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She then published her experiences in Germany in the Southern States, followed by Texas, in a number of articles in the Revue des Deux Alabama, and Georgia. Mondes and in the Revue indépendante (1847), The extension of this culture westward conand after the Revolution of 1848 appeared as a tinues to be rapid. This year the Missouri political writer. Among her works of this class Valley, together with the western half of the best known are "Lettres républicaines" (1848), Upper Mississippi, yields two-thirds as much as in which she severely criticises the state of the area from that river eastward to Pennsylaffairs under the government of Louis Philippe, vania, including the States on both sides of the and the “ Histoire de la Révolution de 1848" Ohio. In quality the crop is superior to its (3 vols., 1851-53; third edition, 1869), which predecessor. shows the people and the events of that time There has been an increase of area in all secin a most favorable light. A different kind of tions, aggregating about two million acres, the work is her “Esquisses morales et politiques” advance very slight in the Gulf States from (1849; third edition, 1859), which is a sort of Alabama to Louisiana, and scarcely perceptible ethical hand-book in the form of maxims and in the Middle States. It is largest west of the aphorisms in the style of the "Maximes” of Missouri. Wisconsin shows the heaviest inRochefoucauld, and gives short and good ad- crease in the Northwest, and Texas and Georgia vice on the different affairs of life, on the con- in the South. flict of morality with the passions, and the Cotton.-The returns of November indicatquestions of the age, and which is certainly to ed an extremely favorable season for gatherbe regarded as her best work. She also pub- ing cotton, except in some portions of North lished “Trois Journées de la Vie de Marie Carolina. The following is a synopsis: “Frost Stuart” (1856), “ Florence et Turin” (1862), has injured the top crop in the northern belt, and “Dante et Goethe" (1866). Her daughter notably in Arkansas. The fibre is cleaner than Cosima, the fruit of a connection with Franz usual and of superior quality in the southern Liszt, was married first to Hans von Bülow, belt. Drought in the Gulf States, rain-storms and subsequently to Richard Wagner. Her in the Carolinas, the boll-worm in the Southbiography was written by Pommerin (1868). west, and the caterpillar in certain locations
AGRICULTURE. The following statements near the Gulf coast, are chief causes of injury respecting the crops of the United States for to the crop. The harvest will be completed 1876 embody the latest reports of the Depart- at a much earlier date than usual. The crop ment of Agriculture :
must be smaller than that of last year, however Corn.—The returns of November make the favorable and long the remaining season for corn-crop only 2 per cent. short of the great gathering. In comparison with the last crop, crop of last year, and fully 50 per cent. greater the percentages of the Atlantic coast States than the crop of 1874. The aggregate is 1,295,- are relatively larger by reason of the poor re000,000 bushels. Less than 1 per cent. of the turns of 1875, and smaller in the Southwest crop is raised in New England, scarcely 6 in from comparison with the remarkable yield of the Middle States, 20 in the Southern, 44 in that region. They are as follows: North Carothe Ohio basin, and 29 west of the Mississippi. lina, 92; South Carolina, 99; Georgia, 110;
The product of the South is 10,000,000 bushels Florida, 100; Alabama, 77; Mississippi,_78; greater than last year; that of New England is Louisiana, 83; Texas, 100; Arkansas, 74; Ten300,000 greater, and there is less in the Middle nessee, 101. The average is between 88 and 89." and Western States.
Potatoes.-As returns for condition, during The States of the Ohio basin, seven in num- the latter part of the season, have foreshadowed, ber, including Michigan and Wisconsin, in- the potato-crop, in production, falls not only creased their proportion from 39 per cent. in far below the extraordinary crop of 1875, but 1850 to 41 in 1860, and since that date con- considerably below an average crop. Among tinue to advance their proportions, the percent- the causes of diminished yield, drought was age being 44 in 1870 and at the present time, the most widespread and effective. During notwithstanding the more rapid progress of the season for the formation and growth of corn-growing in the States of the Missouri Val- the tubers, excessively dry weather prevailed, ley. These States-Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, with a few local exceptions, throughout the Kansas, and Nebraska-produced only 7 per entire section north of the thirty-sixth parallel cent, in 1850, advancing to 15 in 1860, to 21 in and east of the Rocky Mountains, the section 1870, and 28 in 1876. The increase in Kansas in which the potato-crop is mainly grown. has been most rapid of late, nearly' equaling in The drought was the most severe and proamount in this year the crop of the much more tracted in the Middle and Eastern States, expopulous State of Missouri. Iowa, as yet, grows cept a northern belt including the greater part more than four-tenths of the crop of this section. of Maine. Within this designated area, also, the
Illinois is credited with about 250,000,000 beetles east of the Mississippi, and the grassbushels, and Iowa with 155,000,000. Next in hoppers west, effected some reduction in localirank are Ohio, Indiana, Missouri, and Kansas. ties, though not to a serious extent. Another These six States produce six-tenths of the total cause of diminished production is an unusual product. Tennessee, which once held the decrease in acreage, especially in States which highest rank in the country, now stands first grow this crop extensively, amounting to 15
per cent. in New York, 31 in New Jersey, 7 in sas, 97; Minnesota and Oregon, 98. Indiana Pennsylvania, 11 in Ohio, and 8 in the entire reports an average superiority of 21 per cent.; country. This was occasioned in part by the Kentucky, 15; Vermont, Ohio, and Illinois, 11. very low prices realized for last year's crop. In the latter two States the crop was greatly New York, growing one-fifth of the entire damaged last year by excessive rains during the crop, and more than twice the quantity of any entire harvest season. The reporters this year other State, falls off from last year 49 per cent. occasionally note injuries by wet weather in Other States (in the order of importance) fall harvest, the most important of which are injuof: Pennsylvania, 44 per cent.; Ohio, 32; Illi- ries to the clover-crop, while curing, in parts nois, 36; Michigan, 58; Wisconsin, 10; Iowa, of Indiana and Illinois ; but statements that 34; Indiana, 20; New Jersey, 68. The entire the crop was cured without injury, or in the crop is about 34 per cent. less than the pre- best condition, are the rule. County returns vious one. There is also a very general de- of unprecedented crops are frequent. In Penncline in quality.
sylvania, Sullivan reports a crop more abunSweet Potatoes.—The crop of 1875 was a fair dant than ever before; Tioga, the heaviest one in both yield and quality; that of this year product ever gathered, all housed in good convery nearly equals it in both respects. The dition. The product in Henrico, Va., was never greatest falling-off in yield is in Louisiana—25 exceeded; Bath also produced much the best per cent.- owing to a general and severe crop for years, and secured it in excellent condrought at the critical season. The same cause, dition. Williamson, Tenn., reports immense operating in a less degree, reduced the product quantities, mostly German millet, put up in below that of last year, 13 per cent. in Florida fine condition; Lincoln, Ky., an immense crop and Alabama, 12 in Mississippi
, and 7 in Geor- of excellent quality ; Sandusky, Ohio, the best gia. The average reduction is not over 3 per crop ever grown. Unprecedented and wellcent. in any other State, while in a majority saved crops are also returned from Howland of those producing the crop the yield equals and Wabash, Ind. ; Fayette, Ill. ; Walworth or exceeds that of 1875. The excess averages and Outagamie, Wis.; Henry, Iowa; Maries, 11 per cent. in Kentucky, 9 in New Jersey, 8 Mo.; and Sonoma and Placer, Cal. in South Carolina, 7 in Missouri, 5 in Delaware, Beans.-Returns from all sections indicate 4 in California, and 2 in Tennessee, West Vir- that the product is about 7 per cent. less than ginia, Indiana, and Kansas. A majority of the last year. Grasshoppers in the Northwest, and States growing sweet potatoes, and those pro- drought in other sections, are the principal ducing the larger part of the crop, also report causes of reduction. The States in which the an average quality equaling or exceeding that product is not less than in 1875 are Delaware, of the previous crop.
100; Vermont, 101; California, 102; North Hay.—The reported entire product is 8 per Carolina, 103; Florida and Arkansas, 105, cent. above that of last year, and the average Wisconsin, 110; Oregon, 122. Among these quality about 5 per cent. better. Maine returns States, last year, Wisconsin reported 85 and a product 2 per cent. greater than that of 1875, California 82, as compared with the crop of which was 10 per cent. above the previous crop. 1874. As dry weather prevailed very genIn the other New England States there is a de- erally during the season of curing, the quality cline in product averaging 12 per cent., owing (which is not specifically reported) is probably to the severity of the drought before the crop better than the average. was cut. In the remainder of the country, ex Peas.- In the Northern States, returns for cept on the northern border of the Gulf, where this crop have exclusive reference to the prodbut little hay is grown or saved, the crop was uct of shelled peas, for table-use or for provgenerally in advance of the drought; the dry ender; but in the Southern States, while weather commencing about the time of harvest- varieties for table-use are included, the prining, and thus greatly contributing to good cur- cipal crop is of the variety known as cow-peas, ing The only States out of New England not of which the vines constitute an important returning a product greater than in 1875 are forage-product. Texas returns a product 5 New York, Delaware, and Alabama, 100; Mis- per cent. above a fair crop in 1875; but in all sissippi, 93; Louisiana, 88; Kansas, 97 Ne- the other Gulf States the product was largely braska, 95. States indicating a large relative reduced by drought. In Clarendon, S. C., and increase in product are California, 59 per cent.; Wilkes, Ga., the crop was also damaged by Virginia, 35; Kentucky, 33; New Jersey, 30; early frost. In the northern tier of Southern Illinois, 20; Tennessee, West Virginia, and Ohio, States the product fully equals that of last 15; Texas, 14; Michigan, 13; Arkansas, 11. year. Among the Northern States, Minnesota
As a rule, to which the exceptions are few returns a product 38 per cent. above last and slight, the quality is superior to that of last year's short crop; Vermont and Delaware reyear's crop, both in respect to intrinsic excel- turn 100. In the remaining States east of the lence and the condition in which it was cured Missouri, the product falls somewhat below and housed or stacked. The States returning that of 1875. Kansas reported last year 33 an average quality not superior to that of the per cent. above the previous crop; this year į revious crop are Maryland, 100; North Caro- 21 below, reduced by grasshoppers. Nebraska, lina, 99; Mississippi, 95; Louisiana and Arkan- last year, 122 ; this year, 100. California pro
duced 5 per cent. above a short crop last year. The quality of the entire crop averages about The entire product is about 5 per cent. short the same as that of last year. The depreciaof that of 1875.
tion is not noticeable in Connecticut, Virginia, Buckwheat.—Last year the product exceeded and North Carolina. The average quality is that of the previous crop; this year it falls superior to that of the previous crop in New about 8 per cent. short. Drought at the time Hampshire, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Kenof filling was the principal cause of reduction; tucky, Indiana, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee. but in parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and The reported causes of deterioration in North Virginia, storms of rain and wind in harvest, Carolina are worms, early frosts, and the cutor after the crop was matured, did much in- ting of late crops before maturity in order to
jury. In parts of the Ohio Valley the crop did avoid frosts. In Tennessee and West Virginia, not fill well, owing to excessive wet weather. only slight deterioration is reported from early It was much reduced by grasshoppers in Iowa, frosts and the cutting of late crops prematurely Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Massachu- to avoid frost. In Kentucky, Daviess returns setts and Connecticut report a product equal the largest crop ever grown, except that of to last year's; but in New York it was 34 per 1872. The estimate for product is 10,000,000 cent. less; New Jersey, 23; Pennsylvania, 26. pounds, of which not over 2 per cent. was inNorth of the Ohio the comparative figures for jured by frost; but perhaps 10 per cent. was 1875 and 1876 are, respectively: in Ohio, 105 not well cured, being cut rather too green. and 90; Michigan, 132 and 88; Indiana, 112 Flaxseed. - Incomplete returns from Ohio and 92; Illinois, 83 and 96; Wisconsin, 45 and indicate a product equal to that of last year; 155. High figures mean a large increase over Indiana, 1 per cent. less; Illinois (having an the previous crop; but if, for instance, the extraordinary crop last year), 15 per cent. Iess. product for 1875 was but a fourth of an average These three States represent over three-fourths crop, 200 for 1876 would only indicate half a of the entire crop.. Among other States in crop. West of the Mississippi the crop, except which the production is of any account, Iowa in Minnesota, 109, was much less than in 1875, alone indicates an increase over last year; New the figures being, in Missouri, 237 and 93; Kan- York, 1 per cent. less. Scattering returns from sas, 206 and 72; Nebraska, 544 and 78. The the States west of the Mississippi indicate that product in Kentucky was 2 per cent. greater the production of flax is extending. than last year, and in Oregon 5 per cent. In Apples.-Almost the only complaint about all the remaining States it fell below.
the apple-crop is that its superabundance has Sorghum. — Returns show an increase of greatly diminished its market value. Maine about 14 per cent. over last year's comparative- returns a yield 20 per cent. below that of 1875, ly large erop. The States indicating the highest the causes being previous injury to the trees relative increase are: Georgia, 38 per cent.; by caterpillars, depredations by them this seaVirginia, 37; Kentucky, 32; Texas, 27; Ala- son, and, in the southwest part of the State, bama, 19; Tennessee, 14. The only States too dry weather for the maturing of the crop. reporting a product less than last year are: Vermont falls 4 per cent. below, ascribed to Iowa, 11 per cent.; Maryland and Nebraska, the effects of the severe winter. Drought 7; Kansas, 5. Good quality is generally re- and September storms reduced the figures in ported. Great improvement in the quality of New Jersey to 95, in Delaware to 55, and in the sirup, resulting from the introduction of Virginia to 92. Missouri reports a producimproved machinery and methods of evaporat- tion falling 28 per cent. below that of 1875. ing, is specified in different localities.
Severe spring-frosts, canker-worms, coddlingTobacco. -- The tobacco counties reporting moths, an insect allied to chinch-bugs, hail. the comparative product make returns not storms, and, chiefly, premature falling-off from quite so favorable in the aggregate as those of causes not explained, are the principal sources last year. A decrease of product is indicated of reduction. With these exceptions, in the enin Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Ma- tire section north of the thirty-sixth parallel, ryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennes- and east of the Pacific slope, the yield exceeds see. An increase is indicated in Pennsylvania, that of last year; the average excess for the Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Kentucky reports whole area being not less than 17 per cent. about the same as last year.
The excess in New York is 22 per cent. ; PennIn Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, the increase in sylvania, 23; Ohio, 41; Michigan, 24; Indiana, product is extraordinary. In Ohio, Montgom- 39; Illinois, 16; Wisconsin, 54; Iowa, 43; New ery reports the best and finest crop of seed- Hampshire, 63. The coddling-moth was deleaf tobacco ever produced; Monroe, that the structive to the crop in Utah. In California quality was depreciated by excessively wet and Oregon the product was slightly less than weather. In Illinois, the season was very pro- last year. In the Southern States, in which pitious for maturing and curing in Saline; in the crop is of less account, the general yield is Johnson, the crop was eaten by worms, the rav- considerably below that of last year, owing ages of which were worse than for yoars. Ver- mainly to drought. South Carolina alone non, Mo., also had more tobacco-worms than comes up to 100. With rare local exceptions, ever before ; but other returns from Missouri the quality is reported as superior, the fruit beare favorable in respect to yield and quality. ing comparatively large, and free from worms.
Pears.—The pear-crop falls below the small eral counties of Pennsylvania, especially in crop of 1875. The extensive prevalence of the early-sown wheat. Later-sown crops give tree-disease known as pear-blight appears to be greater satisfaction. With the exception of the leading cause of this diminution. Its prev- South Carolina, the South Atlantic and the alence and effect in reducing the crop to a Gulf States are below average. Drought regreater or less extent are noted in New York, tarded both the sowing and the growth of the New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Louisiana, crop in many counties. Injuries by grasshopTexas, West Virginia, Illinois, and Iowa. The pers are reported in several counties of Texas. only States in which the product does not fall A depressed condition is also noted in Arkanbelow that of last year are New Hampshire, sas and Tennessee, the latter being 10 per cent. 103; Vermont, 100; Wisconsin, 119; Iowa, below average. Grasshoppers are complained 105; Oregon, 101; no one of which produces of in a few cases, but drought was a more a large crop. In the remaining States the de- general cause of disaster. West Virginia and cline is about 20 per cent.
Kentucky show a superior condition, though Grapes. — The returns indicate a product seeding was somewhat late on account of somewhat less than in 1875. The small crop drought. All the States north of the Ohio in New England averaged better than last year. River report a superior condition, especially Pennsylvania returns_103, but in the other Ohio and Indiana, which enjoyed remarkably States north of the Potomac the falling-off fine conditions for seeding and growth. In averages about 12 per cent. There appears to several localities of Illinois and Wisconsin the be a reduction from last year in the Southern wheat appears to be better rooted than usual, States, averaging about 10 per cent. In the and better prepared to resist the trying fluctuinterior, east of the Mississippi, the product is ations of winter in those States. West of the less than in 1875, the greatest reduction-19 Mississippi River, Minnesota and Iowa report per cent.-being in Illinois. West of the Mis- a condition slightly above average, while the sissippi, Arkansas reports a falling-off of 32 other States of this region are considerably per cent., Missouri of 15. In California the deficient. Grasshoppers were very destructive product is reported 2 per cent. larger than last at many points, necessitating a resowing of the year.
crop. Wheat sown late to avoid this pest Except in localities where the yield was re- has started very imperfectly. In California, duced by the effects of the hard winter or late good rains during October facilitated plowing spring-frosts, the almost exclusive cause of re- and wheat-seeding, causing a considerable enduction has been a widespread tendency to largement of acreage, but in several counties mildew and rot.
the moisture has not been sufficient to bring Winter - Wheat.—December returns indicate out the crop. Oregon reports a very promisthat the acreage in winter-wheat has been in- ing crop. From Dakota come reports of grasscreased about 5 per cent. over that of the pre- hopper damages. In the Choctaw Nation, Invious year. The small area sown in the New dian Territory, the crop is reported as very England States is fully maintained, and some satisfactory. additions were expected to be made. All of Winter-Rye.—The acreage in winter-rye in the Middle States return an acreage equal to 1876 does not materially differ from that of that of last year, except New York, which 1875. A small increase is shown in New Engloses 8 per cent. The South-Atlantic coast land and in the States north of the Ohio River, States report a considerable increase, a small which about counterbalances the decline in the deficiency in Georgia being overcome by a other sections; the Pacific States report no marked increase in North Carolina and South appreciable change. Carolina. In the Gulf States, Alabama and The condition of the crop, on the whole, is Mississippi report an increase which over- about average. A superior condition appears balances the decline in Texas. Florida and in the Middle States, South Atlantic States, in Louisiana grow but insignificant crops. The the States north of the Ohio River, and on the inland Southern States all report an increased Paciftc slope, while in the other sections there acreage. North of the Ohio River, Michigan is a deficiency. and Wisconsin report a decrease of wheat Is Production declining? – Agricultural acreage; but the other States report increased speakers and writers often give the impresbreadths, enlarging the acreage of this section sion, without positive assertion, that we proabout 3 per cent. West of the Mississippi ducé less in proportion to population than River, Missouri enlarges her acreage at least a formerly. If this is so, we eat less than forthird, Kansas one-eighth, and Nebraska nearly merly, for we export more. But no intellia half. The Pacific States also report a large gent person, after due deliberation, will assert increase.
that we feed less to farm-animals, or live less The condition of the crop appears from the generously ourselves, than our fathers fed and returns to be about 10 per cent. above average fared. A statistical answer in the negative on the whole. The Atlantic slope, from Mary- has been made by the statistician of the Deland northward, enjoyed very favorable condi- partment of Agriculture, in an address delivtions of seeding and growth, though the Hes- ered before the Agricultural Congress at its sian fly has done considerable damage in sev- last session in Philadelphia.
AIRD, THOMAS, a British poet, born August George E. Spencer corruptly used the influence, 28, 1802; died April 27, 1876.' He received power, and patronage, of his said office to procure his education at Bowden and Melrose, and sub- said body, by which he claims to have been reëlected sequently at the Edinburgh University, On to the Senate of the United States on the 3d day the death of James Ballantyne, Mr. Aird suc of December, 1872. ceeded to the editorship of the Edinburgh 5. That by like fraudulent and corrupt practices, Weekly Journal, a position which he held for and to defeat the election of a Senator by the Genabout a year. From 1835 until 1863 he was law, the said George E. Spencer and others, by his
eral Assembly of Alabama at the time appointed by the editor of the Dumfries Herald, a Conserva- concurrence or connivance, did prevent the attendtive journal, and when he resigned this post ance of members of the General Assembly at the he went into private life. His principal works Capitol, and did so defeat a quorum of the Houses are “Religious Characteristics" (1827); “The of said body.
6. That afterward when a plan had been suggested old Bachelor in the Old Scottish Village,” by the Attorney-General of the United States, which a volume of tales and sketches (1845); “Poeti- was adopted, for the reorganization of the General cal Works," consisting of a collected edition of Assembly, the said George E. Spencer and others, his poems, new and old (1848). “The Devil's with his connivance, in order to deprive a Senator of Dream” is regarded as the most popular of his his seat in said body, to which he had been lawfully compositions. He was at one time a contribu- mation of his said election to the United States Sentor to Blackwood's Magazine, and in 1852 he ate, fraudulently and corruptly conspired to oust brought out for the family of Dr. Moir the said Senator from his seat, and did prevent him “Delta” of Blackwood, an edition of that from occupying the same during more than one enauthor's select poems, with a memoir prefixed. tire session of the General Assembly of Alabama.
7. That said George E. Spencer, while endeavor ALABAMA. The session of the Alabama ing to secure his reělection to the Senate, and in Legislature which began on December 28, 1875, order to get
money to accomplish his said purposes, came to an adjournment on the 8th of March and while he was a Senator of the United States, A considerable amount of legislation was neces- of trust in the United States Government to con
procured persons who had been appointed to offices sitated by the new constitution adopted in 1875. vert the public money in their charge to his use, The salaries of public officials were revised and and to commit peculations for his advantage. fixed as follows: Governor, $4,000 per annum; Lieutenant-Governor, $1,500 ; Secretary of Early in the session the commissioners apState, $1,800; Auditor, $2,400; Treasurer, pointed under the act of December 17, 1874, $2,100; Attorney-General, $2,000'; Judges of Ito ascertain, adjust, and liquidate all claims the Supreme Court, $5,000; Chancellors, $2,- against the State of Alabama arising from bonds 500; Superintendent of Education, $2,250, issued or indorsed in the name of the State," Reductions take effect at the end of the terms submitted their report, together with a plan of the present incumbents. The date for the of adjustment. A good deal of difficulty had meeting of the Legislature for its regular bien- been encountered in ascertaining the amount nial sessions was fixed for the second Monday and character of the indebtedness of the State, of November, beginning in 1876.
owing to imperfections in the records and apThe special joint committee appointed at parent irregularities in the issue and registhe preceding session to investigate the facts tration of bonds, and to the unwillingness of relating to the alleged election of George some of the creditors to make a statement of E. Spencer to the Senate of the United States their claims. The commissioners stated that submitted their report, together with a sum- the entire debt of the State, direct and continmary of the testimony taken. Their conclu- gent, as ascertained by them, was $30,037,563, sions are presented with sufficient fullness in a which they separated into four classes of obmemorial of the Legislature subsequently adopt- ligations. The first constituted the “recoged, commending to the United States Senate nized direct debt,” and consisted of various the following considerations, supported by the five, six, and eight per cent. bonds, amounting evidence taken:
in all to $11,677,470. They proposed to ad2. That the body by which George E. Spencer just this portion of the debt by canceling interclaims to have been elected to the Senate of the est due and accruing to July 1, 1876, and subUnited States was not in fact or in law the General stituting new bonds for the face of those outAssembly of Alabama, at the time of the alleged standing, with thirty years to run, at two per never was a quorum in the Senate that voted for said cent. interest for the first five years, three Spencer, and the records and journals of the General per cent. for the second five years, four per Assembly show that fact. The body that voted for cent. for the next ten years, and five per cent. Spencer was organized as a party necessity, and to for the remaining ten years, all being renewelect Spencer.
3. By unlawful and corrupt practices and by bar- able at the pleasure of the State at five per gains made by George E. Spencer, and other persons, cent. This proposition had been accepted by with his knowledge and approval, both before and the holders of about $3,000,000 of the old at the
time of his alleged election, with members of bonds, and it was thought would be accepted the body by which he claims to have been elected, he by the rest. The second class of obligations procured the influence and votes of members of said was spoken of as “recognized direct debt aris4. That being a Senator at the time of bis
alleged ing from aid given to railroad companies," and reelection to the Senate of the United States, the said consisted of seven per cent. bonds to the amount