark- gone abroad. The area of country from which able talent for the interpretation of foreign the emigration proceeds hardly exceeds 15,000 poetry. His “Poetry of the Troubadours” square miles, and this includes portions of the (Zwickau, 1826; republished in French at Par- adjoining prefectures. is, 1845), and his “ Life and Works of the The population of this province of KwangTroubadours ” (Zwickau, 1829), were very im- tung, according to the best information, is portant contributions to the study of the mod- about 20,000,000, and the proportion of this ern languages, and soon made their author particular region which furnishes the emigrants famous.
Thé chief works of his life were not less than 5,000,000. Foreigners have not the “Grammatik der romanischen Sprachen" that ready access to the official returns of (Grammar of the Romanic Languages, 3 vols., local censuses which will enable them to comBonn, 1836–42), and the “Etymologisches Wör- pare them with the population personally obterbuch der romanischen Sprachen " (Etymo- served, even on a small area, and thus ascerlogical Dictionary of the Romanic Languages, tain what degree of accuracy can be fairly Bonn, 1853). The "Grammar of the Roman- ascribed to them ; but, as this region is exic Languages" has also been published in a ceedingly fertile and accessible, this estimate French translation (Paris, 1863), and in an Eng- of 5,000,000 is no doubt within the truth. lish translation (London, 1863). Among his The city of Canton contains 1,000,000, and other works are: “Altromanische Sprachdenk- there are other large cities. male” (Bonn, 1846); “Two Old Romance The American secretary of legation, Mr. Poems" (Bonn, 1852); and a work on the George F. Seward, under date of March 22, early Portuguese poetry, “Ueber die erste 1876, writes to Secretary Fish as follows: portugiesische Kunst- und Hofpoesie” (Bonn, 1863). Diez contributed many and important into our Pacific States would give rise to grave
It is certain that a great immigration of Chinese articles to the literary journals, especially to cal difficulties. But, to my mind, it is quite as certhe Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik, tain that no such immigration will take place. The
opportunities open to the Chinamau in other direc- thereof; and I cannot imagine that it will be claimed tions are, perhaps, nowhere else so lucrative, but they by Great Britain that either party to a treaty may at are more inviting to him for the reasons I have given will, and by its own municipal legislation," limit or It is to be said further that, while he may earn a change the rights which have been conceded to the higher wage in America than at home, his expenses, other by treaty, and have been practically admitted too, are higher. He pays here less than a cent of our for such length of time. money for his sandals; his boots cost him in Cali I would also call your attention to the twenty-sevfornia perhaps five dollars. A mere comparison of enth section of the act of 1870 (chapters 52, 33, 34, the rates paid for labor here and there, leaving out of Vict.), repealing former acts under which extradition view other considerations, would lead to very wrong had, theretofore, been made; this section expressly conclusions. And, again, his country is not so over- excepts everything contained in the act inconsistent populated as is believed. Under an improved sys- with the treaties referred to in the repealed acts, tem of administration, which would embrace the among which is the treaty with the United States. working of mines and minerals, the construction and It seems to have been clearly the intent of Parliaoperation of railroads, etc., there would be a demand ment not to apply to that treaty any of the provisions at home for all the labor that would be available. As of the act inconsistent with the treaty, as it had exthings are, there are perhaps as few persons pinched isted and been enforced for nearly thirty years. by want to be seen in the streets of most Chinese cities as in those of the cities of Christendom. If,
In answer to the demand for the surrender then, the people of the Pacific States need Chinese of Winslow, Lord Derby writes to General labor, they may safely encourage immigration; when Schenck, under date of February 29th, as folthey cease to need it, the Chinese will cease to come lows: to their shores. I mean by this that when the call for labor ceases to be an urgent one, the Chinaman been informed by her Majesty's Secretary of State for
Sir: I have the honor to state to you that I have will stop his migration in that direction. Even with a great call for labor in all our Western and Southern the Home Department that the
chief magistrate of the
Bow Street police-court issued, on the 13th instant, country, he cannot be induced to go to either.
upon the information of Colonel Chesebrough, of the But the most important feature of the cor- United States legation, warrants for the apprehension, respondence of the year related to the treaty dition act, 1870, of Ezra D. Winslow, who is accused
under the eighth section,
clause second, of the extrafor the extradition of criminals between the of the crime of forgery within the jurisdiction of the United States and Great Britain. In Februa- United States of America. ry, 1876, Ezra D. Winslow, of Boston, Mass., Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Decharged with the commission of the crime of partment, in communicating this to me, has drawn forgery in that State, escaped to London, where my attention to the third clause, subsection 2, of the
, he was arrested and held awaiting extradition. A fugitive criminal shall not be surrendered to On February 21st, Secretary Fish writes to a foreign state unless provision is made by the law General Schenck, the American minister at of that state, or by arrangement, that the fugitive London, as follows:
criminal shall not, until he has been restored or had
an opportunity of returning to her Majesty's dominSır: A conversation occurred on the 17th instant, ions, be detained or tried in that foreign state for any between Sir Edward Thornton (British minister at offense committed prior to his surrender, other than Washington) and myself, in reference to the course the extradition crime proved by the facts on which which might be adopted by the British Government the surrender is grounded." on a demand being preferred for the extradition of And has inquired whether any provision has been Winslow on the charge of forgery.
made by the law of the United States or by arrange Sir Edward suggested that if his surrender were ment that Winslow, if surrendered, shall not, until requested it might be refused, unless a stipulation was he has been restored or had an opportunity of return entered into that the fugitive should not be tried upon ing to her Majesty's dominions, be detained or tried any offense other than that for which he was extra- in the United States for any offense committed prior dited.
to his surrender other than the extradition crime Whether this course, if adopted, grows out of the proved by the facts on which the surrender is grounded. proceedings in the Lawrence case, or from a desire The Secretary of State for the Home Department to make the extradition treaty beiween the United fears that the claim advanced by your Government to States and Great Britain subject to the provisions of try Lawrence in the recent case of extradition, with the British extradition act of August 9, 1870, I cannot which you are familiar, for crimes other than the say,
extradition crime for which he was surrendered, You will remember that this act in section 3, under amounts to a denial that any such law exists in the the head of "Restrictions on Surrenders of Crimi- United States; while the disclaimer by your Governnals,” provides that no criminal shall be surrendered ment of any implied understanding existing with her unless provision is made by the law of the foreign Majesty's Government in this respect, and the interstate, or by arrangement, that the fugitive shall not pretation put upon the act of Congress of August 1.9, be tried for any offense "other than the extradition 1842, chapter 147, section 3, preclude any longer the crime proved by the facts on which the surrender is belief in the existence of an effective arrangement, grounded."
which ber Majesty's Government had previously supIf the course adverted to be caused by the Lawposed to be practically in force. rence casc, it may be well to say that it is believed The Secretary of State for the Home Department is, that Lawrence has not, up to this time, been arraigned accordingly, compelled to state that, if he is correct for any other than the extradition offense, and that in considering that no such law exists, he would have no representation has been made to this Government no power, in the absence of an arrangement, to order on the question.
the extradition of Winslow, even though the extraIf such a course is taken for any other reason, it dition crime for which he has been arrested were may be said that Great Britain has on more than one proved against him, and the usual committal by the occasion tried surrendered criminals on offenses other magistrate ensued thereupon. than those for which they were extradited, and such I have thought it right to lose as little time as trials afford a practical construction of the scope of possible in calling your attention to the intimation the treaty and of the power and rights of either
Gov- which I have thus received from her Majesty's Secreernment as understood and applied by Great Britain tary of State for the Home Department; and I have for a period of nearly thirty years after the ratification the honor to request that you will bring the circunr