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of $1,156,000, issued to the South & North against the State would render the payment of Railroad Company ($720,000), the Grand Trunk interest, to say nothing of the principai, of such ($220,000), and the Savannah & Memphis an enormous debt utterly impossible—even at ($204,000). This was liable to an increase of a very low rate. It would be to acknowledge $36,000, due to the Savannah & Memphis, mak- an indebtedness equal to one-fifth of all the ing $1,192,000 in all. The commissioners pro- property of the people—and to provide for the posed that new bonds be substituted for these, annual interest which would accrue would reon the basis of fifty cents on the dollar, with quire a tax, if not inhibited by the constituthirty years to run, and bearing interest at five tion, which would be tantamount to confiscaper cent. The third class of obligations was tion. It is apparent, therefore, that a just and designated as the "contingent direct debt," honorable compromise is indispensable. Unwhich amounted to $2,573,093, and consisted just claims must be rejected, and those which of a claim of the South & North Railroad al- are acknowledged must necessarily be reduced. leged to be $600,000; alleged balance due the An act was passed, and received the apschool-fund of $508,404; claim of W. A. O. proval of the Governor on the 23d of FebJones, $150,000; notes executed by Governor ruary, with this title: "An act to ratify and Lewis to H. Clews & Co., $299,660; bonds confirm the settlement of the existing indebthypothecated by Governor Lewis with H. edness of this State, as proposed in the report Clews & Co., $650,000; interest on the latter, of the commissioners appointed under the act $130,000; balance claimed by H. Clews & Co. approved 17th of December, 1874, and which as due on account current, $235,029. The first was communicated to the General Assembly two items are dismissed as forming no part of by message of the Governor of 24th January, the bonded debt, and the claim of Mr. Jones as 1876, and to carry said settlement into effect not sufficiently investigated. The transactions by the issuance of new bonds of this State, at with H. Clews & Co. were characterized as anomalous, and the conclusion was reached that the State was only liable for $310,000, with interest, formerly due to Clews & Co., but for which there are now several claimants whose rights must be determined by judicial proceedings. The fourth class of obligations consisted of bonds indorsed for or issued to railroad companies, and amounted to $11,597,000 of railroad bonds indorsed by the State, and $3,024,000 of State bonds loaned to railroads. The policy which granted State aid so liberally to railroad enterprises at a time when the people were impoverished was severely criticised, and it was proposed that all claims on that account be settled by compromise. In place of the liability on account of $4,720,000 a reduced rate of interest, in adjustment of a indorsed bonds of the Alabama & Chattanooga portion of said indebtedness, and the surrender Railroad, and $580,000 of the same claimed as of certain securities held by the State in disan over-issue, $1,000,000 State bonds were to charge of another portion of said indebtedbe substituted, having thirty years to run, with ness.” This authorizes the issue of $7,000,000 interest of two per cent. for five years, and of bonds, to be designated as Class A, and to be four per cent. for twenty-five years, and renew- used in payment of the first class of liabilities; able for thirty years at five per cent. at the $596,000 of bonds, designated as Class B, to option of the State. There were also $2,000,000 be used in discharge of the second class of bonds of the State which had been loaned to liabilities above mentioned; and $1,000,000 the same company. These it was proposed to bonds of Class C, to take the place of all liaretrieve by a sale of the lands mortgaged to the bilities on account of the Alabama & ChattaState to secure their payment. With regard nooga Railroad Company; $310,000 acknowlto the liabilities on account of bonds indorsed edged to be due to H. Clews & Co. is to be paid for or loaned to the Montgomery & Eufaula, out of proceeds from bonds of Class A. With East Alabama & Cincinnati, Selma & Gulf, regard to the direct bonds of the State loaned Selma, Marion & Memphis, and the New Or- to the Alabama & Cbattanooga Railroad Comleans & Selma Railroad Companies, the com- pany it is provided that the liability of the missioners stated that there was important liti- State on their account shall be discharged on gation pending, and suggested that the holders acceptance by the holders of the lien and right of the bonds might be convinced that their best of the State upon the property of the road. interests would be advanced by accepting a The execution of this act is placed under the transfer of the State lien and giving a full dis- supervision and direction of the same commischarge for their claims. The commissioners say, sioners who submitted the plan of adjustment, after presenting this plan for adjusting the State viz.: Governor George S. Houston, Levi W. debt: "To recognize every claim preferred Lawler, and T. B. Bethea.

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Several other financial measures were of schools for colored children. An act making adopted, including a new revenue code pro- appropriations for the support of public schools viding for various kinds of taxation and de- provides that there shall be devoted to this fining the duties of assessors, collectors, and purpose each year $150,000 out of the general other county officials, in the matter of levying revenue of the State; the interest at four per and collecting taxes. Another act provides cent. on the proceeds of lands granted by Confor setting apart a certain portion of the rev- gress, amounting this year to $3,883.65; inenue, not exceeding one-fourth, for the pay- terest at four per cent. on the fund accruing ment of interest on the debt, and authorizes from the sale of the sixteenth sections of townthe issue of bonds for the same purpose, when ships; $26,765.47, being interest at four per necessary, but not exceeding $1,000,000 in cent. on the surplus fund deposited with the amount, or at a rate of interest exceeding eight State by the Government of the United States; per cent. Still another act authorizes tem- all sums received from escheats and from unsold porary loans for the general uses of the State, lands donated by Congress for the support of but not exceeding $100,000 in amount at any public schools; and all poll-taxes collected in one time, or at a rate of interest exceeding each county. According to the report of a eight per cent.

special joint committee appointed to investiSeveral important amendments were made gate the subject, the amount due from the to the registration and election laws. The State to the school-fund on the 1st of October, qualifications of voters and the offices to be 1875, was $249,309.39. An act was passed filled were restated: the election for State and “to carry into effect the intention of the Concounty officers is fixed on the first Monday in gress of the United States in its donation of a August, and that for members of Congress and certain quantity of land" for the benefit of a presidential electors on the Tuesday following seminary of learning in the State. This incorthe first Monday in November. All qualified porates the Trustees of the University of Alavoters are required to be registered, the name bama, composed of the Governor of the State, and residence of each being entered on the Superintendent of Education, and one trustee register, and whether white or colored, together for each congressional district, and confers with his employer's name. When the votes upon them all the necessary powers and reare cast, a poll-list must be made of the names sponsibilities for administering the affairs of of those voting. If any vote is challenged, the the institution. Among other things they are person offering to vote is required to make a authorized to dispose of all lands and property sign or oath as to his qualifications, and all derived from the original grant, and to take such oaths must be filed and returned with the charge of all other gifts, bequests, and donareturns of votes. The inspectors of election tions to the university. It is declared that the count the ballots and make their returns to “university fund” consists of $300,000, on the county returning officers, and these returns which the State is pledged to the payment of are canvassed by the Probate Judge and clerk interest at the rate of eight per cent. The of the Circuit Court of the county in the pres- university is located at Tuscaloosa, and is ence of three reputable householders of the represented to be in a flourishing condition. opposite political party. The returns from A general incorporation law was enacted, counties are made to the Secretary of State, authorizing the organization of “mining, except those of votes for Governor, Secretary manufacturing, immigration, or business comof State, Auditor, Treasurer, and Attorney- panies," on compliance with various specified General, which are made to the presiding conditions. A general law for the incorporaofficer of the Senate. An additional section tion of railroad companies was also passed. provides that each elector for President and This requires the persons forming such comVice-President shall receive eight dollars for panies to file a declaration with the Secretary each day's necessary attendance at the State of State and obtain a commission from him, capital in the performance of his duty, and and finally to receive a certificate after the or twenty cents a mile for necessary travel. An ganization is effected. All the powers and act "to establish, organize, and regulate a sys- franchises necessary to carry out the purposes tem of public instruction for the State of Ala- of a railroad company are expressly conferred, bama,” provides that after the first Monday in including that of taking the necessary property August, 1876, no more than four per cent. of for a right of way on payment of damages the school-fund shall be expended for any determined by commissioners of award, apother purpose than in payment of teachers of pointed by the Judge of Probate of the county free public schools, and the State Superin- in which the property lies. The franchise tendent must fix the compensation of all other lapses by five years' non-use. An act to inschool-officers accordingly. A separate census duce immigration to the State of Alabama was of white and colored children between the passed, providing for the appointment by the ages of seven and twenty-one is required, and Governor of a Commissioner of Immigration doll-taxes collected from white citizens must be and two Assistant Commissioners, to collect devoted to the support of schools for white and disseminate statistics and information rechildren, and those collected from colored garding the resources and advantages of the citizens must be devoted to the maintenance State, and make an annual report to the Gov

ernor. They are also required to receive National Committee, and resolve that in his applications for immigrants, and propositions seven years' administration of the Governfor the sale or lease of lands and other prop- ment General Grant has guided the republic erty to immigrants from all persons and cor- through the severest trials, and has shown our porations in the State. The necessary funds institutions capable of surviving equally the for carrying out the purposes of the act are to shock of armed conflict, partisan hate, and the be raised by the commissioner by subscrip- great demoralization incident to all wars. The tions, donations and loans; but without creat- most searching inquiries, prompted by Demoing any obligation or claim against the State. cratic partisanship, have entirely failed to

Among the miscellaneous acts of the session exhibit a single instance where President Grant was one making it a penal offense to sell, di- has tarnished with his pen the splendid trirectly or indirectly, any public office of the umphs of his sword. State, or the fees or emoluments thereof; The Spencer convention nominated for Govone prohibiting county officers from having ernor J. C. Bradley; for Secretary of State, any pecuniary interest in the contracts for J. T. Allington; for Treasurer, B. M. Long; work or service for the county, under a penalty for Auditor, G. P. Plowman; for Attorneyof fine and imprisonment; one making it un- General, R. I. Heflin; for Superintendent of lawful to confine white and colored prisoners Public Education, P. J. Glover. Mr. Bradley before conviction in the same apartments; one declined the nomination, on account of infirm organizing the militia of the State, consisting health. J. S. Clarke was nominated for Govof one division made up of one brigade for ernor. A delegation to the National Conveneach of the eight congressional districts; one tion at Cincinnati was appointed, headed by to regulate the granting of licenses to retail Senator George E. Spencer. The Committee wines and spirituous liquors, by Judges of on Resolutions reported resolutions recognizing Probate, on the recommendation of respectable civil and political equality of all men, free pubfreeholders and householders within five miles lic and non-sectarian schools, protection and of the place of sale; and one prohibiting the encouragement of labor, and the following: sale of lottery and gift-enterprise tickets. The Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad was

Resolved, That we indorse and approve the Adminsold at auction on the 4th of October, by spe- policy, patriotic in spirit and impartial and


istration of President Grant as wise and just in its cial commissioners, under an order of the in execution. It has carried the nation through a United States Circuit Court, for $310,000, sub- period of unprecedented difficulties and trials with ject to the superior lien of the State acquired safety and success, and has won for the President by the indorsement of the first-mortgage

renown as a statesman as solid and endearing as his

name as a soldier. bonds, and to the right of the sinking-fund Resolved, That we declare our earnest admiration for the payment of State bonds, issued in 1870 for the entire career in public life of Hon. 0. P. to aid in the construction of the road. The Morton, of Indiana, in his advocacy of the great and purchaser was Adam P. Balch, understood to vital principles of the Republican party and of the be acting in the interest of D. N. Stanton, the tion in the affairs of the Government. Mr. Morton original projector of the road.

stands prominent before the country for the ability, Owing to a division in the Republican State courage, and

constancy he has displayed. Central Committee, two conventions of that Resolved, That we commend the Hon. 0. P. Mor party were called, one of the " anti-Spencer” ton to the favorable consideration of our delegation

to the National Republican Convention. Republicans, to be held at Montgomery, on the 16th of May, and the other of the Spencer or These were adopted, that relating to Mr. Administration Republicans, to be held at the Morton being the only one that caused any same place, on the 24th of May. The first of dissent. A resolution favoring the resumption these was composed of delegates from fifty of act was also adopted, and one authorizing the the sixty-five counties, and about equally Executive Committee of the two wings of the divided between the white and colored races. party to agree, if possible, on a State and elecIt nominated State officers, delegates to the toral ticket. Subsequent consultations resulted National Convention of the party, and presi- in a compromise, and the following ticket was dential electors.

The following is the State agreed to: For Governor, Woodruff; ticket: For Governor, Thomas M. Peters; for Secretary of State, Amos Moody; for AuSecretary of State, J. J. McLemore; Attorney- ditor, Lewis Owen ; for Treasurer, B. W. HarGeneral, J. S. Clark; State Treasurer, W. P. ris; for Attorney-General, E. H. Grandin. Harris; Auditor, 0. C. Cadle, Jr. ; Superin The Democratic State Convention was held tendents of Education, J. H.' Hansley, Jere at Montgomery, May 31st and June 1st. There Haralson, colored; Congressmen, S. F. Rice, were 400 delegates representing sixty-two counWillard Warner, and W. H. Smith.

ties, and the proceedings were altogether harThe Committee on Platforms and Resolu- monious. George S. Houston was renominated tions reported that, faithful to the principles of for Governor; R. K. Boyd, for Secretary of the Republican party, so often announced by State; and Daniel Crawford, for Treasurer. their authorized exponents, they recommend The incumbents of the other executive offices the adoption of the principles contained in and were Republicans holding over from 1872, disclosed by the address of the Republican and new nominations were made. Colonel


Willis Brewer was made the candidate for years of our existence as a free people shall be sur Auditor; J. W. A. Sandford, for Attorney- passed in the second. General; and L. F. Box, for Superintendent of An appeal was made for harmony and unity, Education. Delegates at large to the National and the adjustment of all local differences, and Convention at St. Louis and candidates for the platform ended with these declarations: presidential electors were also named, and a 9. That the Democratic and Conservative party of long series of resolutions was adopted. The Alabama is a party of law as well as of progress, and first of these declared :

as in the past it has faithfully kept its pledges of pro

tection to the colored citizens of this state, we now 1. That in the future as in the past the undeviat- renew them and pledge to all the colored people of ing determination of this party is to faithfully do all this State the protection and maintenance of all in its power to secure, in every possible manner, the their rights to equality before the law, and we are blessings of good government to all the people of glad to recognize that the more intelligent and betthis State; and that to secure these blessings to all ter class of them are awakening to the fact that their the good people of this State and their posterity, it best friends are the white people of Alabama. is absolutely necessary now, as it was in the great 10. That if in the adjustinent and liquidation of canvass of 1874, that the white people of Alabama, the finances of the State, complicated and bankwho are in large part the men and the descendants rupted as they were by radical frauds and incompeof the men who rescued its soil from the dominion tency, any of the just obligations of the State to its of the savage Indian, together with such other good own citizens have been overlooked, such, for incitizens of this race as have since then made their stance, as the payment of the teachers of public bomes in this state, and who pay its taxes and bear schools, we pledge the Democratic and Conservative the burdens of its government, and have inaugurated party to provide for their payment at the earliest and upheld its religious, moral, and social institu-day compatible with the financial ability of the tions, carrying the State itself forward to its present State, giving them that priority, if need be, which high standard of civilization, progress, and renown, their merit

and justice may demand. should stand united together as brethren in a com 11. The Democratic and Conservative party, repmon cause, without regard to previous or even pres- resenting the land-owners and tax-payers of the ent political differences; that this white people, State, hereby invite immigration to the State, and whether residing in the mountains and valleys of extend a hearty and cordial welcome to all good North Alabama, or in the prairies of Middle Ala- people, of whatever clime or nationality, who will bama, or among the pine-hills of South Alabama, come among us as citizens. and whether rich or poor, learned or unlearned, is one great family whose forefathers helped to bring

An address to the people was issued by the American constitutional liberty into the

world, Democratic State Committee in the latter part and whose descendants, by the blessing of God, of June, calling for an earnest support of the mean to keep it there.

State and national tickets, and setting forth Then followed a statement of what the Dem- the wrongs and abuses committed by the Reocratic party had accomplished in the State in publicans, and the reforms to be brought about two years by revising the constitution, im- through the ascendency of the Democrats. proving legislation, and reforming the admin The State election took place on the 7th of istration of the government. The career of August, and resulted in the success of the the Republicans in the State was reviewed and Democratic ticket. The total vote for Govcondemned in the severest terms. It was then ernor was 154,837, of which Houston received stated :

99,255, and Woodruff 55,582, making the ma5. That the considerations which make patriotism jority of the former 43,673. at all times a duty of the citizen are illimitable, and Congressmen and presidential electors were that any man, or set of men, who from any cause chosen on the 7th of November. The Demowhatever shall attempt, in any manner, to weaken cratic candidates were successful without exin this canvass by dividing its strength in the elec- ception, and in the sixth and seventh congrestion for any office, whether State, or county, or mu- sional districts there was no opposition. The nicipal, thereby jeopordizing its success and render- total vote for electors was 170,843, of which ing it possible for any candidate in sympathy with the Democratic ticket had 102,613, and the the Republican party to be elected, is no friend, to Republican 68,230, making the majority of the his country, but on the contrary is an enemy to the best interests of all the people of Alabama; and all

former 34,382. such efforts should be frowned down by the people;

The first regular biennial session of the Legand in view of the great interests at stake the people islature under the new constitution began on individually and collectively should harmonize all the 15th of November, and was limited by law such differences, so that on the day of election the to sixty days. The various official reports repfull strength of the Democratic and Conservative resented the public institutions of the State as

6. That the issues which led to the disastrous war in a very promising condition. The penitenbetween the sections of our common country have tiary showed a balance of $14,307.40 in receipts long been settled, and any attempt to arouse sec- over and above expenses. tional animosity on either side could only operate as an impediment to that higher progress and great

ALBRECHT, Wilhelm EDUARD, a German er development of the American people which all jurist and scholar, born March 4, 1800, in good citizens look forward to as following this Cen- Elbing; died May 22, 1876, in Leipsic. He tennial year of American Independence, and, leaving studied in the Universities of Königsberg, Berto the historian the divisions of the past, all patri- lin, and Göttingen, and in 1827 was appointed otic citizens owing allegiance to and claiming the Professor of Law in the University of Königsforward into the next Centennial period, determined berg. In 1827 he published his work, “Die that the unparalleled progress of the first hundred Gewere als Grundlage des älteren deutschen






Foreign Vessels.


4.0 SS.6 90.9

Great Britain..


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Sachenrechts," which had been preceded by ports in 1874, 50,201,164 francs, against 47," Commentatio juris germanici antiqui, doc- 436,076 fraucs in 1873 ; exports, 8,782,673 trinam de probationibus adumbrans" (1825). francs in 1874, against 70,617,997 francs in These works established his scientific reputa- 1873. The vessels carrying on the trade betion beyond a doubt. In 1830 he received a tween Algeria and other countries were as call to Göttingen, to fill the vacancy caused by follows: Eichhorn's removal to Berlin. In this position he remained seven years without taking any

No. of

Voyages made. part in the political questions of the day. But when in 1822 the King of Hanover decreed 1874

7,692 1,781,450 the revocation of the constitution of the coun

6,814 1,619,984 try, Albrecht was one of the seven professors who protested against this act, and who were,

The percentage of French and foreign vesin consequence, removed. His clear and just sels carrying on the trade with the principal discrimination is not only visible in all the conntries in 1874 was as follows: acts and documents of the seven professors, but he also published the most impassioned and most convincing account of the affair, the only one which was passed by the Government Barbary States..

96.0 censors. After his removal from Göttingen Great Britain.. he received a call to Leipsic, where from 1839 Italy.....

98.5 until his death he delivered lectures on German and church law, which were always at The tonnage of vessels sailing under a fortended by large numbers of students. In 1840 eign flag which entered the Algerian ports in he was appointed ordinary professor, with the 1874 was as follows: title of Court Councilor. He took part in

Tonnage. drafting a constitution for Germany in 1848,

195,195 and was elected from a district in Hanover to



Italy. the German National Assembly, but soon re Norway signed his seat. The coup-d'état of the Saxon Austria ..

20,544 Government in 1849 he denounced most se The commercial navy of Algeria on Decemverely. in 1868 he was pensioned, and at the ber 31, 1874, amounted to 141 vessels, of 4,982 same time created a member of the First tons. By a decree of August 15, 1875, the laws Chamber by the King. In spite of his personal of France, governing public instruction, were seclusion, he followed the political affairs of applied to Algeria. The principal points of the day with great interest, and was far re- this decree provide for the composition and moved from the bitterness of his former colleagues and fellow-sufferers in Göttingen, Gervinus and Ewald. His considerable property


Longizaughe Last from Washingtora, SP

Curtager: he bequeathed to the University of Leipsic. ALGERIA, a French province in Northern

Algiers; Africa. The area and population, according to the census of 1872, were as follows:



El Bayfielt
Algiers.. 39,120 67,009 42,181 757,908 5,854 872,951
Oran....'111, 31 51,72947,433 411,874 2,456 | 518,492


olur tine... 107,366 45,498 | 25,902 953,263 3,172 1,029,782

Wunta Coloma de la pare

El Mungu Matiti Total.. 238 317 164,175 115,516 2,123,045 11,482 2,416,225

all Telepon GERTAN

By Ghanluid Ponde


ekak The territory of Algeria is partly under mili

Taghit. tary and partly under civil jurisdiction. The

lined Taiba latter, which is increased every year, comprised in 1875 an area of 16,062 square miles, with 1,047,092 inhabitants, being an increase over 1874 of 680 square miles and 20,300 inhabi- the functions of the Academic Council sitting tants, of whom 1,359 were Europeans. The at Algiers, and the creation and composition imports amounted to 55,569,954 francs in 1874, of departmental councils. The Arabic colleges against 54,153,945 in 1873; while the exports have been suppressed, and their pupils divided had fallen from 79,975,413 francs in 1873 to among the French institutions. Mixed schools 52,225,663 francs in 1874. The special com- have been established. The Arabic language merce in the same year was as follows: Im- has been introduced in the examination for

78,882 28,348

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