Sugar and Society in China: Peasants, Technology, and the World Market

Sampul Depan
Harvard Univ Asia Center, 1998 - 657 halaman
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In this wide-ranging study, Sucheta Mazumdar offers a new answer to the fundamental question of why China, universally acknowledged one of the most developed economies in the world through the mid-eighteenth century, paused in this development process in the nineteenth. Focusing on cane-sugar production, domestic and international trade, technology, and history of consumption for over a thousand years as a means of framing the larger questions, she shows that the economy of late imperial China was not stagnant, nor was the state suppressing trade: indeed, China was integrated into the world market well before the Opium War. But clearly the trajectory of development did not transform the social organization of production or set in motion sustained economic growth. Using a comparative perspective, Mazumdar locates late imperial China within the framework of global history and proposes a fundamental integration of local and global history that recasts our understanding of Qing history.
 

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Introduction
1
relevant historical sites
34
Sugar and rice prices at Guangzhou 15861810
55
Changing Patterns of Trade
60
Seventeenthcentury sugar prices in China and Japan
82
Sugar and silk yarn imported into Japan on Chinese ships during the period of coastal evacuation 16631683
93
Chinese and Dutch ships at Nagasaki during the Qing ban on trading 16651684
94
Chinese and Portuguese ships at Batavia 16841718
97
Revolving bookcase European
156
The Social Formation of LateImperial China
192
Size of property sold in Dongguan County 17481901
232
Commercialization in a Smallholder Economy
251
Land in Taiwan under cultivation for rice and sugarcane 1683 and 1735
265
Commercial Capital Strategies
295
Standard markets in the Pearl River Delta 15221911
314
Markets without a MarketDriven Economy? 313 Merchant Capital
332

Chinese and Portuguese Macao ships at Manila 16841718
98
Amount and value of sugar exported from Canton in foreign ships in 1792
107
n Shipments of Chinese sugar in British ships 18201833
108
Chinese shipping in Southeast Asia 1830
112
Foreign shipping at Canton 1833
113
The Technology
120
Sweetmeat vendor and a child 32
124
Chinese wine press with horizontal lever beam
130
Sketch of threeroller vertical mill Peru
140
n Waterwheeldriven threeroller vertical cane crusher
146
The Sugar Industry in Guangdong
338
Guangdong and the World Market
353
Exports of sugar from Shantou and Taiwan 18671910
357
the Late Nineteenth Century 3S3 The World Market and
382
Demography and Social Structures of Production 39 Variations
402
Notes
421
Works Cited
563
Glossary
625
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Sucheta Mazumdar is Assistant Professor of Chinese History at Duke University.

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