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the south and west, the Pacific Ocean. The was made toward the completion of the Atlanterritory of the republic comprises an area of tic division of the railway; but several inter21,490 square miles; and the population is esti- ruptions were caused in the work by lack of mated at 185,000, of whom some 5,000 are funds. civilized and 10,000 uncivilized Indians.
The line of telegraph across the republic, The President (provisional) of the Republic from Puntarenas to Limon, was nearly comis Dr. Vicente Herrera. The Minister of For- pleted. eign Affairs is Señor Rafael Machado; and the Señor Aniseto Ezquivel, duly elected PresiMinister of Public Works, Señor D. Saturnino dent of the Republic of Costa Rica, was inLizano. (No definite returns of the complete augurated in office on May 8, 1876; but early formation of the new cabinet have been re- in August following a revolution broke out, by ceived up to the end of December, 1876.) which he was overthrown, Dr. Vicente HerThe following tables exhibit
the national rev- rera having been appointed as provisional enne and expenditure for the fiscal year ending President. The movement appears to have April 30, 1876:
been of a purely military character. The pro
nunciamientos were made at San José and National Bank.
Alajuela, by General Quiroz and his brother, Caston-house of Puntarenas.
411,472 Government monopolies:
both partisans of General Guardia, Ezquivel's Brandy
predecessor. It was presumed that Guardia, Tobacco
at the time absent in a neighboring republic, Powder ...
1,194,759 would soon return to resume his position at National property :
the head of the Government. Government lands..
$18,181 Government printing-office.
The following extract from a public correNational Institute..
spondent's letter, dated December 13, 1876, Post-Office..
will serve as a fair summary of the situation Telegraphs..
of affairs in Costa Rica at that time: 1,564
152,934 Coffee-picking in the interior had been suspended Taxes, ete :
on account of rains. The planters had held a meeting, $17,458
at which they decided that, if they could not get the Stamp-duty.
prices they thought just, they would ship on their own Judicial fees.
account to whatever market suited them best. Mortgage fees.
Politically, matters in Costa Rica are in a most de98,642
plorable condition. General Guardia has again gone Sundry receipts.....
186,063 up the coast, accompanied by a batch of Costa-Rican Deposits in National Bank..
807,277 politicians, intended to lend significance to his misTotal........
sion, it is generally understood, for the purpose of ob$2,560,045
taining the assistance of Guatemala and Salvador in EXPENDITURE,
making war against Nicaragua. Guardia is not in odor Ministry of the Interior..
of sanctity in either Guatemala or San Salvador, nor is Ministry of Justice
it probable that, even with the influence of his politiMinistry of Foreign Affairs.
11,497 cal companions, he will succeed in inducing either to Pablie Instruction..
102,430 assist him. An embargo has been laid upon all com Public Worship...
18,493 munication with Nicaragua. No mails are received Ministry of War and the Navy.
361,213 Ministry of Public Works.
and no freight is shipped or entered. Sugar and cheese
128,190 Finance and Commerce.
that came down by last steamer to Puntarenas lie there
rotting in the heat, and are not permitted to pass the Industry
custom-house. Letters from Nicaragua bearing the Benevolent institutions..
595 postal stamp of that republic are retained, and perRailway..
857,867 sons wishing to correspond with Nicaragua must inGovernment monopolies..
63,005 trust their letters to private hands, or send them to National debt
1,098,868 Salvador to have them forwarded from there. SteamTotal.......
ers get no clearance for Nicaraguan ports, and when
they enter Puntarenas on the down-trip they are reFrom an official report, under date of May 8, veived as coming from Salvador. 1876, it would appear that the aggregate rev- understood, is wholly a matter of pecuniary interest
This hostility against Nicaragua, it is generally enue for the five years 1871-76 exceeded by on the part of Guardia. It is only a few weeks since $8,489,754 that for the five years immediately Nicaragua abolished
the state of war in which that preceding.
republic had been for months previous, and reëstabIn the estimated budget for the fiscal year
lished constitutional government. ending April 30, 1877, the revenue and expen COTTON. According to the statement of diture were set down at $2,236,000 and $2,626,- the New York Commercial and Financial 427, which would constitute a deficit of $390,- Chronicle, for the year ending August 31, 1876, 427.
the cotton-crop of the United States reached The total value of the exports for the year 4,669,288 bales, while the exports were 3,252,1875 was $4,259,333, of which coffee alone rep- 994 bales, and the spinners' takings 1,356,598 resented $4,116,902; and that of the imports bales, leaving a stock on hand, at the close of $2,850,000.
the year, of 120,380 bales. The gross weight In the course of 1876 some further progress of the crop was 2,201,410,024 pounds, the avFor details relative to the national debt, see the Annual erage weight of the bales being 471.46 pounds CICLOPEDIA for 1875.
The production by States was as follows:
YEAR ENDING SEPT. 1, 1876.
Balet. YEARS. CROP OF
1875-76....... 4,669,288 1849- 50.
2,096,706 Number of Bales. Weight, Pounds.
2,347,684 Texas 488,640 245,868,988 508.17
1,778,651 Louisiana.. 1,415,959 659,886,894 466.00
2,100,587 Alabama. 874,672 190,089,889 507.85
2,894,548 Georgia... 524,825 243,634,261 464.22
2,080,400 South Carolina.. 416,872 184,889,168 444.00
9,878,875 Virginia.... 529,126 241,810,582 457.00
1,658,574 North Carolina.... 107,836 47,232,168 438.00
1,684,945 Tennessee, etc.... 811,859 388,068,124 478.00
1,860,589 Total crop.... 4,609,288 2,201,410,024 471.46
1,492,980 1858-'59. 8,881,481 1885–86.
1,860,762 The production of Sea - Island cotton was 1857-58.
1,254,893 14,996 bales, as follows: Florida, 8,950 bales;
1855-56. Georgia, 1,213 bales; South Carolina, 4,756 1851-55.
1,070,488 2,847,889 1831-82.
987,487 bales; Texas, 77 bales. In previous years the
1852-53. production of Sea-Island cotton was as fol
976545 1851-'02. 8,015.049 1828-29.
670,415 lows: 1874–75, 17,027 bales; 1873–74, 19,- 1860–131. 2,855,257 912; 1872–73, 26,289; 1871-72, 16,845, 1870 -71, 21,609; 1869-'70, 26,507.
The total exports to foreign ports, for six The annual cotton-crop since 1829 has been years ending August 31st, have been, with the as follows:
points of shipment, as follows:
The home consumption has been :
was estimated at 1,227,453,000 pounds in 1872–73; 1,259,836,000 pounds in 1873–74; 1,224,377,000 pounds in 1874–75; and 1,270,
287,000 pounds in 1875–76. The number of Bales. Bales.
Bales. spindles in the United Kingdom, at the end of 1871.
1,008,956 91,240 1,100,196 1872. '977,540
1874, was 37,515,000, exclusive of doubling spin120,000 1,097,540
1,063,465 187,662 1,201,127 dles. From 1,250,000 to 1,500,000 have since 1874.
1,177,417 125,526 1,305,943 been added, and a large number of old spindles 1875..
1,062,522 145,079 1,207,601 1876. 1,211,598 145,000 1,856,598
have been replaced by new ones.
The Continental consumption in 1875–177 The consumption of cotton in Great Britain was estimated as follows:
The rate of increase in the Continental con Ellison & Co.'s Annual European Cotton Re sumption in 1873–"75 was about five per cent. view gives the following particulars of the im per annum. A year ago it was thought that ports, deliveries, and stocks of cotton for Grea the increase in 1875–176 would not exceed three Britain and the Continent during the past tw per cent., but it has reached about five per cent. seasons :
1874 1870-'6. 1874–5. 1875–6. 1874-'5. 1876-6. 1874–6. 1875-6. 1874-5.
1875–6. 1874-'5. 1875-6. 1874-5.
30,885 8,865 4,712
318,000 228,000 2,042,200 1,830,000 108,690 184,000 1,933,510 1,696,000 2,251,510 1,924,000 803,190818,000 1,948,320 1,606,000 87,468 89,000 189,000 808,520 447,000 12,000 86,000 296,520 411,000 885,520 550,000 147,680 89,000 237,840 461,000 4,674 62,000 44,000 804,590 272,000 9,870 9,000 295,220 263,000 857,220 807,000 58,980 62,000 298,240 245,000 6,785
2,000 2,000 400 8,000 280 2,000 123 1.000 2,120 8,000 380 2,000 1,740 1,000 83 17,000 81,000 68,890 110,000 18,570 28,000, 55,320 82,000 72,320 113,000 20,600 17,000 51,720 96,000 995 823,000 397,000 810,740 1,049,000 442,840 455,000 867,900 594,000 690,900 991,000 211,450 328,000 479,450 668,000 9,220
811,000 841,000 8,585,840 8,711,000 586,750 664,000 2,948,590 3,047,000 3,759,590 3,888,000 742,280 811,000 3,017,310 3,077,000 68,025
1874, 1875.-6. 1874-5. 1875–6. 1874-5. 1875–6. 1874–5. 1875–6. 1874-'5.
1575-'6. 1874-'5. 1875-'6, 1874-5.
178 000 202,000 1,164,180 823,000 108,690 134,000 1,272,870 957,000 1,450,870 1,159,000 266,640 178,000 1,184,280 981,000 22,773 18,865 18,000 21,000 98,620 115,000 12,000 86,000 105,620 151,000 128,620 172,000 14,420 18,000 109,200 154,000 2,100 2,963 8,000 4,000 159,480 75,000 9,370
168,850 84,000 171,850 88,000 6,000 3,000 165,850 85,000 8,190 1,684 25,000 18,000 106,830 91,000 290
2,000 107,110 93,000 132,110 106,000 20,640 25,000 111,470 81,000 2,148 1,557 26,000 31,000 44,800 60,000 18,570 28,000 57,870 88,000 83,870 119,000 17,010 26,000 66,860 93,000 1,286 1,788 165,000 162,000 408,820 495,000 442,840 455,000 $51,660 950,000 1,016,660 1,112,000 101,100 165,000 915,560 947,003 17,607 18,212
415,000 483,000 1,977,230 1,659,000 586,760 664,000 2,568,980 2,828,000 2,978,980 2,756,000 425,810415,000 2,553,170 2,841,000 49,099
OREMATION. Cremation, or the burning The attention of the English and American of the dead, has been practised among many people was directed to cremation by means of nations, and from very early times. The relics an article advocating it, published by Sir Henry of the Bronze age in Great Britain and Den- Thompson, in the Contemporary Review for mark show that it was usual in that period, January, 1877. This writer argued in favor and its prevalence among the ancient Britons of burning in preference to burial on grounds is known from history. It was practised from of utility and economy, and of sentimert. a very ancient date among several other West- He held it to be desirable to expedite the deern nations, and among the people of Eastern composing process of Nature, and render it Asia. It was general among the ancient inoffensive, and to return speedily the elements Greeks, and must have been adopted by them into which the body is resolved to their desat a very remote period. Numerous instances tined function of furnishing food to plants. of cremation are described in Homer's poems These processes, he represented, are retarded and in Virgil's “Æneid,” as occurring about the by burial; the ground is made noxious during time of the Trojan War. Cremation was bor- the process of decomposition, wells are liable rowed by the Romans from the Greeks, and to be poisoned, and the health, particularly of was not generally practised among them till crowded districts, is endangered. He referred toward the end of the republic. The custom to the economical aspect of the question in the gradually went into disuse under the empire, light of the value of the organic remains, as and appears to have been abandoned about the manure. All of this, he held, was lost to ag. end of the fourth century. There is no rec- riculture for an unreasonably long period by ord that it was ever practised by any Christian the present method of disposing of dead bodnation. Cremation still prevails among manyies. On the other hand, by cremation in a of the nations of Eastern Asia. In India, un- properly-constructed furnace, the gases of the til recently, the living widow was burned upon body would be driven off without offensive the pyre with the body of her deceased husband. odor, and would ere night be consumed by
Cremation, with the ancient Greeks and plants and trees, while the mineral constituRomans, was performed upon a pile of wood, ents—the bones and ashes-would remain in a or funeral-pyre, built in the form of an altar crucible, and could be preserved in a funeral in the open air, and with elaborate ceremonies, urn, or scattered in the fields. No scents or and the offering of gifts and sacrifices, strong balsams would be required, as in the ancient perfumes being added to neutralize the odors. open-air burnings, to neutralize odors. ReAfter the process was completed, the ashes garding sentiment, Sir Henry referred to the were gathered up and carefully deposited in repulsive appearance assumed by bodies during urns. A proposal was made during the French decay, and to the horrors of being buried Revolution to revive the practice, but it was alive, both of which would be avoided by_s never adopted.
thoroughly-conducted process of burning. He Within a few years new attempts have been assumed that cremation is as susceptible as made to commend cremation. Several plans burial of association with religious funeral have been devised for consuming corpses in rites, that it affords escape from unpleasant furnaces specially made for the purpose, or in ceremonials connected with burial, and equally close retorts. Prof. H. C. Richter described permits the preservation of concrete remains one in the Gartenlaube of Leipsic, in 1856. and the erection of a shrine of affection. The More recently Polli and Clericetti invented an body of Lady Dilke, an English woman, was apparatus, by means of which the body of burned in Germany a few months after Sir Baron von Keller was burned at Milan. Pro- Henry Thompson's article appeared. cesses suggested by Friedrich Siemens and Prof. In Holland a number of societies for the Reclam, of Breslau, have been tested experi- promotion of cremation have been organized mentally with satisfactory results. Dr. L. into an association. Several societies for the Brunetti, Professor of Pathology in the Uni- same object have been formed in Germany, versity of Padua, exhibited, at the Vienna Ex- but they made little progress in spreading position of 1873, the residue froin bodies and their views until the summer of 1876. Reparts of bodies on which he had practised cently it was announced that cremation would cremation by various methods. He had found, be permitted in the duchy of Gotha without by his latest experiments, that the whole pro- the interposition of legal obstacles. Immedicess of incineration of an adult human body ately Dr. Küchenmeister, President of the occupied three and a half hours. The result- Urne Union at Dresden, proposed to enter into ant ashes and bone-earth weighed 1.70 kilo- a correspondence for the purpose of calling a gramme, or about three pounds and three- convention of the German unions to consider quarters avoirdupois. The quantity of wood the subject of erecting at Gotha a furnace for required to insure a perfect process was about cremation after the system of Friedrich Sieone hundred and fifty pounds, and cost one The result of the correspondence was florin and twenty kreutzers, or about two shil- that a congress of the friends and societies for lings and fourpence English. Other apparatus cremation of all countries met at Dresden on have been invented by William Siemens and the 6th and 7th of June. At this meeting the Engineer Steinmann, of Leipsic.
following countries were represented: Eng.
land, by Dr. Cassie, secretary of the Crema- ashes of the deceased are carefully turned tion Society in London; France, by Prof. after the burning is completed. This room is Müller, of Paris; Holland, by Dr. Egeling, reached by spacious staircases from the chapel. medical director for the province of South At the proper time the friends are called down Holland, and Prof. Hoogewerff
, Ph. D., of Rot- to witness the ceremonial collection of the reterdam; Switzerland, by Gottfried Kinkel; mains and the deposition of them in the urn, Germany, by members of the unions of the and finally in the columbarium. In places cities of Berlin, Bremen, Chemnitz, Gotha, where several funerals are to be expected daiHamburg, and Leipsic, and the Urne Union of ly, the temple will be furnished with a correDresden. At the introductory meeting, held sponding number of furnace-cells, each with on the 6th, reports were made by the delegates its corresponding cell for ashes in the crypt. of the condition of the unions in their several A conspicuous feature of the plan is exhibited dwelling-places and countries. The public in the long rows of urn-houses, or columbaria, meeting, on the morning of the 7th, was at- appearing as wings to the main building. tended by about six hundred citizens, among The first furnace for cremation in the whom were several ladies of the most culti- United States has been built at Washington, vated circles of the city. Gottfried Kinkel, of Pa., by Dr. F. J. Le Moyne. The building is Switzerland, made an address, in which he small and entirely plain, and with the furnace spoke of the æsthetics of cremation, of the cost $1,600. It contains two rooms, a receppious exercises for which its ceremonies tion-room, with a table for the reception of would give opportunity, and of its advantages the corpse, and a columbarium for the temin a sanitary point of view, and replied to the porary deposit of the ashes, and a room for the arguments which had been brought against furnace. The furnace is constructed on the it. He declared that, thongh he held that Martin-Siemens principle, and consists of a every one had a right to cremation, of which structure of brick and fire-brick, ten feet long, not even the state could deprive him, it was six feet wide, and six feet high, inclosing a proposed, in introducing it, not to make it ob- semi-cylindrical retort of fire-clay, seven feet ligatory, only permissive. Engineer Schneider long, twenty-four inches wide, and twenty described the various methods which had been inches high, its lid accessible from the outside proposed for performing the process. It was at the door of the furnace. The body is thrust understood, as of course, that the ancient fu- into this retort after the latter has been propneral-pyres would not be revived, but closed erly heated from below. The gases. formed apparatus would be substituted for them. It during the process of burning are carried off was decided to erect, by the united efforts of by a chimney. The required degree of heat is the friends of cremation in Germany and other obtained by means of a fan-blast. At this furlands, a building for conducting the process, nace the first public cremation in the United either at Coburg or Gotha. Liberal subscrip- States was conducted, on the 6th of December, tions were offered, and the sum of 10,000 1876, when the body of Joseph Henry Louis marks were secured in the meeting. With Charles, Baron de Palm, was burned in it. this sum the erection of a suitable building Baron de Palm, a man of considerable social was considered pecuniarily assured. The es distinction, and a member of several honorable tablishment of a journal to advocate the cause societies and orders, died in the city of New was determined upon, and an international York on the 20th of May, 1876. He made the commission was appointed to carry that pur- request of his executors that his body should pose into effect, consisting of Gottfried Kin- be burned whenever the use of a furnace could kel, of Zürich; Sir Henry Thompson, of Lon- be obtained. It was embalmed, to await the don; Prof. Emile Müller, of Paris; Baron von building of such a furnace. The process of the Stockhausen and Dr. Küchenmeister, of Dres- cremation was witnessed by a number of perden; and Herr Stier, of Gotha. Plans for a sons invited for the purpose, representing the Large building, or "temple,” for cremation, by Boards of Health of the State of Massachusetts Carl Pieper, engineer, of Dresden, and G. Li and of the cities of Brooklyn and Pittsburg, hienthal, architect, of Berlin, were inspected by physicians of several cities, correspondents of the congress. They represent a building of newspapers, and other persons. The fire was elegant architectural appearance, surrounded kindled in the furnace at seven o'clock on the with gardens and groves. It is provided with morning of the day previous to that of the anterooms and a chapel, in which the religious cremation. At half-past eight o'clock on the rites may be celebrated in the presence of the morning of the 6th, the body was placed in the friends of the deceased. The body, adorned retort. It had been deprived of its fluids durwith garlands and flowers, rests upon a cata- ing the process of embalming and was in very falque, which after the services is noiselessly fit condition for a favorable operation. It bank into the furnace-room below. Here it is was wrapped in a sheet which was saturated 'aken by the attendants and placed in its ap- with alum to prevent exposure after the cloth propriate cell or retort, where it is consumed. was burned away, and was surrounded with In another room, or crypt, below the furnaces, flowers and evergreens. The evergreens were is arranged a series of cells, each correspond burned quickly, but their forms, as well as that ing to a furnace-cell above it, into which the of the sheet, could be plainly seen during