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GENERAL POPULATION SCHEDULE USED IN THE STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS -Continued

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INSTRUCTIONS TO MARSHALS-CENSUS OF 1820

The interrogatories to be put at each dwelling house, or to the head of every family,
are definitely marked in relation to the various classes of inhabitants discriminated
in the several columns of the schedule, by the titles at the head of each column.
That of the name of the head of each family, must indeed be varied according to its
circumstances, as it may be that of a master, mistress, steward, overseer, or other
principal person therein. The subsequent inquiries, How many free white males
under 10 years there are in the family? How many of 10 and under 16? etc., will
follow in the order of the columns. But, to facilitate the labor of your assistants,
& printed list of all the interrogatories for enumeration, believed to be necessary, is
inclosed; (No.5) in which all the questions refer to the day when the enumeration
is to commence; the first Monday in August next. Your assistants will thereby
understand that they are to insert in their returns all the persons belonging to the
family on the first Monday in August, even those who may be deceased at the time
when they take the account; and, on the other hand, that they will not include in it,
infants born after that day. This, though not prescribed in express terms by the act,
is the undoubted intention of the legislature, as manifested by the clause providing
that every person shall be recorded as of the family in which he or she shall reside
on the first Monday in August.

It will be necessary to remember, that the numbers in the columns of free white
males between 16 and 18-foreigners not naturalized-persons engaged in agriculture-
persons engaged in commerce-persons engaged in manufactures-must not be added
to the general aggregates, of which the sum total is to be opposed. All the persons
included within these columns must necessarily be included also in one of the other
columns. Those, for instance, between 16 and 18, will all be repeated in the column
of those between 16 and 26. The foreigners not naturalized, and those engaged in
the three principal walks of life, will also be included in the columns embracing their
respective ages. In the printed form of a schedule herewith inclosed, the description
at the top of these columns is printed in italics, and the division lines between the
columns themselves are double ruled, with a view to distinguish them from the other
columns, the sums of which are to go to the general aggregate. In preparing their
schedules from this form, your assistants will find it useful, for convenience and accu-
racy, to distinguish those columns, by ruling them with red ink, or in some other
manner, which may keep them separate from the others, by a sensible impression
constantly operating upon the mind.

The discrimination between persons engaged in agriculture, commerce, and inanu-
factures, will not be without its difficulties. No inconsiderable portion of the popu-
lation will probably be found, the individuals of which being asked, to whích of
those classes they belong, will answer, to all three. Yet, it is obviously not the
intention of the legislature that any one individual should be included in more than
one of them--of those whose occupations are exclusively agricultural or commercial,
there can seldom arise a question, and in the column of manufactures will be included

not only all the persons employed in what the act more specifically denominates
manufacturing establishments, but all those artificers, handicrafts men, and mechanics,
whose labor is preeminently of the hand, and not upon the field.

By persons engaged in agriculture, commerce, or manufactures, your assistants
will understand that they are to insert in those columns, not whole families, includ-
ing infants and superannuated persons, but only those thus engaged by actual occupa-
tion. This construction is given to the act, because it is believed to be best adapted
to fulfill the intentions of the legislature, and because, being susceptible of the other,
it might be differently construed by different persons employed in the enumeration,
and thus destroy the uniformity of returns, essential to a satisfactory result.

Besides this enumeration of manufactures, the marshals and their assistants are
required, by the tenth section of the act to take an account of the several manufac-
turing establishments and their manufactures, within their several districts, territories,
and divisions; and the meaning of the legislature, by this provision, is illustrated by
the clause in the oaths of the marshals and assistants, that they will take an account
of the manufactures, except household manufacturer, from which it seems fairly deduci-
ble, that, in the intention of the legistature, persons employed only upon household
manufactures are not to be included in the column of persons bearing that denomi-
nation, the occupation of manufacturing being, in such cases, only incidental, and
not the profession properly marking the class of society to which such individual
belongs

This, then, offers a criterion by which your assistants may select the column of
occupation to which each individual may be set down; namely, to that which is the
principal and not the occasional, or incidental, occupation of his life.

The more particular the account of manufactures can be made, the more satisfactory
will the returns prove. Among the papers inclosed is an alphabetical list of manu-
factures (No. 6), which may facilitate the labor of your assistants, but which they
will not consider as complete. It is intended merely to give a direction to their
inquiries, and each of them will add to it every manufacture not included in it and
of which he takes an account within his division. A printed form (No. 7) is likewise
inclosed, of inquiries to be made in relation to manufacturing establishments, on
sheet of paper, upon which the information requested may be written and returneri.
In every case when it can be conveniently done, your assistant will do well to give
this form to some person principally concerned in the manufacturing establishment,
requesting him to give the information desired himself.

The execution of the fifth section of the act requires the further interrogatories,
whether any person, whose usual abode was in the family on the first Monday of
August, 1820, be absent therefrom at the time of the inquiry made: and, if so, the
sex, age, color, and condition, of such person are to be asked, and marked in the
proper column, in the return of the family. It follows, of course, that any person
who, at the time of taking the number of any family, has his usual abode in it, is,
nevertheless, not to be included in the return of that family, if his usual place of
abode was, on the first Monday of August, in another family. The name of every
person having no settled place of residence, is to be inserted in the column of the
schedule allotted for the heads of families in the division where such person shall be
on the first Monday of August.

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The execution of the fifth section of the act requires the further interrogatories, whether any person, whose usual abode was in the family on the 1st day of June, 1830, be absent therefrom at the time of making the inquiry, and if so, the sex, age, color, and condition, are to be asked and marked in the proper column, in the return of the family. It follows, of course, that any person, who, at the time of taking the enumeration of any family, has his abode in it

, is, nevertheless, not to be included in the return of that family, if his usual place of abode, was, on the 1st day of June, in another family. The name of every person, having no settled place of residence, is to be inserted in the column of the schedule, allotted for the heads of families, in the division where such person shall be on the 1st day of June, and, of course, also in one of the other columns, according to the age and condition of such person.

To facilitate the labor of your assistants, a printed list of all the interrogatories for enumeration is inclosed (No. 3), in which all the questions refer to the day when the enumeration is to commence the 1st day of next June. Your assistants will also bear in mind to include all persons of a family (except Indians not taxed) who were members thereof on the 1st day of June, 1830, whether present or not, and not to include any person whose usual abode was not in the family they are enumerating on the said ist day of June. They will, of course, include such persons as may have deceased after that day, and will not include in it infants born after that day. This, though not prescribed in express terms by the act, is the undoubted intention of the legislature, as manifester by the clause, providing that every person shall be recorded as of the family in which he or she shall reside on the lst day of June, 1830.

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NA WTI PERSON, DOLUDUNG BADS OR FAMILIE

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Same as 1830 except for year.

“SCHEDULE 1 – FREE INHABITANTS..." (12%"x1714”, printed on two sides, space for 40 entries on each side) not reproduced here; format and content identical

with 1860 schedule, except that the 1850 schedule did not contain the inquiry on value of personal estate.

INSTRUCTIONS TO MARSHALS AND ASSISTANT MARSHALS-CENSUS OF 1850

EXPLANATION OF SCHEDULE NO. 1.-FREE INHABITANTS.

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This schedule is to be filled up in the following inanner:

Insert in the heading the name or number of the district, town, or city of the county or parish, and of the state, and the day of the month upon which the enumeration was taken. This is to be attested on each page of each set, by the signature of the Assistant.

The several columns are to be filled as follows:

1. Under heading 1, entitled "Drvelling houses numbered in the order of visitation," insert the number of dwelling houses occupied by free inhabitants, as they are visited. The first house visited to be numbered 1; the second one visited, 2; the third one visited, 3; and so on to the last house visited in the subulivision. By a dwelling house is meant a separate in habited tenement, containing one or more families under one roof. Where several tenements are in one block, with walls either of brick or wood to divide them, having separate entrances, they are each to be numbered as separate houses; but where not so divided, they are to be numbered as one house.

If a bouse is used partly for a store, shop, or for other purposes, and partly for a dwelling house, it is to be numbered as a dwelling house Hotels, poorhouses, garrisons, hospitals, asylums, juils, penitentiaries, and other similar institutions, are each to be numbered as a dwelling house; where the house is of a public nature, as above, write perpendicularly under the number, in said column, the name or description, as hotel," "poorhouse," etc.

2. Under hearing 2, entitled Fumilire numbered in the order of risitation," insert the number of the families of free persons, as they are visited. The first family visited by the assistant marhal is to be numbered l; the second one visitert, 2; and so on to the last one visited in his district.

By the term family is meant, either one person living separately in a house, or a part of a house, and providing for him or herself, or several persons living together in a house, or in part of a house, upon one common means of support, and separately from others in similar circumstances. A widow living alone and separately providing for herself, or 200 individuals living together and provided for by a common head, should each be numbered as one family.

The resi inmates of a hotel, jail, garrison, hospital, an asylum, or er similar institution, should be reckoned as one family.

3. Under heading 3, entitled " The name of every person whoxe usual place of abode on the 1st day of June, 1850, uns in this family," insert the name of every free person in each family, of every age, including the names of those temporarily absent, as well as those that were at home on that day. The name of any member of a family who may have died since the 1st day of June is to be entered and described as if living, but the name of any person born since the 1st lay of June in to be omitted. The names are to be written, beginning with the father and mother; or either, or both, be dead, begin with some other ostensible head of the family; to be followed, as far as practicable, with the name of the oldest child residing at home, then the next oldest, and so on to the youngest, then the other inmates, lodgers and boarders, laborers, domestice, and servants.

All landlords, jailors, superintendents of poorhouses, garrisons, hospitals, asylums, and other similar institutions, are to be considered as heads of their respective farnilies, and the inmates under their care to be registered as members thereof, and the details concerning each designated in their proper columns.

Indians not taxed are not to be enumerated in this or any other schedule.

By place of abode is meant the house or usual lodging place of a person. Anyone who is teinporarily absent on a journey, or for other purposes, without taking up his place of residence elsewhere, and with the intention of returning again, is to be considered a member of the family which the asustant marshal is enumerating.

Students in colleges, acadeinies, or schools, when absent from the families to which they belong, are to be enumerated only as members of the family in which they usually boarded and lodged on the 1st day of June.

Assistant marshals are directed to make inquiry at all stores, shops, eating houses, and other similar places, and take the name and description of every person who usually slept there, provided such person is not otherwise enumerated.

Inquiries are to be made at every dwelling house, or of the head of every family. Those only who belong to such family, and consider it their home or usual place of abode, whether present or temporarily absent on a visit, journey, or a voyage, are to be enumerated. "Persons on board of vessels accidentally or temporarily in port, those whose only habitation was the vessel to which they belong, those who are temporarily boarding for a few days at a sailors' boarding or lodging house, if they belong to other places are not to be enumuralel av the population of a place.

The sailors and hands of a revenue cutter which belongs to a particular port should be enumerated as of such port. A similar rule will apply to those employed in the navigation of the lakes, rivery, and canals. All are to be taken at their homes or usual places of abode, whether present or absent; and if any live on board of vessels or boats who are not so enumerated, they are to be taken as of the place where the vessel or boat is owned, licensed, or registered. And the assistant marshals are to make inquiry at every vessel and boat employed in the internal navigation of the United States, and enumerate those who are not taken as belonging to a family on shore; and all persons of such description in any one vessel are to be considered as belonging to one family and the vessel their place of abode. The assistants in all seaports will

apply at the proper office for lists of all persons on a voyage at sea and register all citizens of the United States who have not been registered as belonging to some family.

Errors necessarily occurred in the last census in enumerating those employed in navigation, because no uniform rule was adopted for the whole United States. Assistant marshals are required to be particular in following the above directions, that similar error may now be avoided.

4. Under heading 4, entitled " Age," insert in figures what was the specific age of each person at his or her laut birthday previous to the 1st of June, opposite the name of such person. If the exact age in years can not be ascertained, insert a number which shall be the nearest approximation to it.

The either exact or estimated, of everyone, is to be inserted.

If the person be a child under 1 year old, the entry is to be made by the fractional parts of a year, thus: One month, one-twelfth; two months, two-twelfths; three months, three-twelfths, and so on to eleven months, eleven-twelfths.

5. Under heading 5, entitled "Sex," insert the letter M for male, and F for female, opposite the name, in all cases, as the fact may be.

6. Under heading 6, entitled “Color," in all cases where the person is white, leave the space blank; in all cases where the person is black, insert the letter B; if mulatio, insert M. It is very desirable that these particulars be carefully regarded.

7. Under head 7, entitled “Profession, occupation, or trade of each person one 15 years of age, ,'' insert opposite the name of each male the specific profession, occupation, or trade which the said person is known and reputed to follow in the place where he resides as clergyman, physician, lawyer, shoemaker, student, farmer, carpenter, laborer, tailor, boatman, sailor, or otherwise, as the fact may be. When more convenient, the name of the article he produces may be substituted.

When the individcal is a clergyman, insert the initials of the denomination to which he belongs before his profession-as Meth. for Methodist, R. C. for Roman Catholic, 0. S. P. for Old School Presbyterian, or other appropriate initials, as the fact may be. When a person follows several professions or occupations the name of the principal one only is to be given. lí a person follows no particular occupation, the space is to be filled with the word "none."

8. Under heading 8 insert the value of real estate owned by each individual enumerated. You are to obtain the value of real estate by inquiry of each individual who is supposed to own real estate, be the same located where it may, and insert the amount in dollars. No abatement of the value is to be made on account of any lien or incumbrance thereon in the nature of debt.

9. Under healing 9, Place of birth." The marshal should ask the place of birth of each person in the sainily. If born in the State or Territory where they reside, insert the name or initials of the State or Territory, or the name of the government or country is without the United States. The names of the several States may be abbreviated.

Where the place of birth is unknown, state "unknown."

10. Under No. 10 make a mark, or dash, opposite the name of each person married during the year previous to the 1st of June, whether male or female.

11. Under heading 11, entitled “At school within the last year, The marshal should ask what inember of this family has been at school within the last year; he is to insert a mark, thus, (1), opposite the names of all those, whether male or female, who have been at educational institutions within that period. Sunday schools are not to be included.

12. Under heading 12, entitled “Perrons met 20 years of age who com not read and urite.The marshal should be careful to note all persons in each family, over 20 years of age, who can not read and write, and opposite the name of each make a mark, thus, (1). The spaces opposite the names of those who can read and write are to be left blank. If the person can read and write a foreign language, be is to be considered as able to read and write.

13. Heading 13, entitled Deaj and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or conna." The assistant marshal should ascertain if there be any person in the family deaf, dumb, idiotie, blind, insane, or pauper.

If so, who? And insert the term "deal and dumb," " blind," "insane," and “idiotic," opposite the name of such persons, as the fact may be When persons who had been convicted of crime within the year reside in families on the lot of June, the fact should be stated, as in the other cases of criminals; but, as the interrogatory might give offense, the Assistants had better refer to the county record for information on this head, and not make the inquiry of any family. With the county record and his own knowledge he can seldom err.

Should a poorhouse, asylum for the blind, insane or idiotic, or other charitable institution, or a penitentiary, a jail, house of refuge, or other place of punishment, be visited by the assistant inarshal, he must number such building in its regular order, and he must write after the number, and perpendicularly in the same column (No. 1) the nature of such institution--that it is a penitentiary, jail, house of refuge, as the case may be; and in column 13, opposite the name of each person, he must state the character of the infirmity or misfortune, in the one case, and in the other he must state the crime for which each inmate is confined, and of which such person was convicted; and in column No. 3, with the name, give the year of conviction, and fill all the columns concerning age, sex, color, etc., with as much care as in the case of other individuals.

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EXPLANATION OF SCHEDULE 2-SLAVE INHABITANTS.
This schedule is to be filled up in the following manner:

Insert in the heading the number or name of the district, town, city, and the
county or parish, and of the state in which the slave inhabitants enumerated reside,
and the day of the month upon which the enumeration was taken. This is to be
attested on each page of each set, by the signature of the assistant marshal. The
several columns are to be filled up as follows:

1. Under heading 1, entitled "Name of slaveholders," insert, in proper order, the names of the owners of slaves. Where there are several owners to a slave, the name of one only need be entered, or when owned by a corporation or trust estate, the name of the trustee or corporation.

2. Under heading. 2, entitled "Number of slaves," insert, in regular numerical order, the number of all the slaves of both sexes and of each age, belonging to such owners. In the case of slaves, numbers are to be substituted for names. The number of every slave who usually resides in the district enumerated is to be entered, although he may happen to be temporarily absent. The slaves of each owner are to be numbered separately, beginning at No. 1, and a separate description of each is to be given. The person in whose family, or on whose plantation, the slave is found to be employed, is to be considered the ownei—the principal object being to get the number of slaves, and not that of masters or owners.

3. Under heading 3, entitled "Age,” insert, in figures, the specific age of each slave ite the number of such slave. If the exact age can not be ascertained, insert a number which shall be the nearest approximation to it. The age of every slave, either exact or estimated, is to be inserted. If the slave be a child which, on the 1st of June, was under 1 year old, the entry is to be made by fractional parts of a year; thus, one month old, one-twelfth; two months, two-twelfths; three months, three-twelfths; eleven months, eieven-twelfths; keeping ever in view, in all cases, that the age must be estimated at no later period than the 1st of June.

4. Under heading 4, entitled “Ser," insert the letter M for male, and F for female,
opposite the number, in all cases, as the fact may

be.
5. Under heading 5, entitled "Color," insert, in all cases, when the slave is black,
the letter B; when he or she is a mulatto, insert M. The color of all slaves should
be noted.

6. Under heading 6 insert, in figures, opposite the name of the slave owner, the
number of slaves who, having absconded within the year, have not been recovered.

7. In column 7, insert opposite the name of the former owner thereof, the number
of slaves manumitted within the year. The name of the person is to be given, although
at the time of the enumeration such person may not have held slaves on the 1st of
June. In such case, no entry is to be made in column No. 2.

8. Under heading 8, entitled Deaf and dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic," the assist-
ant should ascertain if any of these slaves be deaf and dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic;
and if so, insert opposite the name or number of such slave, the term deaf and
dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic, as the fact may be. If slaves be found imprisoned
convicts, mention the crime in column 8, and the date of conviction before the number
in the vacant space below the name of the owner. The convict slaves should be
numbered with the other slaves of their proper owner.

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