Sugar and Society in China: Peasants, Technology, and the World Market

Sampul Depan
Harvard Univ Asia Center, 1998 - 657 halaman
In this wide-ranging study, Sucheta Mazumdar offers a new answer to the fundamental question of why China, universally acknowledged one of the most developed economies in the world through the mid-eighteenth century, paused in this development process in the nineteenth. Focusing on cane-sugar production, domestic and international trade, technology, and history of consumption for over a thousand years as a means of framing the larger questions, she shows that the economy of late imperial China was not stagnant, nor was the state suppressing trade: indeed, China was integrated into the world market well before the Opium War. But clearly the trajectory of development did not transform the social organization of production or set in motion sustained economic growth. Using a comparative perspective, Mazumdar locates late imperial China within the framework of global history and proposes a fundamental integration of local and global history that recasts our understanding of Qing history.
 

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Patterns of cash crop cultivation in eighteenthcentury Guangdong province front endpaper
1
river basins and relevant locations
16
relevant historical sites ca 17001800
34
Sugar and rice prices at Guangzhou 15861810
55
Changing Patterns of Trade
60
International trading ports cities and regions of Asia and East Africa ca 8001850
72
Seventeenthcentury sugar prices in China and Japan
82
Sugar and silk yarn imported into Japan on Chinese ships during the period of coastal evacuation 16631683
93
19 Refining crystallized sugar with yellowmud water
165
Waterwheeldriven twin vertical threeroller cane crushers Japan
177
Squarepallet chain pump
179
Geared animaldriven multiple mill
180
Foottreadleoperated cotton gin
183
Multispindle waterpowered ramie spinning wheel
184
Treadleoperated twospindle spinning wheel for cotton
185
Squarepallet treadle chain pump
189

Chinese and Dutch ships at Nagasaki during the Qing ban on trading 16651684
94
Chinese and Portuguese ships at Batavia 16841718
97
Chinese and Portuguese Macao ships at Manila 16841718
98
Amount and value of sugar exported from Canton in foreign ships in 1792
107
Shipments of Chinese sugar in British ships 18201833
108
Chinese shipping in Southeast Asia 1830
112
Foreign shipping at Canton 1833
113
The Technology
120
Sweetmeat vendor and a child 32
124
Indian annular mortarandpestle mill and multiaperture boiling stove
125
Rotary edgerunner mill
127
Oil mill with single stone roller
128
Chinese wine press with horizontal lever beam and stone weight
130
Chinese wooden ropeclutch press
131
Model of a pedal tilthammer mill
135
Sketch of threeroller vertical mill Peru
140
Negritae exhaustis venis metallicis by Theodor de Bry
144
Waterwheeldriven threeroller vertical cane crusher Brazil
146
Tworoller crankhandled cotton gin
149
Tworoller horizontal metal rolling mill
151
Revolving bookcase European
156
Revolving bookcase Chinese
157
17 Chinese tworoller vertical sugarcane mill
159
Sugar boiling house with multiaperture stoves and drying room Brazil
161
The Social Formation of LateImperial China
192
Size of property sold in Dongguan County 17481901
232
Commercialization in a Smallholder Economy
251
Gazetteer map of Dongguan county
262
Land in Taiwan under cultivation for rice and sugarcane 1683 and 1735
265
Sugarcane crusher and boiling shed Taiwan
284
Commercial Capital Strategies
295
Standard markets in the Pearl River Delta 15221911
314
Markets without a MarketDriven Economy? 313 Merchant Capital
332
The Sugar Industry in Guangdong
338
Steamdriven sugarcane mills British
341
Sugar vacuum evaporator 1850
345
Exports of sugar from Shantou and Taiwan 18671910
357
Steampowered silkreeling machine of the type developed by Chen Qiyuan
363
Foottreadleoperated silk reeler developed by Chen Qiyuan
364
Conclusion
387
The Dimensions of Change in Qjng China 387 The Peasant
394
Demography and Social Structures of Production 399 Variations
402
Weights Measures and Money
413
Notes
421
Works Cited
563
Glossary
625
Index
633
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Sucheta Mazumdar is Assistant Professor of Chinese History at Duke University.

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