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the baccalaureate, while the French language has been made a part of the course of instruction in those schools in which young natives prepare themselves for the public service.
p to 1874, the land granted to colonists by the state was 565,000 hectares (1 hectare = 2.74 acres); the land ceded to the General Algerian Society and the Geneva Society, two colonization societies, was 130,000 hectares, and the land bought by Europeans from natives 260,000 hectares, making in all 955,000 hectares in the hands of Europeans. During the years 1876 and 1877, the Government intended to offer 763 village lots and 111 isolated farms to colonists. On December 31, 1875, there were three lines of railway in operation, of which the length and the receipts in 1875 were as follows:
Length in Receipts in LiNE. Kuo-" - Francs. from Algiers to oran. ..., 425 || 3970so From Philippeville to Constantine.... 87 2,210,664 From Bona to the mines of Ain and Mokra............. .............. | 80 ........ Total........................... 543 |
On February 10th the sherif El-Hadsh, a cousin of the Emperor of Morocco, arrived in Algeria on an extraordinary mission. The Journal des Débats gives the following account of it: He was received with all honors due to
so high a personage, and soon after left for the interior to treat with the rebellious tribe of the Uled-Sidi-Sheik. This tribe has for twelve years troubled the western and southwestern frontiers of Algeria, and has frequently involved the Algerian Government in difficulties with Morocco and the subjugated tribes. To prevent this, the Government has repeatedly negotiated with the Emperor of Morocco to have them transferred to the latter's dominions. This tribe originally belonged to Algeria, and for many years its chief ruled as caliph over that entire region, under French protectorate. The sherif, who is the head of the religious associations of the Moulay and Faiebh, and who is the highest church dignitary in Western Africa, went to them with a letter from the Emperor of Morocco, urging them to settle west of Fez, and assuring them of that welcome due to the position which they hold in the Mohammedan world. He did not treat with them as subjects of the Sultan, but simply made friendly proposals to them, placing himself in the position of the head of a religious community which is even more celebrated than their own. His mission was crowned with only a partial success. The Uled-Sidi-Sheik have two chiefs, both of whom have great influence. The one, Kaddoor-ul-Hamza, is the
legal heir of the Grand Marabout Si-Hamza; while the other, Si-Soliman, is only a near relation to him, though, through his intelligence
During the festival of Ramadan, dervishes and pilgrims from Mecca, and marabouts, went about among the native population preaching the holy war against the Christians. During the month of March the tribe of the Uled-Bonasog, in the province of Constantine, were incited to rebellion by a fanatical priest, a marabout by the name of Bu Ayach. General Carteret was immediately dispatched to the scene of the disorder, and on his arrival found that the insurrection was confined to one tribe, the others hastening to assure him of their fidelity. On April 11th he attacked the natives, who numbered about 200 horse and 2,000 foot, and had taken position near the oasis El-Amri. After a severe struggle, the enemy was driven back, leaving 100 dead on the field, among whom was Mohammed Ben Yahia, the leader of the movement. The French loss was very small. The insurgents soon after made an attack upon the French, but were repulsed. The French succeeded in surrounding them by the end of April, and cempelled them to surrender, thus ending the insurrection. The leaders were held as hostages for the further good conduct of the tribes. In June their sentence was pronounced. Their entire property was confiscated, while they were themselves disarmed and driven from their oases, and in addition a heavy fine was imposed upon them. Nine of the leaders were tried by court-martial, and twenty-three were interned in Corsica. ALSINA, Adolfo, a statesman of the Argentine Republic, born in Buenos Ayres in 1829. His father was likewise an eminent statesman, and a jurist of considerable celebrity. The subject of the present notice first attracted public attention by a series of lectures, and by articles contributed to the periodical press of his native city. He afterward beearne deputy to the Provincial Chambers, and was, of the number of the members of the convention of 1872, most distinguished for facility and eloquence of address. From 1866 to 1868 he occupied the post of governor of the province of Buenos Ayres, and that of Vice-President of the Republic from 1868 to 1872 during the Sarmiento administration. He commanded a body of National Guards at the battles of Cepeda and Pavon. Dr. Alsina is a man of much prestige, is energetic and ambitious, and destined to play a conspicuous part in the political affairs of his country. He is now, for the second time, governor of his native province. AMBROS, August WILHELM, a German composer and author, born November 17, 1816; died June 28, 1876. He attended the gymnasium in Prague and here commenced to study music under great difficulties. In accordance with the wish of his parents he devoted himself to the study of political science, graduated in 1839 as Doctor of Laws, and soon after received a Government appointment in Prague. During his leisure hours he devoted himself as
siduously to his musical studies, finding much encouragement in the society of men like Robert Schumann, Kitte, and Veit. He was an active contributor to Schumann's Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, at first under the name of Flamin. Among his first works was the overture to “Genoveva,” which was received with great enthusiasm in Prague. In 1846 he composed his overture to Shakespeare's “Othello,” and after that played on the piano in several concerts, and thus soon gained considerable reputation. His first attempts as an author also appeared during this time, as he had taken the place for a short time of his friend Bernhard Gutt as musical critic of the Bohemia. He also added some entr'acte music to his overture to “Othello,” which was exceedingly well received. In 1856 his fame as a musical author began to rise. His work, “Die Grenzen der Musik und Poesie,” written in answer to Hauslik’s “Wom Musikalisch-Schönen,” attracted great attention, and soon appeared in a second edition. This work was severely attacked by various parties, but on the other hand gained for him the warm friendship of Liszt. A lecture, “Die Musik als Culturmoment in der Geschichte,” attracted general attention, and caused the publication of his “Culturhistorische Bilder aus dem Musikleben der Gegenwart” (1860). In 1858 he published a memorial on the fiftieth anniversary of the Conservatory of Prague, of the Board of Directors of which he was a member. Attracted by his works, which gained for him considerable celebrity, the publishing-house of Leuckhardt, in Leipsic, proposed to him to write a history of music. }. he made the work of his life. The first volume appeared 1862, and the second in 1864. In order to prepare the third and fourth volumes, he went repeatedly to Italy, receiving considerable aid from the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna for this purpose. There, in the libraries of Bologna, Florence, and Rome, he sought diligently after old musical treasures. The third volume, which treated of the music of the Netherlands, appeared in 1868. The fourth volume was to treat of Palestrina, the musical Renaissance, the origin of the monody, of the opera, and of the modern system of sounds, and was to close with Johann Sebastian Bach. In the fall of the year 1876 he intended to undertake a trip to Italy to collect the last material for the fourth volume, but was interrupted in this by his death. In 1869 he was appointed Professor of the History of Art and Music in the University of Prague. In 1872 he went to Vienna as musical critic of the Wiener Abendpost, and as musical instructor of the crown-prince, at the same time receiving an appointment in the Ministry of Justice. Besides the larger works noticed before, he composed numerous smaller pieces for the piano, and songs. He also wrote “Bunte Blätter” (first series, 1871), and numerous traveling-sketches of Italian cities. An autobiography prepared by him goes only to the year 1848. AMERICA. The great event of the year in North America was the Centennial Exhibition in the United States, of which extensive details will be found elsewhere in this volume. The presidential election was hotly contested, and the result very close; so that at the end of the year it was not evident, in consequence of disputed votes, which candidate would fill the office. A sharp battle was fought between a body of United States soldiers and an Indian force, in which the latter were successful. The commander of the soldiers, General Custer, with several officers, was killed. The depression in commercial affairs continued. In the Canadian Dominion, some apprehensions of a Fenian raid were entertained, but they proved groundless. In the several Spanish-American countries, war, either at home or abroad, has for the most part prevailed throughout the year 1876. Mexico has been the theatre of a protracted and violent struggle for power between Señor Lerdo de Tejada, the constitutional President of the Republic, and General Porfirio Diaz, the former having been driven from the seat of government, and ultimately captured by the latter, who entered the capital triumphantly early in the month of December. Peace had, however, not been entirely reëstablished at the end of the year, owing to the existence of a new complication which supervened shortly before the downfall of the Lerdo Administration—namely, the pronunciamiento of Iglesias, President of the Supreme Court, who established a new government, headed by himself, at Leon, State of Guanajuato. A war between San Salvador and Guatemala ended in the overthrow of the Valle Administration, and the appointment of Señor Rafael Zaldivar as Provisional President of the firstnamed country. A revolution in Honduras terminated in July, 1876, in the deposition of Señor Ponciano Leiva, and the establishment of a provisional government under Señor Marcelino Mejía, who was ultimately superseded by Señor Marco A. Soto. The boundary questions between Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and between Chili and the Argentine Republic, still remained open, and furnished matter for warm altercation between the parties concerned. Brazil continued in a state of enviable prosperity. Colombia is still the scene of hostilities commenced by the Liberals against the Government toward the middle of the year. The most important encounters occurred in Cauca and Antioquia. Material prosperity has not, however, been altogether destroyed by these events, as attested by the opening of a new railway line in the second of the belligerent states referred to. In the month of October, Nicolas Pierola
placed himself at the head of an inconsider. able force against the Government of General Prado, but was promptly defeated. Most of the countries here enumerated were worthily represented at the Philadelphia Exhibition, where the extensive and varied display of their rich and curious products elicited no small degree of admiration. ANASTASIUS GRUN. (See AUERsPEEG.) ANDRAL, GABRIEL, a French physician and author, born November 6, 1797; died February 13, 1876. He was appointed, in 1827, Professor of Hygiene in the Faculty of Paris, and romoted, in 1839, to the chair of Internal athology. Previous to this he had obtained great fame by his work “Clinique Médicale,” which was published in four volumes. In 1839 he succeeded Broussais as Professor of Pathology and General Therapeutics. He was a very diligent writer, and has, in conjunction with Gavanet and Delafond, published some most eminent works. Many of the productions of his own pen have been translated into foreign languages. ANGLICAN CHURCHES. The two houses of the Convocation of Canterbury met at Westminster, February 15th. In the Upper House the Bishop of Winchester presented resolutions which had been adopted by the AngloContinental Society in November, 1875, inviting the attention of the Convocations to the resolutions which had been adopted at a conference of Old Catholics and adherents of the Greek, Anglican, and other communions, held at Bonn, on the subject of the Procession of the Holy Ghost. He moved:
That the resolutions lately adopted at Bonn by representatives of the Old Catholics, certain members of the Eastern Churches and English Church, and other Christian communities, concerning the Eternal Procession of the Holy Ghost, be referred to the Committee of the Lower House of Convocation on Intercommunion with Eastern Churches.
The Archbishop of Canterbury spoke on this resolution at length. He desired most heartily to see a spirit of real Christian unity throughout the world. He thought it, however, of more importance to look first at the divisions which existed near, which separated the Church from those who were allied in language, and in sympathy in regard to the same love of the Bible, rather than to those which existed in respect to people who were at a great distance locally. He could not help feeling that the first great desire of every Englishman should be that those who spoke the English tongue and believed in the same gospel should be, as far as possible, united in their efforts to promote their Redeemer's kingdom. Therefore, he should like to begin with those who were about their own doors. He regretted that important political questions separated the Church from those with whom it was anxious to act in harmony at home, and that, year by year, the difficulties which stood in the way of a reunion of the Nonconformist bodies with the