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PERCEPTION is a word which is so well under And nests in order ranged stood that it is difficult for the lexicographer to Of some villatic fowl. Milton's Agonistes. give any explanation of it. It has been called the Glory, like the dazzling eagle, stood first and most simple act of the mind, by which Perched on my beaver in the Granic flood; it is conscious of its own ideas. This definition, And the pale fates stood frighted on the shore.
When fortune's self my standard trembling bore however, is improper, as it confounds perception
Lee. with consciousness; although the objects of the
For the narrow perch I cannot ride. Dryden. former faculty are things without us, those of the
They winged their flight aloft, then, stooping low, latter the energies of our own minds. Percep- Perched on the double tree, that bears the golden tion is that power or faculty, by which, ugh
bough. the medium of the senses, we have the cogni Let owls keep close within the tree, and not perch zance of objects distinct and apart from ourselves, upon the upper boughs.
South. and learn that we are but a small part in the
Perch, n. s. Fr. perche ; Lat. perca. A fish. system of nature. By what process the senses give us this information is one of the most in- the pike and trout, carries his teeth in his mouth : he
The perch is one of the fishes of prey, that, like teresting enquiries in metaphysics. See Meta- dare venture to kill and destroy several other kinds of PHYSICS.
fish: he has a hooked or hog-back, which is armed PERCEVAL (Spencer), second son of John, with stiff bristles, and all his skin armed with thick second earl of Egmont, was born in 1762, and hard scales, and hath two fins on his back: he received his education at Harrow, and Trinity spawns but once a year, and is held very nutritive. College, Cambridge, of which he became a mem
Walton's Angler. ber about the year 1775. On quitting the uni Perch, in ichthyology. See Perca. versity he entered of Lincoln's Inn, with the view
PERCHANCE', adv. Per and chance. Perof following the profession of the law at the
haps; peradventure. Chancery bar. In this pursuit he soon distin
How long within this wood intend you stay? guished himself, and obtained a silk gown. In
-Perchance till after Theseus' wedding day. 1796 he represented Northampton in parliament,
Shakspeare. and, five years after, his legal abilities and family influence raised him to the office of solicitor- rather to endue him with ornaments of youth; as
Finding him by nature little studious, she chose general. In 1802 he was made attorney-general, dancing and fencing, not without aim then perchance and filled that situation till 1807, when, on the at a courtier's life.
Wotton. death of Mr. Fox, he was appointed chancellor
Only Smithfield ballad perchance to embalm the of the exchequer. In this high post he continued memory of the other.
L'Estrange. till the 11th of May, 1812, when, while approach Stranger, I sent for thee, for that I deemed ing the door of the house of commons, a person Some wound was thine, that yon free band might named Bellingham discharged a pistol at him in
chafe, the lobby, the bullet of which, entering his breast, Perchance thy worldiy wealth sunk with yon wreck
Maturin. deprived him almost instantly of life. The Such wound my gold can heal. assassin avowed that he had been waiting with PERCIVAL (Thomas), M. D., a physician, the view of destroying lord Leveson Gower, late born at Warrington, Lancashire, in 1740, studied ambassador to the court of St. Petersburgh, for medicine at the universities of Edinburgh and some alleged negligence of his mercantile in- Leyden, and returning to England, in 1765, terests, and was brought to trial on the 15th. settled at Manchester. He was the author of a Although a plea of insanity was set up by his variety of numerous able tracts on scientific subcounsel, he was found guilty, and executed on jects, especially Observations on the Deleterious the 18th of the same month.
Qualities of Lead; and Medical Ethics ; A FaPERCH, n. 8., 0. n., &v.a. Fr. perché, percher; ther's Instructions to his Children ; Moral and Lat. pertica. A rod; measure; that on which Literary Dissertations, &c.; and papers in the birds sit and roost: to sit or roost; place on a Transactions of the Manchester Philosophical perch.
Society, of which ae 'vas the founder and first He percheth on some branch thereby,
president. He also attempted to establish public To weather him and his moist wings to dry. lectures on mathei aatics, the fine arts, and com
merce, in that town; and sought to obtain supThat wrens make prey where eagles dare not perch.
port for dissenting academies at Warrington and
Manchester, but was in both these last attempts
Shakspeare. The morning muses perch like birds and sing
unsuccessful. Dr. Percival died, highly reAmong his branches.
Crashaw. spected both for talents and conduct, on the 30th An evening dragon came,
of August, 1804. His works were published in Assailant on the perched roosts,
1807, in 4 vols. 8vo. hy his son. Vol. XVII.--PART 1.
PERCLOSE', n. s. Per and close. Con name of Percy Islands. The largest is about clusion; last part. Obsolete.
thirteen miles in circuit, and 1000 feet high. By the perclose of the same verse, vagabond is They are only occasionally visited by the Indians understood for such an one as travelleth in fear of from the main land for turtle. The large vamrevengement.
Raleigh. pyre bat was frequently found hanging by the PERẮCOLATE, v.a. Lat. percolo. To strain claws, with its head downwards, under the palm through.
trees. Experiments touching the straining and passing of PERDICCAS I., II., and III., kings of Mabodies one through another, they call percolation. cedonia. See MACEDON.
. PERDICIUM, in botany, a genus of the The evidences of fact are percolated through a vast polygamia superflua order, belonging to the synperiod of ages. Hale's Origin of Mankind. Water passing through the veins of the earth is method ranking under the forty-ninth order,
genesia class of plants; and in the natural rendered fresh and portable, which it cannot be by any percolations we can make, but the saline particles compositæ. The receptacle is naked; the papwill pass through a tenfold filtre.
pus is simple; the florets bilabiate.
PERDITION, n. s. PERCUSS', v. a.
Fr. perdition ; Lat. Lat. percussio. To PERCUSS'Ion, n. s.
Destruction ; death : ruin; eternal
perditio. strike: the act of strik
death. Percu'TiENT, adj. ) ing ; effect of sounds striking the ear: percutient being the corre
While I was with hem I kept hem in thi name, thilke sponding adjective.
that thou ghauest to me I kept, and noon of hem With thy grim looks, and
perisschide but the son of perdicioun. The thunder-like percussion of thy sounds,
Wiclif. Jon, xvii. 12. Thou mad'st thine enemies shake. Shakspeare.
As life and death, mercy and wrath, are matters Flame percussed by air giveth a noise; as in blow- of knowledge, all men's salvation and some men's ing the fire by bellows; and so likewise flame per
endless perdition are things so opposite that whoever cussing the air strongly.
Hooker. Some note, that the times when the stroke or percussion of an envious eye doth most hurt are when
Upon tidings now arrived, importing the meer the party envied is beheld in glory.
perdition of the Turkish fleet, every man puts himself Inequality of sounds is accidental, either from the
Shakspeare. roughness or obliquity of the passage, or from the
Men once fallen away from undoubted truth, do doubling of the percutient.
after wander for ever more in vices unknown, and In double rhymes the percussion is stronger.
daily travel towards their eternal perdition. Rumer.
Raleigh's History, The vibrations or tremors excited in the air by
We took ourselves for free men, seeing there was percussion continue a little time to move from the no danger of our utter perdition, and lived most joyplace of percussion in concentric spheres to great fully, going abroad, and seeing what was to be seen. distances. Newton's Opticks.
Bacen, Marbles taught him percussion and the laws of
Quick let us part! Perdition's in thy presence, motion, and tops the centrifugal motion. Arbuthnot.
And horror dwells about thee! Addison's Cato. PERCUSSION, in mechanics, the impression PERDIX, in ornithology, a genus of birds, a body makes in falling or striking npon another; belonging to the order of gallinæ, ranked by Linor the shock of two bodies in motion.
næus along with the genus tetrao, or grous; but PERCY (Thomas), a learneď prelate, related now very properly disjoined by Dr. Latham, and to the family of Northumberland, was born at classed as a distinct genus, of which he describes Bridgenorth in Shropshire in 1728, and educated the following characters :— The bill is convex, at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his strong, and short; the nostrils are covered above master's degree in 1753, and, on entering into with a callous prominent rim: the orbits are orders, was presented to the vicarage of Easton papillose; the feet 'naked; and most of the Mauduit in Northamptonshire, which he held genus are furnished with spurs. There are fortywith the rectory of Wilby. In 1769 he was eight species, of which the two principal are the made chaplain to the king, in 1778 promoted to partridge and quail. the deanery of Carlisle, and in 1782 advanced to 1. P. communis, the common partridge, is so the bishopric of Dromore in Ireland, where he well known, that a description of it is unnecesdied in 1811. His works are, 1. Han kiou sary, and we have not room to describe the Chouan, a translation from the Chinese ; 2. Chi- foreign species. We refer those who wish comnese Miscellanies; 3. Five Pieces of Runic Po- plete information to Dr. Lathanı's valuable Sysetry, translated from the Icelandic Language. tem of Ornithology. Partridges are found in 4. A new Translation of the Song of Solomon; every country and in every climate; as well in 5. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, 3 vols.; the frozen regions about the pole, as the torrid 6. A Key to the New Testament; 7. The Nor- tracks under the equator. In Greenland, the thumberland Household Book ; 8. The Hermit partridge, which is brown in summer, as soon as of Warkworth, a poem, in the ballad style; 9. the icy winter sets in, is clothed with a warm A Translation of Mallet's Northern Antiquities. down beneath; and its outward plumage assumes
Percy Isles, a chain of islands in the South the color of the snow among which it seeks Pacific, near the north-east coast of New Holland. its food. Those of Barakonda, on the other They extend from about lat. 21° 32' to 21° 45'S., hand, are longer legged, much swifter of foot, and are distant about thirty miles from the main and choose the highest rocks and precipices to land. They were visited by Flinders in 1802, reside in. They all, however, agree in one chavrbo laid down their bearings, and gave them this racter, of being immoderately addicted to venery.
Old Fr. pere
P. coturnix, or common quail, is not above PER’EGAL, adj. Fr. peregal. Equal. Obhalf the size of the partridge. The feathers of solete. the head are black, edged with rusty brown; Whilom thou wast peregal to the best, the breast is of a pale yellowish red, spotted
And wont to make the jolly shepherds glad; with black; the feathers on the back are marked With piping and dancing did pass the rest. with lines of pale yellow, and the legs are of
Spenser. a pale hue. Except in the colors thus described,
PEREGRINATION, n. s. and the size, it every way resembles a partridge
Igrin ; Lat.
perein shape, and, except that it is a bird of passage, grinus. Travel; abode abroad : peregrine, it is like all others of the poultry kind in its foreign; not native ; not domestic. habits and nature. The quail seems to be an The received opinion, that putrefaction is caused inhabitant of every climate. It is observed to by cold or peregrine and preternatural heat, is but
Bacon. shift quarters according to the season, coming nugation. north in spring, and departing in autumn, and in
It was agreed between them, what account he
Id. Fast flocks. On the west coast of Naples, within should give of his peregrination abroad. four or five miles, 100,000 have been taken in a which the apostles agreed to publish in all their
It is not amiss to observe the heads of doctrine, day. In England they are not numerous at any peregrinations.
Hammond. time. They feed like the partridge, and make That we do not contend to have the earth pass no nest, except a few dry leaves or stalks scraped for a paradise, we reckon it only as the land of our together; and sometimes a hollow on the bare peregrination, and aspire after a better country. ground suffices. In this the female lays six or
Bentley. seven eggs, of a whitish color, marked with irre PEREMPT, v. a. ? Lat. peremptus.
To gular rust-colored spots : the young follow the
PEREMP’Tion, n. s. ) kill; to crush. A law mother as soon as hatched, like young partridges. term. They have but one brood in a year. Quail Nor is it any objection, that the cause of appeal fighting was a favorite amusement among the is perempted by the desertion of an appeal; because Athenians. They abstained from the flesh of the office of the judge continues after such instance this bird, deeming it unwholesome, as supposing is perempted.
A yliffe. that it fed upon the white hellebore: but they This peremption of instance was introduced in reared great numbers of them for the pleasure of favour of the public, lest suits should be rendered seeing them fight, and staked sums of money, as perpetual.
Id. we do with regard to cocks, upon the success of
PEREMP’TORY, adj. 2
Fr. peremptoire ; the combat. With us its flesh is considered as Per’EMPTORILY, adv.
barb. Lat. perempa very great delicacy. Quails are easily caught PER'EMPTORINESS, n. s.
Storius, from perempby a call.
tus, killed. Dogmatical ; absolute; such as PERDUE', adv. From the French perdue or destroys expostulation : the adverb and nounforlorn hope: as perdue or advanced sentinel. substantive corresponding. Close; in ambush.
He may have fifty-six exceptions peremptorily Few minutes he had lain perdue,
against the jurors, of which he shall show no cause. To guard his desp'rate avenue. Hudibras.
As touching the apostle, wherein he was so resolute Perdue Bay, a bay on the south-west coast
and peremptory, our Lord Jesus Christ made manifest of St. Vincent; a mile north-west of Kingston Bay. unto him, even by intuitive revelation, wherein there PER'DULOUS, adj. Lat. perdo. Lost; was no possibility of error.
Hooker. thrown away.
Not death himself There may be some wandering perdulous wishes of
In mortal fury is half so peremptory, known impossibilities; as a man who hath com
As we to keep this city. Shakspeare. King John. mitted an offence, may wish he had not committed Not to speak peremptorily or conclusively, touching it; but to chuse efficaciously and impossibly is as
the point of possibility, till they have heard me deimpossible as an impossibility.
If I entertaine PER'DURABLE, adj. Fr. perdurable ; Lat. As peremptorie a desire, to levell with the plaine perduro. Lasting; long continued. A word A citie, where they loved to live ; stand not betwixt not in use. Confess me knit to thy deserving with cables of And what it aims at.
Chapman. perdurable toughness. Shukspeare. Othello. Norfolk denies them peremptorily. Daniel, O perdurable shame! let's stab ourselves.
In all conferences it was insisted peremptorily, that
Shakspeare. the king must yield to what power was required. Why should he, for the momentary trick,
Clarendon. Be perdurably fined. Id. Measure for Measure. Self-conceit and peremptoriness in a man's own The vig'rous sweat
opinions are not commonly reputed vices. Tillotson. Doth lend the lively springs their perdurable heat. God's laws peremptorily injoin us, and the things Drayton. therein implied do straitly oblige us to partake of the
Kettlewell, PERECOP, an ancient fortress in the south holy sacrament. of the isthmus which joins the peninsula of the
Though the text and the doctrine run peremptory Crimea to the continent. It is the ancient Taph- be denied by him ; yet still there is a tacit condition,
and absolute, whosoever denies Christ shall assuredly ræ. In the neighbourhood are lakes, on the
unless repentance intervene.
South, surface of which a great quantity of salt crystal
He would never talk in such a peremptory and dislises naturally, in May, June, and July. This couraging manner, were he not assured that he was salt is collected and sold to the average amount able to subdue the most powerful opposition against of 20,000 waggon loads yearly.
the doctrine which he taught.
Peremptoriness is of two sorts; the one a magiste
Within a ken our army lies ; rialness in matters of opinion; the other a positive Our men more perfect in the use of arms, ness in relating matters of fact.
Our armour all as strong, our cause the best ; Government of the Tongue. Then reason wills our hearts will be as good. The more modest confess, that learning was to
Shukspeare. give us a fuller discovery of our ignorance, and to Is this your perfectness ?
Id. keep us from being peremptory and dogmatical in our My parts, my title, and my perfect soul determinations. Collier. Shall manifest me rightly.
Id. Othello. Some talk of letters before the deluge ; but that
It is a judgment maimed and most imperfect, is a matter of mere conjecture, and nothing can be That will confess perfection so could err peremptorily determined either the one way or the Against all rules of nature. other.
Thou art perfect then, our ship hath touched upon Never judge peremptorily on first appearances.
The deserts of Bohemia. Shakspeare. Winter's Tale. Clarissa.
Her cause and yours PEREN'NIAL, alj. Lat. perennis. Last I'll perfect him withal, and he shall bring you
PEREN'NITY, n. s. Sing through the year : Before the duke. Id. Measure for Measure. quality of lasting through all seasons.
I do not take myself to be so perfect in the priviThe matter wherewith these perennial clouds are leges of Bohemia as to handle that part; and will raised, is the sea that surrounds them. Harvey. not offer at that I cannot master.
Bacon. If the quantity were precisely the same in these
There is no variety in that which is perfect, because perennial fountains the difficulty would be greater.
there is but one perfection ; and so much shall we That springs have their origin from the sea, and grow nearer to perfectness, by how much we draw
nearer to unity and uniformity. Bp. Hall. not from rains and vapours, I conclude from the petennity of divers springs.
And they, so perfect in their misery,
Milton's Comus. Perennials, or PERENNIAL Flowers, in bo Uriel, no wonder if thy perfect sight tany, a term applied to those plants whose roots See far and wide.
Milton. will abide many years, whether they retain their True virtue being united to the heavenly grace of leaves in winter or not. Those which retain faith makes up the highest perfection. their leaves are called evergreens; but such as Beauty now must perfect my renown; cast their leaves are named deciduous, or per With that I governed him that rules this isle. difols.
Waller. PERFECT, adj. & v.a. Fr. parfait ;
• Praise and adoration are actions perfective of our souls.
More. Per'FECTER, n. s.
Chawing little sponges dipt in oil, when perfectly PERFECTION,
Complete; full; under water, he could longer support the want of rePERFECTIONATE, v. Q. -consummate; cer
Boyle. Perfec’TIVE, adj.
tain; due; not
No human understanding being absolutely secured PERFECTIVELY, adv. | defective or re- from mistake by the perfection of its own nature, it Per'FECTNESS, n. s.
dundant; blame- follows that no man can be infallible but by superless; pure: to perfect is to finish; make com- natural assistance.
Tillots.m. plete; conclude; make skilful, or fully to in An heroick poem requires, as its last perfection, struct: a perfecter is he who makes perfect: the accomplishment of some extraordinary underperfection and perfectness mean completeness; taking, which requires more of the active virtue than goodness; virtue; supreme excellence: to
Dryden. perfectionate, a word only used by Dryden for to
Painters and sculptors, chusing the most elegant advance to perfection : perfective is having the their art above nature itself in her individual produc
natural beauties, perfectionate the idea, and advance tendency to make perfect : perfectively, in such tion; the utmost mastery of human performance, manner as brings to perfection.
Id. If perfeccioun was bi the preesthood of leuy, for He has founded an academy for the progress and undir hym the peple took the lawe, what ghit was it perfectionating of painting.
Id. nedeful another preest to rise bi the ordre of Melchi Endeavour not to settle too many habits at once, sedech?
Wiclif. Ebrewis vii,
lest by variety you confound them, and so perfect Put on charity, which is the bond of perfectness.
Locke, Col. iii. 14. We know bodies and their properties most'perfectly. Thou shalt be perfect with the Lord thy God.
Id. Deut. xviii. Eternal life shall not consist in endless love ; the If we love one another, God dwelleth in us, and other faculties shall be employed in actions suithis love is perfected in us.
1 John iv. 12. able to, and perfective of their nature. What tongue can her perfections tell,
Ray on the Creation. In whose each part all pens may dwell ? Sidney. What toil did honest Curio take
We count those things perfect which want nothing To get one medal wanting yet, requisite for the end whereto they were instituted.! And perfect all his Roman set ? Prior.
Hooker. As virtue is seated fundamentally in the intellect, Man doth seek a triple perfection ; first, a sensual, so perfectively in the fancy; so that virtue is the consisting in those things which very life itself re- force of reason in the conduct of our actions and quireth, either as necessary supplements or as orna- passions to a good end.
Grew, naments thereof; then an intellectual, consisting in Too few, or of an improper figure and dimension, those things which none underneath man is capable to do their duty in perfection.
Blackmore. of ; lastly, a spiritual and divine, consisting in those If God be infinitely holy, just, and good, he must things whereunto we tend by supernatural means take delight in those creatures that resemble him here, but cannot here attain. Id. most in these perfections.
Whoever thinks a perfect work to see,
Some things have a natural deformity in them; Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be. as perjury, perfidiousness, and ingratitude. Pope.
Tillotson. This practice was altered ; they offered not to Can he not deliver us possession of such places Mercury, but to Jupiter the perfecter. Broome. as would put him in a worse condition, whenever
The question is, not whether gospel perfection can he should perfidiously renew the war ? be fully attained, but whether you come as near it
Swift's Miscellany. as a sincere intention and careful diligence can carry PERPFLATE, v. a. Lat. perfio. To blow you.
through. PERFECTIBILITY, a word which we owe
If eastern winds did perflate our climates more to the new philosophy, which made so great a frequently, they would clarify and refresh our air.
Harvey. noise in the first stages of the French revolution. As far as we understand, the word perfectibility tion to the air, which ventilates and cools the mines.
Miners, by perflutions with large bellows, give mois pretended, in the writings of that disastrous
Woodward. period, to mean the ultimate and absolute per
The first consideration in building of cities is to fection to which man and society have a natural make them open, airy, and well perflated. and necessary tendency; and which, we were
Arbuthnıt on Air. told, neither the tyranny of kings nor the bigotry PER'FORATE, v. a. Lat. perforo. To of priests could eventually restrain.
Perfora'tion, n. s. pierce with a tool; PERFECTION is divided, according to some bore; act of boring or piercing. writers, into physical, moral, and metaphysical.
Draw the bough of a low fruit tree newly budded 1. Perfection, METAPHYSICAL, TRANSCEN- without twisting, into an earthen pot perforate at DENTAL, or ESSENTIAL, is the possession of all the bottom, and then cover the pot with earth; it the essential attributes, or of all the parts ne- will yield a very large fruit. cessary to the integrity of a substance: or it is
Bacon's Natural History. that whereby a thing has or is provided of every The likeliest way is the perforation of the body of thing belonging to its nature. This is either ab- the tree in several places one above another, and the
Bacon. solute, where all imperfection is excluded, such filling of the holes. as the perfection of God; or secundum quid, second joints of fingers and toes, and the drawing
The industrious perforation of the tendons of the and in its kind.
the tendons of the third joints through them. 2. PERFECTION, MORAL, is an eminent degree
More's Divine Dialogues. of virtue or moral goodness, to which men ar
perforated bladder does not swell. Boyle. rive by repeated acts of piety, beneficence, &c. That the nipples should be made spongy, and This is usually subdivided into absolute or in- with such perforations as to admit passage to the herent, which is actually in him to whom we milk, are arguments of providence. attribute it; and imputative, which exists in
Ray on the Creation. some other, and not in him it is attributed to. The aperture was limited by an opaque circle
3. PERFECTION, Physical, or Natural, is placed between the eye-glass and the eye, and perthat whereby a thing has all its powers and fa- forated in the middle with a little round hole for the
Newton. culties, and those too in full vigor; and all its rays to pass through to the eye.
The laboured chyle pervades the pores, parts both principal and secondary, and those in
In all the arterial perforated shores. Blackmore. their due proportion, constitution, &c., in which
Worms perforate the guts.
Arbuthnot. Sense man is said to be perfect when he has a sound mind in a sound body. This perfection the trocar in oil, stab it suddenly through the tegu
The patient, placed in a convenient chair, dipping is by the schools frequently termed kvEPYNTIKN; ments, and, withdrawing the perforator, leave the because a thing is enabled thereby to perform all waters to empty by the canula.
Sharp. its operations.
And such in ancient halls and mansions drear PEʻRFIDY, n. s. Fr. perfidie ; Lat. May still be seen; but perforated sore, PERFID'ious, adj. PERFID'IOUSLY, adv. want of faith; breach By worms voracious eaten through and through. PerFid'IOUSNESS, n. s.) of faith: perfidious
Cowper. is treacherous; false to trust.
PERFORCE', adv. Per and force. By vio
lence; violently. Perfidiously
Guyon to him leaping, staid He has betrayed your business, and given up,
His hand, that trembled as one terrified ;
And though himself were at the sight dismayed,
Spenser. O Judas, how happy had it been for thee, if thou
Jealous Oberon would have the child, hadst never done what thou perfidiously intendedst !
But she perforce withholds the loved boy.
She amaz'd, her cheeks Forsaken of all good, I see thy fall
All trembling and arising, full of spots, Determined, and thy hapless crew involved
And pale with death at hand, perforce she breaks In this perfidious fraud.
Into the inmost rooms. Peacham on Poetry.
PERFORM', v.a. & v. n. Ital. perfor-
PERFOR'MABLE, adj. mare, of Lat. per
and formo. To They eat perfidiously their words,
PERFOR’MER, N. S.
execute; do; And swear their ears through two inch boards. achieve; accomplish; discharge: to succeed :
Hudibras. performable is practicable : performance, aceom