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of $1,156,000, issued to the South & North Railroad Company ($720,000), the Grand Trunk ($220,000), and the Savannah & Memphis ($204,000). This was liable to an increase of $36,000, due to the Savannah & Memphis, making $1,192,000 in all. The commissioners proposed that new bonds be substituted for these, on the basis of fifty cents on the dollar, with thirty years to run, and bearing interest at five per cent. The third class of obligations was designated as the “contingent direct debt,” which amounted to $2,573,093, and consisted of a claim of the South & North Railroad alleged to be $600,000; alleged balance due the school-fund of $508,404; claim of W. A. C. Jones, $150,000; notes executed by Governor Lewis to H. Clews & Co., $299,660; bonds hypothecated by Governor Lewis with H. Clews & Co., $650,000; interest on the latter, $130,000; balance claimed by H. Clews & Co. as due on account current, $235,029. The first two items are dismissed as forming no part of the bonded debt, and the claim of Mr. Jones as not sufficiently investigated. The transactions with H. Clews & Co. were characterized as anomalous, and the conclusion was reached that the State was only liable for $310,000, with interest, formerly due to Clews & Co., but for which there are now several claimants whose rights must be determined by judicial proceedings. The fourth class of obligations consisted of bonds indorsed for or issued to railroad companies, and amounted to $11,597,000 of railroad bonds indorsed by the State, and $3,024,000 of State bonds loaned to railroads. The policy which granted State aid so liberally to railroad enterprises at a time when the people were impoverished was severely criticised, and it was proposed that all claims on that account be settled by compromise. In place of the liability on account of $4,720,000 indorsed bonds of the Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad, and $580,000 of the same claimed as an over-issue, $1,000,000 State bonds were to be substituted, having thirty years to run, with interest of two per cent. for five years, and four per cent. for twenty-five years, and renewable for thirty years at five per cent. at the option of the State. There were also $2,000,000 bonds of the State which had been loaned to the same company. These it was proposed to retrieve by a sale of the lands mortgaged to the State to secure their payment. With regard to the liabilities on account of bonds indorsed for or loaned to the Montgomery & Eufaula, East Alabama & Cincinnati, Selma & Gulf, Selma, Marion & Memphis, and the New Orleans & Selma Railroad Companies, the commissioners stated that there was important litigation pending, and suggested that the holders of the bonds might be convinced that their best interests would be advanced by accepting a transfer of the State lien and giving a full discharge for their claims. The commissioners say, after presenting this plan for adjusting the State debt: “To recognize every claim preferred

against the State would render the payment of interest, to say nothing of the principal, of such an enormous debt utterly impossible—even at a very low rate. It would be to acknowledge an indebtedness equal to one-fifth of all the property of the people—and to provide for the annual interest which would accrue would require a tax, if not inhibited by the constitution, which would be tantamount to confiscation. It is apparent, therefore, that a just and honorable compromise is indispensable. Unjust claims must be rejected, and those which are acknowledged must necessarily be reduced.

An act was passed, and received the approval of the Governor on the 23d of February, with this title: “An act to ratify and confirm the settlement of the existing indebtedness of this State, as proposed in the report of the commissioners appointed under the act approved 17th of December, 1874, and which was communicated to the General Assembly by message of the Governor of 24th January, 1876, and to carry said settlement into effect by the issuance of new bonds of this State, at

sTATE seal, or ALABAM.A.

a reduced rate of interest, in adjustment of a portion of said indebtedness, and the surrender of certain securities held by the State in discharge of another portion of said indebtedness.” This authorizes the issue of $7,000,000 of bonds, to be designated as Class A, and to be used in payment of the first class of liabilities; $596,000 of bonds, designated as Class B, to be used in discharge of the second class of liabilities above mentioned; and $1,000,000 bonds of Class C, to take the place of all liabilities on account of the Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad Company; $310,000 acknowledged to be due to H. Clews & Co. is to be paid out of proceeds from bonds of Class A. With regard to the direct bonds of the State loaned to the Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad Company it is provided that the liability of the State on their account shall be discharged on acceptance by the holders of the lien and right of the State upon the property of the road. The execution of this act is placed under the supervision and direction of the same commissioners who submitted the plan of adjustment, viz.: Governor George S. Houston, Levi W. Lawler, and T. B. Bethea.


Several other financial measures were adopted, including a new revenue code providing for various kinds of taxation and defining the duties of assessors, collectors, and other county officials, in the matter of levying and collecting taxes. Another act provides for setting apart a certain portion of the revenue, not exceeding one-fourth, for the payment of interest on the debt, and authorizes the issue of bonds for the same purpose, when necessary, but not exceeding $1,000,000 in amount, or at a rate of interest exceeding eight per cent. Still another act authorizes temporary loans for the general uses of the State, but not exceeding $100,000 in amount at any one time, or at a rate of interest exceeding eight per cent. Several important amendments were made to the registration and election laws. The qualifications of voters and the offices to be ... filled were restated: the election for State and county officers is fixed on the first Monday in August, and that for members of Congress and presidential electors on the Tuesday following the first Monday in November. All qualified voters are required to be registered, the name and residence of each being entered on the register, and whether white or colored, together with his employer's name. When the votes are cast, a poll-list must be made of the names of those voting. If any vote is challenged, the person offering to vote is required to make a sign or oath as to his qualifications, and all such oaths must be filed and returned with the returns of votes. The inspectors of election count the ballots and make their returns to the county returning officers, and these returns are canvassed by the Probate Judge and clerk of the Circuit Court of the county in the presence of three reputable householders of the opposite political party. The returns from counties are made to the Secretary of State, except those of votes for Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, and AttorneyGeneral, which are made to the presiding officer of the Senate. An additional section rovides that each elector for President and ice-President shall receive eight dollars for each day's necessary attendance at the State capital in the performance of his duty, and twenty cents a mile for necessary travel. An act “to establish, organize, and regulate a system of public instruction for the State of Alabama,” provides that after the first Monday in August, 1876, no more than four per cent. of the school-fund shall be expended for any other purpose than in payment of teachers of free public schools, and the State Superintendent must fix the compensation of all other school-officers accordingly. A separate census of white and colored children between the ages of seven and twenty-one is required, and boll-taxes collected from white citizens must be devoted to the support of schools for white children, and those collected from colored citizens must be devoted to the maintenance

of schools for colored children. An act making appropriations for the support of public schools provides that there shall be devoted to this purpose each year $150,000 out of the general revenue of the State; the interest at four per cent. on the proceeds of lands granted by Congress, amounting this year to $3,883.65; interest at four per cent. on the fund accruing from the sale of the sixteenth sections of townships; $26,765.47, being interest at four per cent. on the surplus fund deposited with the State by the Government of the United States; all sums received from escheats and from unsold lands donated by Congress for the support of public schools; and all poll-taxes collected in each county. According to the report of a special joint committee appointed to investigate the subject, the amount due from the State to the school-fund on the 1st of October, 1875, was $249,309.39. An act was passed “to carry into effect the intention of the Congress of the United States in its donation of a certain quantity of land” for the benefit of a seminary of learning in the State. This incorporates the Trustees of the University of Alabama, composed of the Governor of the State, Superintendent of Education, and one trustee for each congressional district, and confers upon them all the necessary powers and responsibilities for administering the affairs of the institution. Among other things they are authorized to dispose of all lands and property derived from the original grant, and to take charge of all other gifts, bequests, and donations to the university. It is declared that the “university fund” consists of $300,000, on which the State is pledged to the payment of interest at the rate of eight per cent. The university is located at Tuscaloosa, and is represented to be in a flourishing condition. A general incorporation law was enacted, authorizing the organization of “mining, manufacturing, immigration, or business companies,” on compliance with various specified conditions. A general law for the incorporation of railroad companies was also passed. This requires the persons forming such companies to file a declaration with the Secretary of State and obtain a commission from him, and finally to receive a certificate after the or ganization is effected. All the powers and franchises necessary to carry out the purposes of a railroad company are expressly conferred, including that of taking the necessary property for a right of way on payment of damages determined by commissioners of award, appointed by the Judge of Probate of the county in which the property lies. The franchise lapses by five years' non-use. An act to induce immigration to the State of Alabama was passed, providing for the appointment by the Governor of a Commissioner of Immigration and two Assistant Commissioners, to collect and disseminate statistics and information regarding the resources and advantages of the State, and make an annual report to the Governor. They are also required to receive applications for immigrants, and propositions for the sale or lease of lands and other property to immigrants from all persons and corporations in the State. The necessary funds for carrying out the purposes of the act are to be raised by the commissioner by subscriptions, donations and loans; but without creating any obligation or claim against the State. Among the miscellaneous acts of the session was one making it a penal offense to sell, directly or indirectly, any public office of the State, or the fees or emoluments thereof; one prohibiting county officers from having any pecuniary interest in the contracts for work or service for the county, under a penalty of fine and imprisonment; one making it unlawful to confine white and colored prisoners before conviction in the same apartments; one organizing the militia of the State, consisting of one division made up of one brigade for each of the eight congressional districts; one to regulate the granting of licenses to retail wines and spirituous liquors, by Judges of Probate, on the recommendation of respectable freeholders and householders within five miles of the place of sale; and one prohibiting the sale of lottery and gift-enterprise tickets. The Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad was sold at auction on the 4th of October, by special commissioners, under an order of the United States Circuit Court, for $310,000, subject to the superior lien of the State acquired by the indorsement of the first-mortgage bonds, and to the right of the sinking-fund for the payment of State bonds, issued in 1870 to aid in the construction of the road. The purchaser was Adam P. Balch, understood to be acting in the interest of D. N. Stanton, the o projector of the road. wing to a division in the Republican State Central Committee, two conventions of that #. were called, one of the “anti-Spencer.” epublicans, to be held at Montgomery, on the 16th of May, and the other of the Spencer or Administration Republicans, to be held at the same place, on the 24th of May. The first of these was composed of delegates from fifty of the sixty-five counties, and about equally divided between the white and colored races. ! nominated State officers, delegates to the National Convention of the party, and presidential electors. The following is the State ticket: For Governor, Thomas M. Peters; Secretary of State, J. J. McLemore; AttorneyGeneral, J. S. Clark; State Treasurer, W. P. Harris; Auditor, O. C. Cadle, Jr.; Superintendents of Education, J. H. Hansley, Jere Aralson, colored; Congressmen, S. F. Rice, Willard Warner, and W. H. Smith. . The Committee on Platforms and Resolutions reported that, faithful to the principles of the Republican party, so often announced by their authorized exponents, they recommend the adoption of the principles contained in and disclosed by the address of the Republican vol. xvi.-2 A

National Committee, and resolve that in his seven years' administration of the Government General Grant has guided the republic through the severest trials, and has shown our institutions capable of surviving equally the shock of armed conflict, partisan hate, and the great demoralization incident to all wars. The most searching inquiries, prompted by Democratic partisanship, have entirely failed to exhibit a single instance where President Grant has tarnished with his pen the splendid triumphs of his sword. he Spencer convention nominated for Governor J. C. Bradley; for Secretary of State, J. T. Allington; for Treasurer, B. M. Long; for Auditor, G. P. Plowman; for AttorneyGeneral, R. I. Heflin; for Superintendent of Public Education, P. J. Glover. Mr. Bradley declined the nomination, on account of infirm health. J. S. Clarke was nominated for Governor. A delegation to the National Convention at Cincinnati was appointed, headed by Senator George E. Spencer. The Committee on Resolutions reported resolutions recognizing civil and political equality of all men, free public and non-sectarian schools, protection and encouragement of labor, and the following:

Resolved, That we indorse and approve the Administration of President Grant as wise and just in its olicy, patriotic in spirit and impartial and vigorous in execution. It has carried the nation through a period of unprecedented difficulties and trials with safety and success, and has won for the President renown as a statesman as solid and endearing as his name as a soldier. Resolved, That we declare our earnest admiration for the entire career in public life of Hon. O. P. Morton, of Indiana, in his advocacy of the great and vital principles of the Republican party and of the measures destined to receive their practical application in the affairs of the Government. Mr. §. stands prominent before the country for the ability, courage, and constancy he has displayed. Resolved, That we commend the Hon. O. P. Mor ton to the favorable consideration of our delegation to the National Republican Convention.

These were adopted, that relating to Mr. Morton being the only one that caused any dissent. A resolution favoring the resumption act was also adopted, and one authorizing the Executive Committee of the two wings of the party to agree, if possible, on a State and electoral ticket. Subsequent consultations resulted in a compromise, and the following ticket was agreed to: For Governor, Woodruff; for Secretary of State, Amos Moody; for Auditor, Lewis Owen ; for Treasurer, B. W. Harris; for Attorney-General, E. H. Grandin.

The Democratic State Convention was held at Montgomery, May 31st and June 1st. There were 400 delegates representing sixty-two counties, and the proceedings were altogether harmonious. George S. Houston was renominated for Governor; R. K. Boyd, for Secretary of State; and Daniel Crawford, for Treasurer. The incumbents of the other executive offices were Republicans holding over from 1872, and new nominations were made. Colonel Willis Brewer was made the candidate for Auditor; J. W. A. Sandford, for AttorneyGeneral; and L. F. Box, for Superintendent of Education. Delegates at large to the National Convention at St. Louis and candidates for presidential electors were also named, and a long series of resolutions was adopted. The first of these declared:

1. That in the future as in the past the undeviating determination of this party is to faithfully do all in its power to secure, in every possible manner, the blessings of good government to all the people of this State; and that to secure these blessings to all the good people of this State and their posterity, it is absolutely necessary now, as it was in the great canvass of 1874, that the white people of Alabama, who are in large part the men and the descendants of the men who rescued its soil from the dominion of the savage Indian, together with such other good citizens of this race as have since then made their homes in this State, and who pay its taxes and bear the burdens of its government, and have inaugurated and upheld its religious, moral, and social institutions, carrying the §. itself forward to its present high standard of civilization, progress, and renown, should stand united together as brethren in a common cause, without regard to previous or even present political differences; that this white people whether residing in the mountains and valleys of North Alabama, or in the prairies of Middle Alabama, or among the pine-hills of South Alabama, and whether rich or poor, learned or unlearned, is one great family whose forefathers helped to bring American constitutional liberty into the world, and whose descendants, by the blessing of God, mean to keep it there.

Then followed a statement of what the Democratic party had accomplished in the State in two years by revising the constitution, imroving legislation, and reforming the administration of the government. The career of the Republicans in the State was reviewed and condemned in the severest terms. It was then stated:

5...That the considerations which make patriotism at all times a duty of the citizen are illimitable, and that any man, or set of men, who from any cause whatever shall attempt, in any manner, to weaken the Democratic and Conservative party of Alabama in this canvass by dividing its strength in the election for any office, whether State, or county, or municipal, thereby jeopordizing its success and rendering it possible for any candidate in sympathy with the Republican party to be elected, is no friend to his country, but on the contrary is an enemy to the best interests of all the people of Alabama; and all such efforts should be frowned down by the people; and in view of the great interests at stake the people individually and collectively should harmonize all such differences, so that on the day of election the full strength of the Democratic and Conservative party may be voted for all its candidates.

6. That the issues which led to the disastrous war between the sections of our common country have long been settled, and any attempt to arouse sectional. animosity on either side could only operate as an impediment to that higher progress and greater development of the American people which all good citizens look forward to as following this Centennial year of American Independence, and, leavin to the historian the divisions of the past, all patriotic citizens owing allegiance to of claiming the rotection of a common Government should move orward into the next Centennial period, determined that the unparalleled progress of the first hundred

years of our existence as a free people shall be sur passed in the second. An appeal was made for harmony and unity, and the adjustment of all local differences, and the platform ended with these declarations: 9. That the Democratic and Conservative party of Alabama is a party of law as well as of progress, and as in the past it has faithfully kept its pledges of protection to the colored citizens of this State, we now renew them and pledge to all the colored people of this State the protection and maintenance of all their rights to equality before the law, and we are glad to recognize that the more intelligent and better class of them are awakening to the fact that their best friends are the white people of Alabama. 10. That if in the adjustment and liquidation of the finances of the State, complicated and bankrupted as they were by radical frauds and incompetency, any of the just obligations of the State to its own citizens have been overlooked, such, for instance, as the payment of the teachers of public schools, we pledge the Democratic and Conservative o to provide for their |. at the earliest ay compatible with the financial ability of the State, giving them that priority, if need be, which their merit and justice may demand. 11. The Democratic and Conservative party o: resenting the land-owners and tax-payers to the State, hereby invite immigration to the State, and extend a hearty and cordial welcome to all good people, of whatever clime or nationality, who will come among us as citizens.

An address to the people was issued by the Democratic State Committee in the latter part of June, calling for an earnest support of the State and national tickets, and setting forth the wrongs and abuses committed by the Republicans, and the reforms to be brought about through the ascendency of the Democrats. The State election took place on the 7th of August, and resulted in the success of the Democratic ticket. The total vote for Governor was 154,837, of which Houston received 99,255, and Woodruff 55,582, making the majority of the former 43,673. Congressmen and presidential electors were chosen on the 7th of November. The Democratic candidates were successful without exception, and in the sixth and seventh congressional districts there was no opposition. The total vote for electors was 170,843, of which the Democratic ticket had 102,613, and the Republican 68,230, making the majority of the former 34,382. The first regular biennial session of the Legislature under the new constitution began on the 15th of November, and was limited by law to sixty days. The various official reports represented the public institutions of the State as in a very promising condition. The penitentiary showed a balance of $14,307.40 in receipts over and above expenses. ALBRECHT, WILHELM EDUARD, a German jurist and scholar, born March 4, 1800, in Elbing; died May 22, 1876, in Leipsic. He studied in the Universities of Königsberg, Berlin, and Göttingen, and in 1827 was appointed Professor of Law in the University of Königsberg. In 1827 he published his work, “Die Gewere als Grundlage des tilteren deutschen Sachenrechts,” which had been preceded by “Commentatio juris germanici antiqui, doctrinam de probationibus adumbrans” (1825). These works established his scientific reputation beyond a doubt. In 1830 he received a call to Göttingen, to fill the vacancy caused by Eichhorn's removal to Berlin. In this position he remained seven years without taking any part in the political questions of the day. But when in 1822 the King of Hanover decreed the revocation of the constitution of the country, Albrecht was one of the seven professors who protested against this act, and who were, in consequence, removed. His clear and just discrimination is not only visible in all the acts and documents of the seven professors, but he also published the most impassioned and most convincing account of the affair, the only one which was passed by the Government censors. After his removal from Göttingen he received a call to Leipsic, where from 1839 until his death he delivered lectures on German and church law, which were always attended by harge numbers of students. In 1840 he was appointed ordinary professor, with the title of Court Councilor. He took part in drafting a constitution for Germany in 1848, and was elected from a district in Hanover to the German National Assembly, but soon resigned his seat. The coup-d'état of the Saxon Government in 1849 he denounced most severely. In 1868 he was pensioned, and at the same time created a member of the First Chamber by the King. In spite of his personal seclusion, he followed the political affairs of the day with great interest, and was far removed from the bitterness of his former colleagues and fellow-sufferers in Göttingen, Gervinus and Ewald. His considerable property he bequeathed to the University of Leipsic. ALGERIA, a French province in Northern Africa. The area and population, according to the census of 1872, were as follows:

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