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CHRISTIAN CONNECTION. The Christian Almanac for 1877 gives a list of 1,263 ordained ministers of the Christian Connection in the United States and Canada, who are distributed by States as follows: Maine, 65; New Hampshire, 39; Vermont, 19; Massachusetts, 40; Rhode Island, 14; Connecticut, 2; New York, 156; New Jersey, 11; Pennsylvania, 66; Virginia, 10; West Virginia, 2 ; Kentucky, 9; Ohio, 228; Indiana, 194; Michigan, 62; Illinois, 105; Wisconsin, 36 ; Iowa, 128; Missouri, 27; Nebraska, 7; Kansas, 20; Canada, 23. The total number of unordained ministers is given as 328. The Register gives the following list of schools and seminaries of the Connection : Union Christian_College, Merom, Sullivan County, Ind., Rev. T. O. Smith, A. M., president, with six teachers; Antioch College, Antioch High School, and Obio Free Normal School, Yellow Springs, Ohio, J. B. Weston, acting president; Weanbleau Christian Institute, Hickory County, Mo., Rev. J. Whitaker, B.' S., principal, with three assistants; Proctor Academy, Andover, N. H., Rev. Alva H. Morrill, principal; the Eaton Family School, Middleboro', Mass., Amos H. Eaton, principal; the Christian Biblical Institute, Stanfordville, Dutchess County, N.Y.; Starkey Seminary, Eddytown, Yates County, N. Y., Prof. B. F. McHenry, A. M., principal, with six teachers. The publishing-house of this denomination is at Dayton, Ohio, and its newspaper organ, the Herald of Gospel Liberty, is printed there. No statistics are given of the number of church-members connected with the denomination.

CHRISTIAN UNION. The General Council of the Christian Union in the United States met at Providence Chapel, Hancock County, Ohio, May 31st. H. Ellis was chosen moderator. A resolution was adopted, providing that a General Council shall be held once in two years, at such times and places as shall be by itself determined, which council shall consist of all the members of the churches of Christ in the United States, and shall have supervision over the interests general and common to all the bodies represented. The following preamble and resolutions on union were adopted:

Whereas, It is our duty to God and man, from time to time, to define our position, that all may know why, as a body of Christians, we take our position outside of all denominations in laboring to secure unity and build up the cause of true religion; and,

Whereas, Sectarianism has never been defined by men sustaining sects in its true light, or its evils seen by such in their real character; and

Whereas, No member of a sect, who justifies sects, can be in a position to put forth to the world the truth as to the evils of sectarianism and its remedy; and

Whereas, Religious organizations and religious thought shape society; and

Whereas, When the Church falls into great wrongs in theory or practice, society has lost its true light and balance-wheel, and is driven on into infidelity and corruption by the very power that should have led it to life, and steadied and guided its forces : therefore

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Resolved, 1. That sectarianism is to separate into subsequently President of the Senate. In 1849 2. That all Christians in every place do belong ney-General of the State, and in the course of

he was appointed by Governor Briggs Attortogether, and to separate them for any cause, or by his official duties conducted the prosecution of any means, is sectarianism.

3. That the genius and spirit of the gospel, as Prof. Webster for the murder of Dr. Parkman. well as the letter of the Bible and the history of the He continued to act as Attorney-General till primitive Church, proclaim the great but simple 1853, when he was elected Governor. He was and, in fact, by divine ordination, the real visible again Attorney-General from 1854 till 1858. church of the place.

In 1867 he retired from the legal profession, 4. That all the Christians, whether in or out of and became President of the Boston & Provisects, are required by the lite Christ has planted in dence Railroad Company. In 1859 the degree them, and by the prayer of Jesus, and the teachings of LL. D. was conferred on him by Brown of the New Testament, and their love to Christ, and their love to each other, and their love for the salva- University. For several years ex-Governor tion of men, to meet together, not to make a church, Clifford was President of the Board of Over. but to obey'God, and do the duties of a church as seers of Harvard University., taught in the gospel.

COLERIDGE, Sir John TAYLOR, a British 5. That all religious associations built upon a nar; lawyer and writer, born in 1790; died Febthe Christians of the place as equal brethren of the ruary 11, 1876. He was a nephew of Samuel one church of the place, which present creeds, tests, Taylor Coleridge. At Corpus Christi College, and usages which exclude a part of the Christians of Oxford, where he received his education, he a place, are not built after the New Testament was a fellow-student of Dr. Arnold. He was churches of Christ, simply because they have elected a Fellow of Exeter College in 1810, was Christians among them.

called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1819, 6. That the Church is a divine institution, is God- going to the Western Circuit; became a sermade, is spiritual ; not mechanical, not human, not geant-at-law in 1832, was appointed one of the Church; and as every one who truly loveth is born judges of the King's Bench, and upon retiring of God-and, therefore, a member of his Church from the judicial bench in 1858 was created therefore it does not depend on our doctrinal views, a Privy Councilor. He showed considerable baptism, yotes, or enrollment, but on a loving and literary acquirements at an early age, and havobedient heart. 7. That the evils of sectarianism admonish us of he continued to contribute numerous articles

ing edited the Quarterly Review for some time, the great importance of scattering light before the whole world on this subject, calling all Christians to it until his death. He published an edition to repent of this sin, and put it away, and return to of Blackstone's “Commentaries" with notes the primitive spirit and practice of the church (1825), and a “Memoir of the Rev.John Keble, gathering, as taught in the gospel.

À. A." (1869, third edition, 1870). The leading principles of the Christian COLÈT, LOUISE RÉVoil, a French authoress, Union (South) are set forth in the following born September 15, 1810; died March 10, 1876. extracts from the Declaration of Principles : In 1835 she went to Paris, where she married

We may well afford to dispense with all those Hippolyte Colet, a musical writer and comdoctrines and tenets which set the brethren at poser. After his death in 1851 she turned her variance, and to take the following primary consti- attention still more diligently to literature. tution as the groundwork of our organization, viz.: She received the prize for poetry of the Insti

1. The Lord Jesus Christ is the only head of the Church. The Pope of Rome, or any other pretend- tute four times for the following poems: “Le ing to be the head thereof, should be regarded as

Musée de Versailles" (1839), “Le Monument that man of sin and son of perdition who exalteth de Molière" (1843), “ La Colonie de Mettray" himself above all that is called God. 2. The name Christian is the only appellation Besides these four she also published the fol

(1852), and "L'Acropole d'Athènes" (1855). needed or received by the Church. All party or sectarian names are excluded as being unnecessary, lowing poetical works: “Fleur du Midi” if not hurtful.

(1836), "A ma Mère" (1839), “Penserosa" 3. The Holy Bible, or the Scriptures of the old (1839), "Les Funérailles de Napoléon" (1840), and New Testaments, is a sufficient rule of faith and Le Marabout de Sidi-Brahim” (1845), "Répractice.

4. Christian character, or vital piety, is a just, and veil de la Bologne ” (1846), “ Les Chants des should be the only, test of fellowship, or of church- Vaincus” (1846), and “Le Poëne Femme > membership.

(in three parts, 1853–'56). Among her prose 5. The right of private judgment and the liberty works, which comprise novels, traveling adof conscience is a right and a privilege that should ventures, and personal reminiscences, are the be accorded to, and exercised by, all.

following: “La Jeunesse de Mirabeau " (1841), CLIFFORD, John H., was born in Provi- “Les Cæurs brisés" (1843), “Deux Mois dence, R. I.

, January 16, 1809; died at New d'Émotion " (1843), “ Folles et Saintes" (1844), Bedford, Mass., January 2, 1876. He gradu- “Deux Femmes célèbres" (1846), “ Madame ated at Brown University in 1827, and began Hoffmann-Tauska" (1854), "Promenade en the practice of law in New Bedford, where he Hollande” (1859), " Deux Mois dans les Py. afterward resided. He soon entered upon an rénées" (1859), and "Naples sous Garibaldi." extensive practice, and attained the foremost (1861). position at the bar. He represented New COLLINS, MORTIMER, an English poet and Bedford in the Legislature in 1835, and was novelist, born in 1825; died July 25, 1876. He







414 683 118

devoted himself at an early age to journalism,

DIVISIONS. Population.

Population being in connection with various journals, particularly the London Globe. Among his

865,974 Antioquia

Medellin poetic works are “Summer Songs" (1860), Bolivar..

29,765 241,7047 Cartagena..

8,603 * Idyls and Rhymes” (1865), and “Inn of Boyacá .

482,874 Tunja..

5,471 Strange Meetings and Other Poems" (1871).

485,078 Popayan.

8,485 Cundinamarca.. 409,590 Bogotá.

40,888 His novels are as follows: "Who is the Heir ?" Magdalena 85,255

5,472 (1865), “Sweet Anne Page" (1868), “The

221,052 Panamá.

18,378 Santander.

425,427 Ivory Gate" (1869), “The Vivian Romance"

16,048 Tolima... 280,891

9,198 (1870), “ Marquis and Merchant” (1871), “ Two Plunges for a Pearl” (1872), “Princess Clarice"


7,751 Landázuri... (1872), “Miranda" (1873), “Squire Silchester's Casanare.. 26,066 Tame... Whim” (1873), “Mr. Carrington ” (1873), Nevada and Moti

8,390 || Soldado written under the assumed name of R. T. lones....

8,673 || Espíritu Santo... Cotton, " Transmigration” (1874), and “Fran- San Martin.. 4,056 | Villavicencio..... 623 ces" (1874). He also published a volume of


8,530 San Luis.... essays anonymously in 1871, entitled “The Secret of Long Life."

Total......... 2,951,311 COLOMBIA (ESTADOS UNIDOS DE COLOMBIA), an independent state, occupying the It is estimated that, including the number of northwestern portion of South America and uncivilized Indians interspersed throughout the the southeastern portion of Central America. country, the total population of Colombia is The territorial division* of the republic is into at the present time about 3,000,000. nine federal States and six Territories, which, Of the 2,951,311 forming the total of the with their populations and capitals, according foregoing table, 1,434,129 were males, constito the census of 1870, are as follows:

tuting an excess of 83,053 females.

San Andrés and


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C. Conto,

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The President of the Republic is Señor STATES


Señor R. de Villa. Aquileo Parra, inaugurated April 1, 1876; and


R. Nuñez, the cabinet is composed of the following min Boyacá..

E. Neira, isters or secretaries: Of Interior and Foreign


J. Sanchez
Affairs, Dr. Manuel Ancizar; of Finance and Magdalena.

M. Dávila García. Public Works, Dr. O. N. Rodriguez; of Treas


R. Aizpuru.

M. A. Estrada. ury and Credit, Señor Luis Robles; and of


General Córdoba War and Marine, Señor Rafael Niño. Here follow the names of the chief magis- is Señor Miguel Salgar.

The Colombian consul-general in New York trates of the nine States:

The national revenue for the year ending * Complete details concerning boundaries, area, etc., were + The figures set down opposite Bolívar are the result of giren in the ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1874,

the census of 1874.



No. of
















August 31, 1875, with the sources from which ports of the republic were as follows in the it was derived, is shown in the annexed table: year 1874–75:

ENTERED. Customs

.$1,976,913 Salt monopoly



IX BALLAST. Panamá Railway


PORTS. Post-Office..


No. of Telegraphs.

19,280 Mint

5,808 National property

21,675 Ruenaventura.

127 17,971 Church property 135,000 Cartagena

57,427 is 6,073 Sundries....

693,000 Cúcuta


81 6,878

$4,879,897 Riosucio.


168 189,400

13,435 The total expenditure, in the same fiscal Santamarta.

61 85,774

10,189 year, was as follows:




832,445 103 36,200 Ministry of Interior, etc........

277 803,007



War and Marine.


8,456 National debt..



758 Public Works.

103 170,108

832,445 Foreign Affairs.

57,000 Treasury .....


CLEARED. Public Instruction..

121,000 Pensions....

44,000 Post-Office..



No. of

No. of


Vessels. The surplus resulting from the comparison of the totals of the revenue and expenditure


70 05,066 ii

4,873 amounts to $1,725,596.


3,622 The largest single item of expenditure, in Riohacha.



54 1,961 the fiscal year 1874-'75 (see table immediately Sabanilla.:

185 160,185 preceding), was that made on account of the Santamarta..


11,565 Tumaco.

79 national debt, thus showing that Colombia is

16,270 now prompt in meeting her engagements.

702 336,884 129 The total amount of the national debt, in



271,604 63 71,952 1875, was $14,872,174, of which $9,865,500 Sailing-vessels...

65,220 formed the foreign branch.


702 The total value of the exports for the year

836,884 129 78,727 1874-'75 was $9,984,386, comprising the following commodities:

As was demonstrated in the article “Colom

bia," in the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1874, Sngar...

$54,954 | Bread-fruit...... $876 Starch 40.872 Gold dust.

71,814 there now exists a regularly-organized system Brandy.

5,167 Gold (ingots)... 994,942 of public instruction in that republic. The Rice

866 Gold and silver (inCotton... 141,589 gots).


amount appropriated for that department, in Indigo

64,435 Brazil-wood. 42,976 the year 1874_75, was but $121,000, which the Cattle. 10,918 Mahogany

10,783 director-general declares to be altogether inad. Balsam..

10,732 Lignum-vitæ. Cocounuts.. 7,682 Mora.

64,031 equate to cover the unavoidable outlays. The Chocolate. 238 Cedar..

22,635 sum by him estimated as requisite for the year Cacao.. 1,490 Plants..

10.182 India-rubber 149,988 Cinchona,


1876–77 was $229,504. As will be shown in Hides. 464,392 Cheese.

228 the following tables, each State appropriates a Coffee.. 782,295 Hats..

188.818. certain amount of funds for the maintenance Tortoise-shell.

670 Cotton-seed. Sugar-cane... 1,960 Salt..

100 of its own public schools. Dividivi..

125,812 Tobacco-leaf. 2,715,639 The following is an official table of details, Specie (gold and sil

Vegetable ivory. 170,021 ver). 1,117,465 Cigars....


relative to primary instruction in Colombia, in Mats 1,477 Sundries

140,125 1875: Ores.

124,241 Timber..

4,513 Total......... $9,984,386 Maize..

10,281 The value of Colombian exports to Great Britain, in 1874, was $4.978,000, or more than one-half of the total value of the exports to Antioquía..

9,062 4,866 18,928 168 $ 66,080 all countries.


8,065 1,400 4,465 67 20.000

6,276 1,884 8,160 Boyacá..

136 The total value of the imports in 1874-'75


6,537 1,920 8,457 159 49.193 was $14,814,856; that of the imports from Candinamarca. 10,015 5,578 15,593 259 Great Britain, $2,964,976; and that of the im- Magdalena

1,479 1,000 2,479

18.496 1,553 180 1,683

18,259 ports from the United States, $767,472.


7.319 8,755 11,074 218 198,947 The coasting-trade for the year above re Tolima.

8,312 776 4,098 68 28,958

Territorios nacionales 789 102 891 29 forred to amounted to $245,089.

The shipping movements at the various Totals..... 49,407 21,411 70,813 / 1,139 | $509, 779



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The following table exhibits the amount per provided in the above-cited condition three of the 100 inhabitants which each of the nine States law: Provided, That should unforeseen accident, appropriated to public instruction in 1874–75: of the natives, cause delay, a reasonable extension

such as earthquake, inundation, or armed resistance Cundinamarea.... $37 43 Cauca...

$12 00 of time be granted, bantander, 29 14 Boyacá.

Art. III. The tracing and fixing of the line of the Antioquia. 18 04 Bolívar

827 canal in all its length, as also that of any auxiliary Magdalena..

5 99 Tolima ..

railway that may be projected from ocean to ocean, .... 12 54

must be wholly beyond and to the east of a straight The number of normal schools in the re line connecting the cape of Tiburon with the headpublic in 1875, with the attendance thereat, land of Garachine, whose exact situation will be de

termined by the exploring engineers. etc., is set forth in the subjoined table:

Art. IV. Should the river Atrato be selected by the engineers as one of the entries to the canal, its

mouth, through which such entrance is proposed, STATES.

must be channeled and adapted to the ingress and egress of vessels of six hundred tons, and be con

sidered part of the line of the canal. But the naviBolivar...

gation of the Atrato, in so far as its channel may not Boyacá..

constitute part of the canal, shall remain free and unincumbered.

Art. V. Should the preliminary survey referred Magdalena..

to (in Article III.) show the practicability of a canal Panamá Bantander

without locks or tunnels, the grantees, General Turr

*7 Tolima

and A. de Gogorza, and their associates, will, under

the immediate patronage of the Colombian GovernTotals.....



ment, be authorized to form, within the eighteen

months specified by the law, a company for the exeThe only railways in the republic are the cution of the

work. Panamá, 474 miles in length; that from Saba- the law cited shall be made in such bank

as the na

ART. VI. The deposit mentioned in Article III. of nilla to Barranquilla, 15 miles; and the new tional Executive may designate, the receipt of the line from Puerto Barrio to Medellin, only a bank being evidence of the fulfillment of said oblipart of which was opened to traffic in 1876. gation. Şaid deposit may be in bonds of the ColomIt will be eight or nine years before it is com- bian foreign debt, at the market price at the time pleted. There were, in 1875, 1,227 miles of of the deposit. It is understood that, in case the telegraph, the number of dispatches trans- of section 2 of Article XXIII. of the cited law, the mitted in the same year being 98,375.

same, with the accumulated interest, will pass, withIn May, 1875, the Colombian Congress passed out any reduction, to the Colombian Government. a law authorizing the Executive to negotiate the cited law shall be adjudged to the grantees as

ART. VII. The wild lands ceded by Article IV. of for the opening a communication by canal be- soon as the deposit shall have been made. Those tween the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Nego- situated on the

banks of the canal, rivers, or maritiations were shortly afterward commenced, time coasts, shall be divided into lots alternating

with and a contract was drawn up, the terms of those of equal size reserved to the Government, and which we here transcribe:

fronting those reserved to the Government on the

opposite sides of the canal, rivers, or coasts. None The undersigned, Manuel Ancizar, Secretary of of said lots shall measure less than three nor more State for the Departments of Interior and Foreign than four thousand metros of front on said canal, Relations, of the Colombian Government, duly au- rivers, or coasts, thus forming an area of, say, one thorized by the President of the Union, and Antonio thousand hectares, more or less. With a belt of six de Gogorza, for himself and for General Stephen and a half miles (one thousand

miriametros) on either Turr, according to sufficient power exhibited, have side of the canal,

the Government

can concede

no agreed to the following:

lands (to other parties) until the expiration of the ARTICLE I. Antonio de Gogorza, in his own behalf ten years from the time of the commencement of the and that of his client, General Stephen Turr, accepts work, or until after the present grantees shall have in all its parts, and as part of the present agree- received the entire quantity ceded them by Article ment, the Colombian law, No. 33, of May 26, 1875, IV. of the law above cited. "authorizing the Executive power to negotiate for ART. VIII. The number of fiscal agents which, the opening up communication by canal between under provisions of Article IV.,

may be placed at the the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and submits to termini of the canal, shall not exceed twice the numthe provisions and conditions therein made. And ber in the custom-house at Barranquilla ; and their reciprocally the Colombian Government hereby con- salaries, so far as the same may become chargeable cedes to, and puts them in possession of, the fran- to the company, shall not exceed those allotted to chises granted in section 1 of Article II. of the employés of the same class in said custom-house. above-cited law, counting the ninety-nine years of ART. IX. Until the contingency mentioned in Arprivilege from the date hereof.

ticle XIX. (Article XVII. ?) of the law above cited, Art. II. The Colombian Government authorizes the tonnage of vessels shall be stated in their charGeneral Turr and Señor Gogorza to associate them- ters or registers, and that of their cargo shall be set selves with two persons, approved of by the minister forth in their manifests and bills of lading. of the republic in France or Great Britain, and by ART. X. The grantees obligate themselves to conthem deemed competent, and proceed to form an stitute an agent in Bogotá, duly authorized to repreInternational commission of engineers to survey the sent them in the adjustment of debts and disputes isthmus at Darien, and at the expense of the gran- that may arise from adverse construction of contees to make the exploration mentioned in condition tract; and, for a like purpose, the Government shall tkaree, Article II . of the law above cited, and within name an agent to reside near the

domicile of the comthe time therein allowed; within twelve months pany. In every case where irreconcilable differences tiereafter to make report to the Colombian Govern- may arise,

they shall be submitted to the decision of ment of the result of said exploration in the manner the Federal Supreme Court.

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