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A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES.

NEW YORK, ALGUST 30, 1090.

Vol. LXIII. T. 9.

E-TARLI-BE 18

83.00 A YEAR.

WEEKLY

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INSTRUCTIONS TO ENUMERATORS

house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not

to be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house. NAME AND RELATIONSHIP.

113. Persons engaged in internaltransportation, canal men, express108. Column 3. Name of each person enumerated.—Enter the men, railroad men, etc., if they habitually return to their homes in name of every person whose usual place of abode (see paragraph 111) the intervals of their occupations, will be reported as of their families, is in the family or dwelling place for which the enumeration is being and not where they may be temporarily staying on June 1, 1900. made. The census day, that is, the day as of which the enumeration

114. The transient guests of a hotel are not to be enumerated as of is made, is June 1, 1900. Include, therefore, every person living on the hotel, unless they are likely otherwise to be omitted from the enumerJune 1, 1900, or during any part of that day, and omit children born ation; but the proprietor and his family, and those boarders, employees, after that date.

and servants who regularly sleep there are to be so included. 109. It is intended that the name of every man, woman, and child

115. The inmates of transient lodging-houses are to be so enomerated, whose usual place of abode on the first day of June, 1900, was within if they claim no other home or have no other place of abode. your district shall be entered on the population schedule, but no entry 116. All inmates of hospitals or other institutions are to be enumeris to be made of a child born between the first day of June, 1900, and ated; but if they have some other permanent place of residence, write it the day of your visit, say June 5, June 15, etc., as the case may be. in the margin of the schedule on the left-hand side of the page. (See paragraph 94.)

117. If a soldier, sailor, or marine (officer or enlisted man), or civil110. On the other hand, every person who was a resident of your ian employee in the service of the United States at a station at home or district upon the first day of June, 1900, but between that date and the abroad, is a member of a family living in your district, he should be endday of your visit shall have died, should be entered on the schedule merated as a member of that family, even though he may be absent on duty precisely as if still living. The object of the schedule is to obtain a list at the time of the enumeration. of the inhabitants on the first day of June, 1900, and all changes after 118. Summer boarders at hotels or country houses and persons temthat date, whether in the nature of gain or loss, are to be disregarded. porarily residing in foreign lands should be enumerated as part of their

111. The census law furnishes no definition of the phrase “ usual family at their home or usual place of abode. place of abode;" and it is difficult to guard against the danger that 119. The floating population in vessels, steamboats, and house boats at some persons will be reported in two places and others not reported at wharves and piers or river landings should be enumerated on the morning all. Much must be left to the judgment of the enumerator, who, if of June 1, as far as possible, by the enumerators of the districts contigahe will take the pains, can satisfy himself, in the great majority of in- ous to the water front, including in the enumeration all persons who claim stances, as to the propriety of including or not including doubtful cases to be residents of the United States, even though they have no other home in his enumeration of any given family.

than on board the craft where they are found; but the officers and crew of 112. In the case of boarders at hotels, students at schools or col- a foreign ship only temporarily in the harbor are not to be enumerated. leges, and inmates of institutions, ascertain whether the person con- 120. It is important to ascertain beyond a doubt whether the informacerning whom the question may arise has at the time any other place tion given by the person sapplying the same covers all the persons in the of abode within another district at which he is likely to be reported. family, including not only the immediate members of the family, as the Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter head, wife, and children, but also other relatives living with the family, how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still servants (if they sleep in the house), and persons who live with the family, alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a sailors' boarding or lodging as boarders, lodgers, etc.

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"SCHEDULE NO. 1-POPULATION"-Continued (center)

TWELFTH CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES

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PERSONAL DESCRIPTION.

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121. In the case of families reported "out" at the first visit, but endmoratod at a later visit, no spaces should be left blank on the population schedule for the entries concerning the members of such a family, as you can have no knowledge, in most casos, of the number of members constituting the family, and hence of the number of lines to be left blank. The

126. Column 5. Color or race.- Write “W” for white; “B” for enumeration of the family is to be made on that sheet of the population

black (negro or of negro descent); “Ch” for Chinese; “Jp" for Japanschedule on which you are at work on the day when the information con

ese, and “In" for Indian, as the case may be. cerning such family is finally obtained by you.

127. Column 6. Sex.— Write “M” for male and “Ffor female, 122. In the case, however, of boarders, lodgers, or other persons living

as the case may be. in a family, for whom no information can be obtained at the first visit,

128. Column 7. Date of birth.—The object of this question is to but which is supplied later, either in person or through the lady of the

help in getting the exact age in years of each person enumerated. house, you should duly enter the name of such person as a member of the Many a person who can tell the month and year of his birth will be family so enumerated, and arrange to secure by a second or third visit, if

careless or forgetful in stating the years of his age, and so an error will Decessary, the information needed to complete the record for such person.

creep into the census. This danger can not be entirely avoided, but It is important that the person should be recorded by name at least as a

asking the question in two forms will prevent it in many cases.

129. Enter in the first division of column 7 the name or abbreviamember of the family with whom he resides, as otherwise the enumeration of that family will be incompleto, and if omitted from its proper place on

tion of the month in which the person was born, thus: Jan., Feb., the population schedule, such person is likely to be counted, when finally

Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., or Dec. enumerated, as a family of one, which is not the fact.

130. Enter in the second division the year in which the person 123. Enter the members of each family in the following order,

was born, thus: 1811, 1897, etc. namely: Head first, wife second, children (whether sons or daughters)

1:31. Column 8. Age at last birthday.—The object of this quesin the order of their ages, and all other persons living with the family,

tion is to get the age of each person in completed years, or in the case whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants.

of a child under one year the age in completed months. 124. Enter first the surname, then the given name in full, and the

132. For each person of one year of age or over, enter the age at initial of the middle name, if any. Where the surname is the same as,

laxt birthday in whole years, omitting months and days. For children that of the person on the preceding line indicate this by drawing a

who, on the first day of June, 1900, were less than one year of age, horizontal line (-) thereunder, as shown in illustrative example.

enter the age in months, or twelfths of a year, thus: 11, 12, 1's. For

8' 125. Column 4. Relationship to head of family.—Designate the

a child less than one month old, enter the age as follows: head of the family, whether a husband or father, widow or unmarried 133. Endeavor to ascertain in each case the month and year of person of either sex, by the word Head;" for other members of a birth called for in column 7, but where this is impossible get as nearfamily write vise, mother, father, som, (laughter, grandson, d.-in-law, aunt, ly as possible the exact years of age. An answer given in round uncle, wphew, niece, boarder, lodger, servant, etc., according to the par- numbers, such as “about 30,” “about 45,” is likely to be wrong. In ticular relationship which the person bears to the head of the family. such cases endeavor to get the exact age. Occupants of an institution or school, living under a common roof, 134. Columng. Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced. should be designated as officer, inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner, etc., and Write“S” for single or unmarried persons, “M” for married, “Wa” in case of the chief officer his title should be used, as warden, princi- for widowed (man or woman), and “D” for divorced. pal, superintendent, etc. Institutions whose inmates occupy different 135. Column 10. Number of years married.-Enter in this column buildings should be enumerated as though they occupied one institu- for all persons reported as married (column 9) the number of years martion building. If more than one family resides in the institution ried (to present husband or wife), ag 5, 9, 29, etc.; for persons married building or buildings, group the members together and distinguish during the census year, that is, from June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900, thein in some intelligible way. (See paragraph 103.) If two or more write “0;" for all oth persons leave the column blank. Notice jersons share a common abode as partners, write “heal" for one and that this question can not be answered for single persons and need "partner' for the other or others.

not be for widowed or divorced persons.

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136. Columns 11 and 12. Mother of ho many children and number of these children living.-This question applies only to womon, and its objoct is to get the number of children each woman has had, and whether the children are or are not living on the census day. Stillborn children are not to be counted.

137. Enter in column 11 the figure showing the number of children born to this woman, as 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, etc. If she has had none, write "0." Enter in column 12 the figure showing the number of these children living on the census day. Whether the children are living in your district or elsewhere makes no difference. If the woman has had no children, or if they are all dead, write “0."

143. If the birthplace reported is Canada or Newfoundland, ask whether the person is of English or French descent. Write Canada English or Canada French, according to the answer.

144. If the person was born abroad of American parents, write in column 13 both the birthplace and "Am. cit.;' that is, American citizen.

145. If the person was born at sea, write "at sea."

146. Spell out the names of states, territories, and couniries, and do not abbreviate, except for American citizen, as mentioned in paragraph 144.

147. Columns 14 and 15. Place of birth of father and mother.Apply the instructions for filling column 13 to these two columns; but where either the father or mother was born at sea, write in the proper column, beside the words "at sea, the birthplece of the father's father or mother's father.

CITIZENSHIP.

NATIVITY.

138, Column 13. Place of birth of person.-- The object of this question is to get the birthplace of every person living in your district. If the person was born in the United States, enter in column 13 the state or territory (not city or town) of the United States in which he was born. A person born in what is now West Virginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, or Oklahoma should be reported as so born, although at the time of his birth the particular region may have had a different name.

139, If the person was born outside the United States, enter in column 13 the country (not city or district) in which he was born. By country is meant usually a region whose people have direct relation with other countries. Thus, do not write Prussia or Saxony, but Germany. To this rule, however, note the following exceptions:

140. Write Ireland, England, Scotland, or Wales rather than Great Britain. Write Hungary or Bohemia rather than Austria for persons born in Hungary or Bohemia, respectively. Write Finland rather than Russia for persons born in Finland.

141. Note, also, that the language spoken is not always a safe guide to the birthplace. This is especially true of Germans, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly three-fourths of the Swiss speak German. In case a person speaky German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was Germany, Austria, or Switzerland.

142. In case the person speaks Polish, as Poland is not now a country, inquire whether the birthplace was what is now known as German Poland or Austrian Poland or Russian Poland, and enter the answer accordingly as Poland (Ger.), Poland (Aust.), or Poland (Russ.).

148. Column 16. Year of immigration to the United States. If the person is a native of the l'nited States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, enter the year in which he arrived in the United States.

149. Column 17. Number of years in the United States. If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, enter the number of years since his arrival in the United States. Disregard all fractions of a year. If the time is less than one year, write "0." Endeavor to get the exact number of years in all cases.

150. The question of immigration (columns 16 and 17) applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. It does not apply to persons born in the United States.

151. Column 18. Naturalization.-If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroal, and has taken no steps toward becoming an American citizen, write “Al” (for alien). If he has declared his intention to become an American citizen and taken out his “first” papers, write “ Pa" (for papers). If he has become a full citizen by taking out second or final papers of naturalization, write “Na" (for naturalized).

152. The question of naturalization (column 18) applies only to foreign-born males 21 years of age and over. It does not apply to foreignborn minors, to foreign-born females, or to any person, male or female, who was born in the United States, either of native or foreign parentage.

165. The illustrations given ander this head show the nature of the Answers which should be made to this inquiry. They are not intended to cover all occupations, but are merely examples of the answers desired in order to secure a proper description of the character of the service ren. dered or kind of work done by each and every person engaged in gainful labor.

Agricultural Pursuits. 166. Do not confuse a farmer with a farm laborer. If a person works on a farm for at stated wage (in money or its equivalent), even though he may be a son or other relative of the person who conducts the farm, he should be entered as a farm laborer, and not as a farmer. On the other hand, if a person owns or rents a farm, or operates it with or for another person, for a fixed share of the products, he shoule? be entered as a farmer, and not as a farm laborer. Enter the older children of a farmer (who work on the farm) as farm laborers, except when a father and son (or suns) jointly operate the farm for fixer shares of the product. (See paragraph 300.)

167. Do not confuse a day laborer at work for the city, town, or at odd jobs with a farm laborer at work on the farın or plantation or in the employ of gardeners, nurserymen, etc.

Do not say simply laborer,” but state in every case the kind of work done, as duy laborer, farm laborer, gardm laborer, etc. If it person is a laborer in a mill, workshop, or factory, specify the fact, in audition to the word laborer, as laborer (crmont workx), etc.

108. Distinguish between a roolchopper at work regularly in the woods or forests and an ordinary laborer who takes a job occasionally at chopping wood.

109. Distinguish between a furier or a planter who owns, hires, or carries on a farm or plantation, and a gurdenir, fruil gronit, nursiruma, Horist, or rive grower, etc., who is engaged in raising vegetables for market or in the cultivation of fruit, flowers, seeds, narsery products, etc.

170. Avoid the confusion of the guru lalnr, nurseru laborir, etc., who hires out his services, with the proprietor gardener, florist, nursery. man, etc., who carries on the business himself or employs others to assist him.

171. Return as a vlnirinnom or cluirujuonut any person whose occapation in connection with the farm has to do chiefly with the dairy. Do not confuse such a person with an employee of a butter and cheese or condensed milk factory, who should be separately returned by some distinctive term.

172. Return a suck herilor or stork Iroror separately from a stuk ruiser.

173. Do not include a lumborran, ruftsman, log river, etc., engaged in hauling or transporting lumber generally by water) from the forest to the mill with an employee of a lumber yard or a lomber mill.

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OCCUPATION, TRADE, OR PROFESSION. 153. NOTE.-The following Instructions concerning the return of the occupation, trade, or profession in column 19 do not, in the main, form a part of the instructions contained in the portiollo or the Instructions printed at the bottom of the Illustrative example.

These instructions are very important, however, and must be not only read but studied carefully.

154. Column 19. Occupation.—This question applies to every person 10 years of age and over who is at work, that is, occupied in gainful labor, and calls for the profession, trade, or branch of work upon which each person depends chiefly for support, or in which he is engaged orlinarily during the larger part of the time. (see paragraph 223.)

155. This is most important question. In reporting occupations avoid the use of general or indetinite terms which do not indicate the kind of work done. You need not give a person's occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what he is, find out what he does, and describe his occupation accordingly. Endeavor to ascer. tain always the kinul of work done, and so state it.

156. Indicate in every case the kind of work done or character of service rendered Do not state merely the article made or worked upon, or the place where the work is done, For example, the reply “carriage builder," or “works in carriage factory," is unsatisfactory, because men of different trades, such as blacksmiths, joiners, wheelwrights, painters, upholsterers, work together in building carriages. Such an answer, therefore, does not show what kind of work the person performs.

157. Return every person according to his own occupation, not that of his employer. For example, describe a blacksmith employed by a mangfacturer of carriages as a carriage blacksmith and not as a carriage builder, or a cooper employed by a brewery as a cooper and not a brewer, etc.

158. If a person has two occupations, enter the more important one, that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, enter the one in which he spends the more time. For example, describe a person who gets most of his income by managing a farm, but also preaches, as a "farmer," but if he gets more income from his preaching, describe him as a "preacher" and not as a farmer.

159, Sometimes you will find a person engaged in one occupation, but claiming a different one. This will be common in certain resorts for invalids. Such persons often take up for the time occupations different from those followed at home. For example, you may find a clergyman canvassing for books or a physician herding cattle. In such a case ask from which occupation the person gets the more money or to which he gives more time during the year.

160. If a married woman has a gainful occapation, return the occupation accordingly, whether she does the work at her home or goes regularly to a place of employment, and whether she is regularly or only occasionally 80 employed. For example, "milliner," dressmaker," "nurse," etc.

161. In farming sections, where a farm is found that is under the management or supervision of a woman as owner or tenant, return the occupation of such woman as “farmer" in all cases.

162. Report a student who supports himself by some occupation accord. ing to the occa pation, if more time is given to that, but as a student, if nore time is given to study. Thus report a student who does stenographic work as a student unless more of his time is spent in stenography. Report a salesman in a grocery store, who attends a night school as "salesman, groceries," because most of his day is spent in the store. (See paragraph 219.)

163. Many a person who does not follow any occupation still has an income. In that case indicate the source of the income. Report a person whose income comes from the rent of lands or lings as "landlord." Boport a person who receives his income, or most of it, from money loaned at interest, or from stocks, bonds, or other securities, as a "capitalist."

164. Abbreviations.-The space in column 19 is somewhat narrow, and it may be necessary to use the following abbreviations (bat no others): Agric., for agricultural.

Mfr., for manufacturer. Agt, for agent.

Prest. , for president. Asst. , for assistant.

R. R., for railroad or railway. (0., for company.

Sch., for school. ('omon., for commission.

Secy., for secretary. Depl., for department.

Supt. , for superintendent. Fay., for factory.

Teleg., for telegraph. Insur., for insurance.

Telph., for telephone. Merch., for merchant.

Trar., for traveling, or traveler. Mfg., for manufacturing.

Treas., for treasurer.

Fishing 174. For a fishermıın or oysterima describe the occapation as accnrately as possible. Be careful to avoid the return of a fisherman on a vessel as a sailor. If he gains his living by fishing, he should be returned as a " fisherman," and not as a sailor.

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Mining and Quarrying. 17.5. Make a careful distinction between a roul miner and a miner of wrex; also between a miner and a quarryminat, State the kind of ore mined or stone quarried.

176. Do not return a proprietor or official of a mining or quarrying company as a miner or quarryman, but state his business or official position accurately.

Professional Pursuits. 177. Specify each profession in detail, according to the fact, as follows: A tor, artixt or teacher of aut, cleroywn, dentixl, designer, drullxmam, mngruter, riril engineer or xurryor, mechaurul or mininy ruginer, gorernment rirrk or oprial, jurnalid, lurrwr, librorum, munich braucher of music, physician, surgeon, professor (in college or university), teacher (in school), or other pursuits of a professional nature.

178. Distinguish between an actor, a thurrical manager, and a rhor. man.

179. Return a gorronment official, in the service of the national, state, county, city, or town government, by the title of his office, if that is the occupation apon which he depends chiefly for a livelihood; otherwise by his ustal trade or profession.

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