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The number of deaf, dumb, blind, and feeble- caucus of Sussex County, The opposition to minded children provided for by the State is as him was believed to arise not so much from follows:

the fact that he held a Federal office as from In the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb.. 7 his known opposition to Mr. Blaine, and prefin the Coluinbia Institution (Washington) for the Deaf and Dumb

erence for Mr. Bristow, as the candidate for In the Pennsylvania Institute for Instruction of the Blind § President. After a lieated debate, the Sussex In the Pennsylvania Training-School for Feeble-minded delegation withdrew; and agreed upon another Children ...

candidate in place of Dr. Prettyman. Total......

14 The Democratic State Convention for the

choice of delegates to the National Convention at St. Louis was held at Dover, on the 13th of June. The sense of the gathering was expressed in the following resolutions:

The Democratic Party of Delaware, strong in its ancient faith, and loyal to those principles of free government upon which the Federal Union was formed, declares

1. That a strict adherence to, and maintenance of, the limitation of power, contained in the Constitution of the United States, is the sheet-anchor of our institutions, on which the safety of our future depends.

2. That the attempt of the Federal Administration, now in radical hands, to absorb the police power of the State, to control the election to office by congressioval legislation and executive interference, and to substitute a centralized government for the home rule" of the Constitution, is viewed with alarm, and should be met with the rebuking ballots of a free people.

3. That the Republican party now in power has The convention of the Republicans of Dela- prostituted its high trusts to personal and party ware for the appointment of delegates to the ends, and, by its flagrant corruption, wrought upon National Convention of the party was held at

us a national humiliation and disgrace. Dover, on the 18th of May. The following advisers to thwart the Democratic House of Repre

4. That the attempt of President Grant and his resolutions were adopted :

sentatives in the exposure of official fraud and malThe Republicans of Delaware, in State Convention feasance is an outrage upon the whole people whose assembled, pledging their unalterable devotion to servants they are. the cardinal principles upon which their party is

5. That the necessities of the times imperatively founded ; and desiring that the integrity of the Gov- demand a return to those home-bred virtues of our ernment shall be maintained; that its obligations ancestors, honesty and economy in the administrashall be honestly and fully paid in coin, or obliga- tion of public affairs, and to those methods

of govtions convertible into coin at the pleasure of the ernment which will secure a real civil-service reholder; that its administration shall be honestly form, by cutting off a multitude of unnecessary and faithfully conducted in all the various branches offices, and making preferment in the public service and departments thereof; and that home industries no longer a reward of partisan zeal. shall be properly protected, go that the skill and re 6. That the currency of a people should constitute sources of our common country shall be rendered in itself a standard and measure of values as well as remunerative and productive, do declare that in our a calculating medium of exchange, and that to coin opinion the national standard-bearer in the centen- money out of gold and silver was the only power on pial campaign must be an exponent of the principles the subject delegated to Congress by the Constituherein set forth; and believing that by a long-con- tion; that the disregard of this wise limitation of tinued and active public life, and enlarged experience power, and the introduction of an irredeemable as a national legislator and otherwise, and an un- paper currency among the people, has caused an compromising integrity, preserved despite the most

enormous increase of the public debt, and has been persistent and malignant attacks, the Hon. James the prolific parent of wild speculation with the con6. Blaine, of Maine, meets these requirements : sequent bankruptcy and ruin; that wisdom and therefore

obedience to the charter of our Government alike Piolted, That our preference be, and the same is demand a restoration, at the earliest possible day, hereby, expressed in his favor as an eminently prop- to a money of value- of gold and silver coin-and a er person to become a presidential candidate, and currency convertible therewith at the will of the our delegates to Cincinnati are hereby instructed to holder. observe this preference so long as in their judgment

7. That a tariff whose object is to raise revenue, and discretion it may be possible to secure his and not to favor special classes, is demanded by the nomination.

interests of the whole people. Resolodd, That in the judgment of this convention

8. That the people of Delaware recognize the the delegates from this State to the National Con- eminent public services of the Hon. Thomas F. vention, to be held at Cincinnati, should be repre ful to duty, and in his public and private life pure

Bayard ; that in all public trusts he has been faithsentative of the people, disconnected from official and without blemish. We, therefore, declare that position under the Government of the United States. he be our unanimous choice for the

presidency of the A warm discussion was occasioned by the United States. last resolution, which was understood to be 9. That the delegates to the Democratic National aimed at Dr. 'J. S. Prettyman, as he held a structed to 'cast the vote of this state in_said con

Convention, this day appointed, are hereby inFederal office, and had been designated as a vention as a unit for the Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, delegate to the National Convention loy a and to use all possible means to secure his election.

Six delegates to the St. Louis Convention The following resolution was unanimously were then chosen.

adopted, on motion of James L. Walcott, of The Deinocrats of the State held a conven- Kent County: tion at Dover on the 7th of September, for the Resolved, That we are, and always have been, in nomination of a candidate for member of Con- favor of the white men of the country controlling the gress. The Hon. James Williams was renomi- Government; and therefore we appeal with confinated, and the following was adopted as the the principles enunciated in the foregoing resoluplatform of the party:

tions. The Democracy of Delaware, represented by the

The Republicans met in convention at Dodelegates of this convention, reaffirm the attachment of the party to the principles of republican govern- yer on the 13th of September, and nominated ment as established by the men who framed the Levi C. Bird for Congress, besides presenting Federal Constitution, and insist that only by a faith- a ticket for presidential electors. They also ful observance of those principles can tiie just

pow- adopted the following resolutions: ers of the General and State Governments be maintained and the rights of all the people be assured. Resolved, That we declare our hearty concurrence

Resolved-1. That all attempts on the part of the in the declaration of principles adopted by the NaExecutive Department of the Federal Government to tional Republican Convention of June 14, 1876, and interfere with elections in the States is a usurpation congratulate the country on the nomination of Ruthof power, subversive of the rights of the States and erford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler, and acthe liberties of the people. We therefore denounce cept their lives, services, and communications as the the recent military order of the Secretary of War evidence of the determination of the Republican directing the General of the Army to distribute sol- party to secure the blessings of good government, diers in the Southern States as indicative of a purpure public service, and the equal and constitutional pose on the part of the Administration and its sup- rights of every citizen of the United States, porters to prevent, if possible, a free and fair exercise Resolved, That recognizing the duty of the national of the elective franchise in those States.

Government to aid in the restoration of harmonious 2. That the late circular of the Attorney-General relations in every part of our common Union upun of the United States to the United States marshals the basis of the amended Constitution, we unqualiis an attempt to usurp the authority of the govern-fiedly affirm that this duty can be better performed ments of the States and to place the control of the by those to whom the nation is indebted for its elections in the hands

of unscrupulous United States preservation than those who were so lately banded marshals, and thereby to force the election of a Re- for its destruction, and whose continued persecution publican Executive against the will of the people. of their fellow-citizens and denial of their civil rights

3. That the extravagant and wasteful expenditure demonstrate that they either do not understand the of the public money since the termination of the true principles of republican government, or that war his entailed oppressive taxation and brought they are unwilling to yield obedience to the obligafinancial distress upon the country; and demands, notions imposed by the fundamental law; and that less than the corruptions tht have existed under the declared purpose of the President, Secretary of Republican rule, a change in the management of War, and the Attorney-General, in conformity with public affairs.

the resolution adopted by the Democratic House of 4. That we charge that much of the embarrassment Representatives, to use the military power of the un ier which the business and industries of the Government so far as is necessary to secure a free country are suffering is attributable to the exhaustive ballot to all citizens of whatever party or race in the drain of Federal taxation upon the resources of the coming presidential election, deserves and will repeople, and that much of the money extorted by ceive the indorsement and gratitude of the people taxation from the people of the country has been of the United States. squandered in political jobs and not appropriated to Resolved, that the recent Republican victories in advinca the interests of the country.

Vermont and Maine afford conclusive and most 5. Thit the Administration of President Grant has gratifying evidence that the people understand what been marked by a disregard and contempt for con- party is the safe depositary of the public good, and stitutional and legal obligations and the rights and of their determination not to withdraw the faculties interests of the people; that the prolongation of of government from those by whoun they have been Republican rule would be a continuation of the op- so faithfully administered, but to continue the manipression, corruption, and extravagance, which have festation of their confidence in those by whom the existed for the last eleven years.

republic was preserved, until there shall be no right 6. That the true interests of the American people unsecured and no wrong unredressed. de'nand a change in the administration of public Resolved, That our thanks are due to our fellow. affairs, which can only be effected by a defeat of the citizens of Wilmington for the recent vindication party controlling the Government; that the election of the principles of honesty and economy in pub'ie of Mr. Hayes, influenced as he would be by the men service, and we confidently rest in the assurance that who have surrounded President Grant and shaped the action of the new council will afford a marked his Alministration, would fail to secure purity or contrast to the extravagance and corruption of its economy in the administration of the Govern- predecessor. ment.

Resolved, That we arraign the Democratic party of 7. That in the candidates for President and Vice- this state as being organized and

conducted in utter President, nominated by the National Democratic disregard of the interests of the people, and especially Convention at St. Louis, and the platform of prin- in the matter of levying taxes ; that it is actuated for ciples enunciated by said convention, as well as in the purpose of the preservation of its power, rather the letters of acceptance both of Mr. Tilden and Mr. than collection of revenue. Hendricks, we have the assurance, pledge, and guar Resolved, That we renew the demand of the Reantee that the success of the Democratic party in the publican party of Delaware for an improved school present canvass

will insure reform in the civil ser system, and we equally demand that the schools be vice of the country, purity in the administration of kept free

from any and every sectarian and ecclesithe Government, economy in the expenditures of the astical influence. public money, reduction in taxation, prosperity to Resolved, That we renew the pledges of the Repubthe country, and happiness to the people of every lican party in favor of equality of representation to section of our common country,

the General Assembly.

A Prohibitory Convention, consisting partly ward laid the foundation of his theological of women, was held in Wilmington on the 10th studies at the university in the same place. of October. It nominated Charles Moore for He continued his studies at Tübingen, and finCongress, and adopted a series of resolutions, ished them at Leipsic. His attention was denouncing the liquor-traffic, condemning the directed quite early to the special study of the license law of the State, and declaring in favor histories of symbol and dogma. He acknowlof local option.

edged his obligations for sympathy in this line At the election on the 7th of November, Mr. of investigation to Drs. Thomasius and LanWilliams was elected to Congress, the vote derer, to whom he submitted his first writings. being, for Williams, 13,169; for Bird, 10,592; A close and lasting attachment grew up befor Moore, 236: total, 23,997; Democratic tween him and Dr. Brückner, of the University majority, 2,341. The total vote for presi- of Leipsic, based upon their common zeal in a dential electors was 24,135, of which the common pursuit. He gained the degree of Democratic candidates received 13,381, and Doctor of Philosophy at Leipsic, in 1869, for the Republican 10,752, making the majority of which he had prepared an essay on the the. the former 2,629. The State Legislature, ology of Thomas of Aquinas. He passed chosen on the same day, was unanimously the theological examinations at Leipsic and Democratic in both branches. In the preced- Dresden, and in the spring of 1872 was made ing Legislature there was one Republican. The a Licentiate in Tbeology, having submitted for Legislature consists of nine Senators, three from this purpose a dissertation, "De inspiratione each county, and twenty-one Representatives, Scripturæ Sacræ quid statuerint patres apostoseren from each county.

lici et apologetæ secundi sæculi." In the sumThe Delaware Association for the Improve- mer term of the same year he began his lectures, ment and Education of the Colored People and received strong encouragement from the gave assistance during the year to 29 schools, students. His studies became concentrated with 1,197 pụpils. The schools are supported upon a systematic and historical examination of wholly by private subscription.

the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, of At the close of the year, a case was pending which he sought to make a clear and thorough which involved a conflict between the State presentation. In 1874 he published in the Stuand C'nited States Courts. William L. Heal, dien und Kritiken an historico-critical study on a depnty-marshal of the United States on "The Apostle Peter in Tradition and History." election day, was prosecuted in the State court In the summer of 1875 he was able to publish for an alleged assault on John O'Byrne, at the first volume of a comprehensive work he the door of the United States Court room. had undertaken upon "The Doctrinal System The case was removed to the Federal Court by of the Roman Catholic Church" (vol. i., “The the United States District Attorney, but Judge Fundamental Dogma of Romanism; or, The Comegys refused to allow the transfer. In his Teachings of the Church"). In the spring of annual message, Governor Cochran recom- 1875 Delitzsch was nominated Professor-exmended that the Attorney-General be author- traordinary in the Theological Faculty at Leipized to prosecute the case to the end, that sic. While he was still occupied with his great there may be a thorough and deliberate pres- work his strength began to fail. Nevertheless, entation for judicial determination of a ques- he continued to labor steadily until his contion of such grave constitutional importance stitution was destroyed. His last work was and vital moment to the sovereignty, integ- that of editing the posthumous lectures of rity, and very existence of the State.

Oehler on "The Symbolical.” His illness inChief-Justice Edward Woodward Gilpin, of creased greatly after the completion of this the courts of Delaware, died on the 29th of task, and he was compelled to seek rest. He April. He was born in Wilmington, July 15, discontinued his academic instructions at the 1805. In his youth he was in narrow circum- middle of the term, and went to a southern stances, and learned the trade of a currier. climate for restoration, where, after a few He afterward became a clerk in store, but weeks, he died. finally studied law, being admitted to the bar DENMARK,* a kingdom in Northern Euin 1827. From 1840 to 1850 he was Attorney- rope. Reigning sovereign, Christian IX., fourth General of the State, and was appointed Chief- son of the late Duke William of SchleswigJustice in May, 1857, holding the position from Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, and of Prin. that time to his death. In early life he was a cess Louise of Hesse-Cassel; appointed to the Whig, but, in 1856 and later, became asssoci- succession of the Danish crown by the Treaty ated with the Democratic party. During the of London, of May 8, 1852, and by the Danish Far he was an ardent supporter of the Union law of succession of July 31, 1853 ; succeeded canse.

to the throne on the death of King Frederick DELITZSCH, JOHANNES, a Professor of The- VII., November 15, 1863; married, May 26, ology in the University of Leipsic, died Feb- 1842, to Louise, daughter of Landgrave Wilruary 3, 1876. He was the eldest son of Prof. liam of Hesse-Cassel. Heir-apparent, Prince Franz Delitzsch, of the University of Leipsic, Frederick, born June 3, 1843; married, July and was born at Rostock, in 1846. He attended the gymnasium at Erlangen, and after- see ANNUAL CYOLOPÆDIA for 1876.

* For latest statistics of commerce and commercial navy, VOL. XVI.-15 A

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28, 1869, to Princess Louisa, only daughter of lics, 3,223 Baptists, 1,211 Free Congregations, the late King Charles XV. of Sweden. Off- 2,128 Mormons, 4,290 Jews, 260 Methospring of the union are three sons, born in dists, 349 Irvingites, 74 Anglicans, 28 Friends, 1870, 1872, and 1876, and a daughter born in 12 Greek Catholics, 88 of various other 1875. The King has a civil list of 500,000 sects, and 205 without definite creed. The rigsdalers, and the heir-apparent 60,000 rigs- number of einigrants from Denmark was, in dalers. The ministry, at the close of the year 1875, 2,088; in 1874, 3,322 ; in 1873, 7,200; in 1876, was composed as follows: President of 1872, 6,893; in 1871, 3,906 ; in 1870, 3,525; the Council and Minister of Finance, J. B. S. in 1869, 4,360. Nearly all the emigrants went Estrup; Minister of Foreign Affairs, Baron to the United States. The actual revenue and Rosenörn-Lehn; Minister of War and of the expenditure of the state, for the two years Navy, General W. Haffner ; Minister of the 1873 to 1875, were as follows (in rigsdalers, Interior, E. V. R. Skeel; Minister of Pub- 1 rigsdaler $0.5463): lic Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs, J. O.

Expenditare. 1878–74..

48,408,570 46,704,408 A. Fischer; Minister of Justice and for Iceland,


64,656,730 65,037,238 Prof. J. M. V. Nellemann. The area of Denmark proper, inclusive of lakes, is 14,753 square

In the budget for the year 1876–77, the miles; of Earopean dependencies (Faroe Isl- revenue was estimated at 48,085,953 crowns ands and Iceland), 40,268 square miles; of (1 crown = $0.268); the expenditures at 46,American possessions (Greenland, St. John, St. 695,071 crowns : the surplus being 1,390,882 Thomas, and St. Croix), 759,900 square miles.

crowns. The public debt on March 31, 1875, The population, according to the latest dates, 160,355,623 were home debt, and 26,790,200

to , was as follows:

foreign debt. The state assets being 86,339,

884, the actual indebtedness of the state TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS.

tion, 1876.

amounted to 100,805,939 crowns. The debt has been in a state of reduction since 1866.

In 1872 it still amounted to 232,000,000; in City of Copenhagen and Fredericksborg

197,576 283,000 1873, to 220,000,000; and in 1874, to 211,000,Islands

799,046 821,000 000 crowns. Jutland

788,119 846,000

Military service begins with the twenty1,784,741 1,903,000 second year of age, and lasts eight years for

the line and first call; the second call is liable Faroe Islands

9,992 Iceland..

69, 768 71,800

to military service to the age of thirty-eight Greenland.

9,825 9,800 years. In time of peace, the line and reserve St. Croix, St. Thomas, in the West Indies.. 87,821 87,600

(first call) number 1,106 officers and 34,551 St. John,

men; the second call, 286 officers and 12,993 Total

men. In time of war, the army numbers 127,401 129,800

48,982 inen. The navy, in 1876, comprised 34 Total population of Denmark

steamers, 7 of which were iron-clad, 2 sailing. and colonies

1,912,142 2,082,300

vessels, and 28 rowing-boats. It was manned

by 800 men, and officered by 1 admiral, 15 Nearly the entire population of Denmark commanders, 34 captains, 47 lieutenants, and proper (99.15 per cent.) is connected with the 20 sub-lieutenants. Lutheran Church. Of the remainder there The movement of shipping during the year were, in 1870, 1,433 Reformed, 1,857 Catho- 1874 was as follows:

Official Calcula-
Census of 1870.




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The aggregate length of railroads in opera- Government and the Opposition. The Landstion, on January 1, 1876, was 1,260 kilometres thing, or Upper House, contains a large major(1 kilometre = 0.62 English mile), of which 819 ity in favor of the Government, while the Opkilometres were state railroads, and 441 kilo- position has a much stronger majority in the metres private roads. The length of telegraph. Folkething, or Lower House. The two Houses lines was 2,545.9 kilometres; of wires, 7,049 have not been able during the year to agree kilometres, the number of telegraph-offices, upon any measure of importance. At the 174. The Post-Office forwarded, in the year meeting of the Folkething after the Christmas 1873–74, 16,487,000 letters and 15,134,000 holidays, the ministry announced that no propnewspapers.

ositions would be made in regard to relaxing In the Danish Legislature the year has been the tithes, because in order to do this it would spent in constant contentions between the be necessary to wait until the question in ref

erence to the support of the preachers, which fications it had adopted in the bill for the forhad been in debate for a year, had been de- tification of the country, the Upper House as cided. The Folkething rejected a bill which strongly insisted upon the adoption of the had been passed by the Landsthing to extend plans of the Government. With these imthe interest-guarantee of a private banking portant bills in this shape, and without reachcompany which had undertaken the construc- ing any agreement on the financial bill, the tion of a railroad-bridge between the islands Legislature came to an end March 29th. On of Laaland and Falster. In the latter part of the same day the Folkething was dissolved by January, a bill relating to the responsibility a royal decree, for the reason, as assigned, that of the ministry was introduced into the Folke- while measures for the defense of the country thing. It imposed conditions which would were of pressing necessity, this House had rem bear very hardly against a ministry obnoxious fused all the measures asked by the Governto an Opposition majority, and render their ment, and an understanding could not be speedy retirement from office certain, while to hoped for with the Folkething as then cona ministry acceptable to them it would operate stituted. to give a prolonged lease of power. It pro The elections for a new Folkething were vided substantially for the continuance of a lield on the 25th of April. They resulted in ministry for so long a period as the majority large gains for the Left, or Opposition. While of the Chamber should make no complaint this party had had 60 members in the old against it. This bill was passed in February, Folkething, they now returned 74 members, by a rote of 54 to 32, but was summarily laid and only 27 supporters of the Government aside by the Landsthing: The session of the were elected. Legislature, having reached its constitutional The new Folkething met on the 15th of May. limit at the beginning of February, could not The next day the Minister of War laid before be continued longer, except by the express it three drafts of laws, which the Government permission of the King. This had been given desired adopted : 1. Of a law providing a sysregularly whenever occasion required till 1853. tem of defense for the country, in the form in After that time the session had been prolonged which it had been adopted by the Landsthing only once, in 1860; since then, for fifteen at the former session, but in which the Folkeyears, it had adjourned promptly at the end of thing had refused to concur; 2. Of a law for its allotted time, whether its business was com- the provision of the army with horses and pleted or not. None of the necessary bills wagons in case of war; 3. Of a bill for prohaving been passed, the King now authorized curing and making field-guns. The bill for the the prolongation of the session for two months; provision of the army with horses and wagons to give time for the consideration of the finan- was adopted on the 23d. The reintroduction cial, ecclesiastical, and military bills. On the of the fortification bill, in the same form as 17th of February the Folkething passed the the one which the previous Folkething had bill for a system of land defense, but with a refused to accept, was very unacceptable to reduction of the sum asked for by the Govern- the Opposition. Boisen, one of the leaders ment, and with the addition of a supplementary of that party, offered resolutions declining to clause, directing that the money be raised by consider the propositions of the Government 8 tax on property and incomes. On the 11th in their present shape, and directing that a of March the Folkething adopted, by a vote of committee be chosen to consider whether a 63 to 7, the bill for the organization of the different basis could not be arranged upon army, with certain amendments which had which this matter could be settled with the been proposed by the

Army Committee, pro- Government. To these motions the Minister viding for a reduction of the standing army, of Finance, President of the Council, Estrup, and the conversion of a part of the force into replied that if the Government could not reLandwehr, or militia. In the finance bill the ceive the help of the Chamber in advancing Government had had inserted an appropriation its plans, it would give up the whole scheme. of 380,000 crowns for completing the iron- Boisen remarked that he thought the ministry clad ship Heligoland. This was stricken out by ought not to attempt to remain in power after the Folkething, whereupon the Government such a declaration, whereupon Estrup replied asked for 280,000 crowns for the ship. The that no one would be more ready than himself sum of 264,000 crowns was granted. The bill and his colleagues to surrender their positions as passed also provided for a tax of 300,000 if men could be found who would be better crowns for the pay of the teachers in the pub- able than they to carry out what they conlie schools. The sum was less than had been sidered necessary for the defense of the counasked for by the Government, and was de- try. The committee chosen in accordance clared by the Minister of Instruction to be in- with the motion of Boisen consisted of 15 fufficient, but the House refused to increase it. members, of whom 11 were of the OpposiMarch 29th the Folkething adopted the amend- tion and 4 of the Right, or of the supporters ments to the army bill which had been pro- of the Government. On the 23d of May the posed by the Left, by a vote of 56 to 39, and committee asked the ministry whether they then rejected the bill by a vote of 47 to 47. were ready to consider with

the Rigsdag the While the Lower House adhered to the modi- propositions adopted by the Folkething at the

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