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She then published her experiences in Germany in a number of articles in the Revue des Deua. Mondes and in the Revue indépendante (1847), and after the Revolution of 1848 appeared as a political writer. Among her works of this class best known are “Lettres républicaines” (1848), in which she severely criticises the state of affairs under the government of Louis Philippe, and the “Histoire de la Révolution de 1848." (3 vols., 1851–53; third edition, 1869), which shows the people and the events of that time in a most favorable light. A different kind of work is her “Esquisses morales et politiques” (1849; third edition, 1859), which is a sort of ethical hand-book in the form of maxims and aphorisms in the style of the “Maximes” of Rochefoucauld, and gives short and good advice on the different affairs of life, on the conflict of morality with the passions, and the questions of the age, and which is certainly to be regarded as her best work. She also published “Trois Journées de la Vie de Marie Stuart” (1856), “Florence et Turin” (1862), and “Dante et Goethe’” (1866). Her daughter Cosima, the fruit of a connection with Franz Liszt, was married first to Hans von Bülow, and subsequently to Richard Wagner. Her biography was written by Pommerin (1868). AGRICULTURE. The following statements respecting the crops of the United States for 1876 embody the latest reports of the Department of Agriculture: Corn.-The returns of November make the corn-crop only 2 per cent. short of the great crop of last year, and fully 50 per cent. greater than the crop of 1874. The aggregate is 1,295,000,000 bushels. Less than 1 per cent. of the crop is raised in New England, scarcely 6 in the Middle States, 20 in the Southern, 44 in the Ohio basin, and 29 west of the Mississippi. The product of the South is 10,000,000 bushels greater than last year; that of New England is 300,000 greater, and there is less in the Middle and Western States. The States of the Ohio basin, seven in number, including Michigan and Wisconsin, increased their proportion from 39 per cent. in 1850 to 41 in 1860, and since that date continue to advance their proportions, the percentage being 44 in 1870 and at the present time, notwithstanding the more rapid progress of corn-growing in the States of the Missouri Valley. These States—Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska—produced only 7 per cent. in 1850, advancing to 15 in 1860, to 21 in 1870, and 28 in 1876. The increase in Kansas has been most rapid of late, nearly equaling in amount in this year the crop of the much more populous State of Missouri. Iowa, as yet, grows more than four-tenths of the crop of this section. Illinois is credited with about 250,000,000 bushels, and Iowa with 155,000,000. Next in rank are Ohio, Indiana, Missouri, and Kansas. These six States produce six-tenths of the total roduct. Tennessee, which once held the ighest rank in the country, now stands first
in the Southern States, followed by Texas, Alabama, and Georgia. The extension of this culture westward continues to be rapid. This year the Missouri Valley, together with the western half of the Upper Mississippi, yields two-thirds as much as the area from that river eastward to Pennsylvania, including the States on both sides of the Ohio. In quality the crop is superior to its predecessor. There has been an increase of area in all sections, aggregating about two million acres, the advance very slight in the Gulf States from Alabama to Louisiana, and scarcely perceptible in the Middle States. It is largest west of the Missouri. Wisconsin shows the heaviest increase in the Northwest, and Texas and Georgia
in the South.
Cotton.—The returns of November indicated an extremely favorable season for gathering cotton, except in some portions of North Carolina. The following is a synopsis: “Frost has injured the top crop in the northern belt, notably in Arkansas. The fibre is cleaner than usual and of superior quality in the southern belt. Drought in the Gulf States, rain-storms in the Carolinas, the boll-worm in the Southwest, and the caterpillar in certain locations near the Gulf coast, are chief causes of injury to the crop. The harvest will be completed at a much earlier date than usual. The crop must be smaller than that of last year, however favorable and long the remaining season for gathering. In comparison with the last crop, the percentages of the Atlantic coast States are relatively larger by reason of the poor returns of 1875, and smaller in the Southwest from comparison with the remarkable yield of that region. They are as follows: North Carolina, 92; South Carolina, 99; Georgia, 110 ; Florida, 100; Alabama, 77; Mississippi, 78; Louisiana, 83; Texas, 100; Arkansas, 74; Tennessee, 101. The average is between 88 and 89.”
Potatoes.—As returns for condition, during the latter part of the season, haveforeshadowed, the potato-crop, in production, falls not only far below the extraordinary crop of 1875, but considerably below an average crop. Among the causes of diminished yield, drought was the most widespread and effective. During the season for the formation and growth of the tubers, excessively dry weather prevailed, with a few local exceptions, throughout the entire section north of the thirty-sixth parallel and east of the Rocky Mountains, the section in which the potato-crop is mainly grown. The drought was the most severe and protracted in the Middle and Eastern States, except a northern belt including the greater part of Maine. Within this designated area, also, the beetles east of the Mississippi, and the grasshoppers west, effected some reduction in localities, though not to a serious extent. Another cause of diminished production is an unusual decrease in acreage, especially in States which grow this crop extensively, amounting to 15 F. cent. in New York, 31 in New Jersey, 7 in ennsylvania, 11 in Ohio, and 8 in the entire country. This was occasioned in part by the very low prices realized for last year's crop. New York, growing one-fifth of the entire crop, and more than twice the quantity of any other State, falls off from last year 49 per cent. Other States (in the order of importance) fall of: Pennsylvania, 44 per cent.; Ohio, 32; Illinois, 36; Michigan, 58; Wisconsin, 10; Iowa, 34; Indiana, 20; New Jersey, 68. The entire crop is about 34 per cent. less than the previous one. There is also a very general decline in quality. Sweet Potatoes.—The crop of 1875 was a fair one in both yield and quality; that of this year very nearly equals it in both respects. The greatest falling-off in yield is in Louisiana—25 r cent.—owing to a general and severe rought at the critical season. The same cause, operating in a less degree, reduced the product below that of last year, 13 per cent. in Florida and Alabama, 12 in Mississippi, and 7 in Georgia. The average reduction is not over 3 per cent. in any other State, while in a majority of those producing the crop the yield equals or exceeds that of 1875. The excess averages 11 per cent. in Kentucky, 9 in New Jersey, 8 in South Carolina, 7 in Missouri, 5 in Delaware, 4 in California, and 2 in Tennessee, West Virginia, Indiana, and Kansas. A majority of the States growing sweet potatoes, and those producing the larger part of the crop, also report an average quality equaling or exceeding that of the previous crop. Hay.—The reported entire product is 8 per cent. above that of last year, and the average quality about 5 per cent. better. Maine returns a product 2 per cent. greater than that of 1875, which was 10 percent. above the previous crop. In the other New England States there is a decline in product averaging 12 per cent., owing to the severity of the drought before the crop was cut. In the remainder of the country, except on the northern border of the Gulf, where but little hay is grown or saved, the crop was generally in advance of the drought; the dry weather commencing about the time of harvesting, and thus greatly contributing to good curing The only States out of New England not returning a product greater than in 1875 are New York, Delaware, and Alabama, 100; Mississippi, 93; Louisiana, 88; Kansas, 97; Nebraska, 95. States indicating a large relative increase in product are California, 59 per cent.; Virginia, 35; Kentucky, 33; New Jersey, 30; Illinois, 20; Tennessee, West Virginia, and Ohio, 15; Texas, 14; Michigan, 13; Arkansas, 11. As a rule, to which the exceptions are few and slight, the quality is superior to that of last year's crop, both in respect to intrinsic excellence and the condition in which it was cured and housed or stacked. The States returning an average quality not superior to that of the }. crop are Maryland, 100; North Caroina, 99; Mississippi, 95; Louisiana and Arkan
sas, 97; Minnesota and Oregon, 98. Indiana reports an average superiority of 21 per cent.; Kentucky, 15; Vermont, Ohio, and Illinois, 11. In the latter two States the crop was greatly damaged last year by excessive rains during the entire harvest season. The reporters this year occasionally note injuries by wet weather in harvest, the most important of which are injuries to the clover-crop, while curing, in parts of Indiana and Illinois; but statements that the crop was cured without injury, or in the best condition, are the rule. County returns of unprecedented crops are frequent. In Pennsylvania, Sullivan reports a crop more abundant than ever before; Tioga, the heaviest product ever gathered, all housed in good condition. The product in Henrico, Va., was never exceeded; Bath also produced much the best crop for years, and secured it in excellent condition. Williamson, Tenn., reports immense |. mostly German millet, put up in ne condition; Lincoln, Ky., an immense crop of excellent quality; Sandusky, Ohio, the best crop ever grown. Unprecedented and wellsaved crops are also returned from Howland and Wabash, Ind.; Fayette, Ill.; Walworth and Outagamie, Wis.; Henry, Iowa; Maries, Mo.; and Sonoma and Placer, Cal. Beans.—Returns from all sections indicate that the product is about 7 per cent. less than last year. Grasshoppers in the Northwest, and drought in other sections, are the principal causes of reduction. The States in which the product is not less than in 1875 are Delaware, 100; Vermont, 101; California, 102; North Carolina, 103; Florida and Arkansas, 105; Wisconsin, 110; Oregon, 122. Among these States, last year, Wisconsin reported 85 and California 82, as compared with the crop of 1874. As dry weather prevailed very generally during the season of curing, the quality (which is not specifically reported) is probably better than the average. Peas.-In the Northern States, returns for this crop have exclusive reference to the product of shelled peas, for table-use or for provender; but in the Southern States, while varieties for table-use are included, the principal crop is of the variety known as cow-peas, of which the vines constitute an important forage-product. Texas returns a product 5 per cent. above a fair crop in 1875; but in all the other Gulf States the product was largely reduced by drought. In Clarendon, S.C., and Wilkes, Ga., the crop was also damaged by early frost. In the northern tier of Southern States the product fully equals that of last year. Among the Northern States, Minnesota returns a product 38 per cent. above last year's short crop; Vermont and Delaware return 100. In the remaining States east of the Missouri, the product falls somewhat below. that of 1875. Kansas reported last year 33 per cent. above the previous crop; this year 21 below, reduced by grasshoppers. Nebraska, last year, 122; this year, 100. California produced 5 per cent. above a short crop last year. The entire product is about 5 per cent. short of that of 1875. Buckwheat.—Last year the product exceeded that of the previous crop; this year, it falls about 8 per cent. short. Drought at the time of filling was the principal cause of reduction; but in parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, storms of rain and wind in harvest, or after the crop was matured, did much injury. In parts of the Ohio Valley the crop did not fill well, owing to excessive wet weather. It was much reduced by grasshoppers in Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and §. Massachusetts and Connecticut report a product equal to last year's; but in New York it was 34 per cent. less; New Jersey, 23; Pennsylvania, 26. North of the Ohio the comparative figures for 1875 and 1876 are, respectively: in Ohio, 105 and 90; Michigan, 132 and 88; Indiana, 112 and 92; Illinois, 83 and 96; Wisconsin, 45 and 155. High figures mean a large increase over the previous crop; but if, for instance, the product for 1875 was but a fourth of an average crop, 200 for 1876 would only indicate half a crop. West of the Mississippi the crop, except in Minnesota, 109, was much less than in 1875, the figures being, in Missouri, 237 and 93; Kansas, 206 and 72; Nebraska, 544 and 78. The product in Kentucky was 2 per cent. greater than last year, and in Oregon 5 per cent. In all the remaining States it fell below. Sorghum.—Returns show an increase of about 14 per cent. over last year's comparatively large erop. The States indicating the highest relative increase are: Georgia, 38 per cent.; Virginia, 37; Kentucky, 82; Texas, 27; Alabama, 19; Tennessee, 14. The only States reporting a product less than last year are: Iowa, 11 per cent.; Maryland and Nebraska, 7; Kansas, 5. Good quality is generally reported. Great improvement in the quality of the sirup, resulting from the introduction of improved machinery and methods of evaporating, is specified in different localities. Tobacco. — The tobacco counties reporting the comparative product make returns not quite so favorable in the aggregate as those of last year. A decrease of product is indicated in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. An increase is indicated in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Kentucky reports about the same as last year. In Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, the increase in product is extraordinary. In Ohio, Montgomery reports the best and finest crop of seedleaf tobacco ever produced; Monroe, that the quality was depreciated by excessively wet weather. In Illinois, the season was very propitious for maturing and curing in Saline; in Johnson, the crop was eaten by worms, the ravages of which were worse than for years. Vornon, Mo., also had more tobacco-worms than ever before; but other returns from Missouri are favorable in respect to yield and quality.
The quality of the entire crop averages about the same as that of last year. The depreciation is not noticeable in Connecticut, Virginia, and North Carolina. The average quality is superior to that of the previous crop in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Indiana, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee. The reported causes of deterioration in North Carolina are worms, early frosts, and the cutting of late crops before maturity in order to avoid frosts. In Tennessee and West Virginia, only slight deterioration is reported from early frosts and the cutting of late crops prematurely to avoid frost. In Kentucky, Daviess returns the largest crop ever grown, except that of 1872. The estimate for product is 10,000,000 pounds, of which not over 2 per cent. was injured by frost; but perhaps 10 per cent. was not well cured, being cut rather too green.
Flatseed.— Incomplete returns from Ohio indicate a product equal to that of last year; Indiana, 1 per cent. less; Illinois (having an extraordinary crop last year), 15 per cent. less. These three States represent over three-fourths of the entire crop. Among other States in which the production is of any account, Iowa alone indicates an increase over last year; New York, 1 per cent. less. Scattering returns from the States west of the Mississippi indicate that the production of flax is extending.
Apples.—Almost the only complaint about the apple-crop is that its superabundance has greatly diminished its market value. Maine returns a yield 20 per cent. below that of 1875, the causes being previous injury to the trees by caterpillars, depredations by them this season, and, in the southwest part of the State, too dry weather for the maturing of the crop, Vermont falls 4 per cent. below, ascribed to the effects of the severe winter. Drought and September storms reduced the figures in New Jersey to 95, in Delaware to 55, and in Virginia to 92. Missouri reports a production falling 28 per cent. below that of 1875. Severe spring-frosts, canker-worms, coddlingmoths, an insect allied to chinch-bugs, hailstorms, and, chiefly, premature falling-off from causes not explained, are the principal sources of reduction. With these exceptions, in the entire section north of the thirty-sixth parallel, and east of the Pacific slope, the yield exceeds that of last year; the average excess for the whole area being not less than 17 per cent. The excess in New York is 22 per cent.: Pennsylvania, 23; Ohio, 41; Michigan, 24; Indiana, 39; Illinois, 16; Wisconsin, 54; Iowa, 43; New Hampshire, 63. The coddling-moth was destructive to the crop in Utah. In California and Oregon the product was slightly less than last year. In the Southern States, in which the crop is of less account, the general yield is considerably below that of last year, owing mainly to drought. South Carolina alone comes up to 100. With rare local exceptions, the quality is reported as superior, the fruit being comparatively large, and free from worms. Pears.-The pear-crop falls below the small crop of 1875. The extensive prevalence of the tree-disease known as pear-blight appears to be the leading cause of this diminution. Its prevalence and effect in reducing the crop to a eater or less extent are noted in New York, ew Jersey, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, West Virginia, Illinois, and Iowa. The only States in which the product does not fall below that of last year are New Hampshire, 103; Vermont, 100; Wisconsin, 119; Iowa, 105; Oregon, 101; no one of which produces a large crop. In the remaining States the decline is about 20 per cent. Grapes.—The returns indicate a product somewhat less than in 1875. The small crop in New England averaged better than last year. Pennsylvania returns 103, but in the other States north of the Potomac the falling-off averages about 12 per cent. There appears to be a reduction from last year in the Southern States, averaging about 10 per cent. In the interior, east of the Mississippi, the product is less than in 1875, the greatest reduction—19 per cent.—being in Illinois. West of the Mississippi, Arkansas reports a falling-off of 32 per cent., Missouri of 15. In California the product is reported 2 per cent. larger than last year. Except in localities where the yield was reduced by the effects of the hard winter or late spring-frosts, the almost exclusive cause of reduction has been a widespread tendency to mildew and rot. Winter-Wheat.—December returns indicate that the acreage in winter-wheat has been increased about 5 per cent. over that of the previous year. The small area sown in the New England States is fully maintained, and some additions were expected to be made. All of the Middle States return an acreage equal to that of last year, except New York, which loses 8 per cent. The South-Atlantic coast States report a considerable increase, a small deficiency in Georgia being overcome by a marked increase in North Carolina and South Carolina. In the Gulf States, Alabama and Mississippi report an increase which overbalances the decline in Texas. Florida and Louisiana grow but insignificant crops. The inland Southern States all report an increased acreage. North of the Ohio River, Michigan and Wisconsin report a decrease of wheatacreage; but the other States report increased breadths, enlarging the acreage of this section about 3 per cent. West of the Mississippi River, Missouri enlarges her acreage at least a third, Kansas one-eighth, and Nebraska nearly a half. The Pacific States also report a large increase. The condition of the crop appears from the returns to be about 10 per cent. above average on the whole. The Atlantic slope, from Maryland northward, enjoyed very favorable conditions of seeding and growth, though the Hessian fly has done considerable damage in sev
eral counties of Pennsylvania, especially in early-sown wheat. Later-sown crops give reater satisfaction. With the exception of South Carolina, the South Atlantic and the Gulf States are below average. Drought retarded both the sowing and the growth of the crop in many counties. Injuries by grasshoppers are reported in several counties of Texas. A depressed condition is also noted in Arkansas and Tennessee, the latter being 10 per cent. below average. Grasshoppers are complained of in a few cases, but drought was a more eneral cause of disaster. West Virginia and entucky show a superior condition, though seeding was somewhat late on account of drought. All the States north of the Ohio
River report a superior condition, especially
Ohio and Indiana, which enjoyed remarkably fine conditions for seeding and growth. In several localities of Illinois and Wisconsin the wheat appears to be better rooted than usual, and better prepared to resist the trying fluctuations of winter in those States. West of the Mississippi River, Minnesota and Iowa report a condition slightly above average, while the other States of this region are considerably deficient. Grasshoppers were very destructive at many points, necessitating a resowing of the crop. Wheat sown late to avoid this pest has started very imperfectly. In California, good rains during October facilitated plowing and wheat-seeding, causing a considerable enlargement of acreage, but in several counties the moisture has not been sufficient to bring out the crop. Oregon reports a very promis- . ing crop. From Dakota come reports of grasshopper damages. In the Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory, the crop is reported as very satisfactory. Winter-Rye.—The acreage in winter-rye in 1876 does not materially differ from that of 1875. A small increase is shown in New England and in the States north of the Ohio River, which about counterbalances the decline in the other sections; the Pacific States report no appreciable change. The condition of the crop, on the whole, is about average. A superior condition appears in the Middle States, South Atlantic States, in the States north of the Ohio River, and on the Pacific slope, while in the other sections there is a deficiency. Is Production declining f – Agricultural speakers and writers often give the impression, without positive assertion, that we produce less in proportion to population than formerly. If this is so, we eat less than formerly, for we export more. But no intelligent person, after due deliberation, will assert that we feed less to farm-animals, or live less generously ourselves, than our fathers fed and fared. A statistical answer in the negative has been made by the statistician of the Department of Agriculture, in an address delivered before the Agricultural Congress at its last session in Philadelphia.
AIRD, THoMAs, a British poet, born August 28, 1802; died April 27, 1876. He received his education at Bowden and Melrose, and subsequently at the Edinburgh University. On the death of James Ballantyne, Mr. Aird succeeded to the editorship of the Edinburgh Weekly Journal, a position which he held for about a year. From 1835 until 1863 he was the editor of the Dumfries Herald, a Conservative journal, and when he resigned this post he went into private life. His principal works are “Religious Characteristics” (1827); “The Old Bachelor in the Old Scottish Village,” a volume of tales and sketches (1845); “Poetical Works,” consisting of a collected edition of his poems, new and old (1848). “The Devil's Dream” is regarded as the most popular of his compositions. He was at one time a contributor to Blackwood’s Magazine, and in 1852 he brought out for the family of Dr. Moir the “Delta” of Blackwood, an edition of that author's select poems, with a memoir prefixed. ALABAMA. The session of the Alabama Legislature which began on December 28, 1875, came to an adjournment on the 8th of March. A considerable amount of legislation was necessitated by the new constitution adopted in 1875. The salaries of public officials were revised and fixed as follows: Governor, $4,000 per annum; Lieutenant-Governor, $1,500; Secretary of State, $1,800; Auditor, $2,400; Treasurer, $2,100; Attorney-General, $2,000; Judges of the Supreme Court, $5,000; Chancellors, $2,500; Superintendent of Education, $2,250. Reductions take effect at the end of the terms of the present incumbents. The date for the meeting of the Legislature for its regular biennial sessions was fixed for the second Monday of November, beginning in 1876. The special joint committee appointed at the preceding session to investigate the facts relating to the alleged election of George E. Spencer to the Senate of the United States submitted their report, together with a summary of the testimony taken. Their conclusions are presented with sufficient fullness in a memorial of the Legislature subsequently adopted, commending to the United States Senate the following considerations, supported by the evidence taken: 2. That the body by which George E. Spencer claims to have been elected to the Senate of the United States was not in fact or in law the General Assembly of Alabama, at the time of the alleged election of George E. Spencer, and never was. There never was a quorum in the Senate that voted for said Spencer, and the records and journals of the General Assembly show that fact. The body that voted for Spencer was organized as a party necessity, and to elect Spencer. 3. By unlawful and corrupt practices and by bargains made by George E. Spencer, and other persons with his knowledge and approval, both before an at the time of his alleged i. with members of the body o which he claims to have been elected, he rocured the influence and votes of members of said ody, for the office of Senator of the United States. 4. That being a Senator at the time of his alleged reëlection to the Senate of the United States, the said
George E. Spencer corruptly used the influence, ower, and patronage, of his said office to procure influence, assistance, and votes, from members of said body, by which he claims to have been rejected to the Senate of the United States on the 3d day of December, 1872. 5. That by like fraudulent and corrupt practices, and to defeat the election of a Senator by the General Assembly of Alabama at the time o: by law, the said George E. Spencer and others, by his concurrence or connivance, did prevent the attendance of members of the Generi Assembly at the Capitol, and did so defeat a quorum of the Houses of said body. 6. That afterward when a plan had been suggested by the Attorney-General of the United States, which was adopted, for the reorganization of the General Assembly, the said George E. Spencer and others with his connivance, in order to deprive a Senator of his seatin said body, to which he had been lawfully elected by the people, and thereby obtain confirmation of his said election to the United States Senate, fraudulently and corruptly conspired to oust said Senator from his seat, and did prevent him from occupying the same during more than one entire session of the General Assembly of Alabama. 7. That said George E. Spencer, while endeavoring to secure his reëlection to the Senate, and in order to get money to accomplish his said purposes, and while he was a Senator of the United States, procured persons who had been appointed to offices of trust in the United States Government to convert the public money in their charge to his use, and to commit peculations for his advantage.
Early in the session the commissioners appointed under the act of December 17, 1874, “to ascertain, adjust, and liquidate all claims against the State of Alabama arising from bonds issued or indorsed in the name of the State,” submitted their report, together with a plan of adjustment. A good deal of difficulty had been encountered in ascertaining the amount and character of the indebtedness of the State, owing to imperfections in the records and apparent irregularities in the issue and registration of bonds, and to the unwillingness of some of the creditors to make a statement of their claims. The commissioners stated that the entire debt of the State, direct and contingent, as ascertained by them, was $30,037,563, which they separated into four classes of obligations. The first constituted the “recognized direct debt,” and consisted of various five, six, and eight per cent. bonds, amounting in all to $11,677,470. They proposed to adjust this portion of the debt by canceling interest due and accruing to July 1, 1876, and substituting new bonds for the face of those outstanding, with thirty years to run, at two per cent. interest for the first five years, three per cent. for the second five years, four per cent, for the next ten years, and five per cent. for the remaining ten years, all being renewable at the pleasure of the State at five per cent. This proposition had been accepted by the holders of about $3,000,000 of the old bonds, and it was thought would be accepted by the rest. The second class of obligations was spoken of as “recognized direct debt arising from aid given to railroad companies,” and consisted of seven per cent. bonds to the amount